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Return  to 
LIBRARY  OF  MARINE  BIOLOGICAL  LABORATORY 

WOODS     HOLE,    MASS. 


Loaned  by  American  Museum  of  Natural  History 


":     v  CENTRAL  PARK, 


OF   THE 


ACADEMY  OF  NATURAL  SCIENCES 


OF  PHILADELPHIA. 


1860. 


PHILADELPHIA: 

PRINTED     FOR     THE     ACADEMY- 

1861. 


PROCEEDINGS 

OF   THE 

ACADEMY   OF  NATURAL  SCIENCES 

OF   PHILADELPHIA. 

1860. 


January  3d. 
Vice  President  Bridges  in  the  Chair. 

Forty  members  present. 

Papers  were  presented  for  publication  entitled, 

"  Descriptions  of  new  species  of  fossils,  probably  Triassic,  from  Vir- 
ginia," by  Win.  M.  Grabb. 

"  Descriptions  of  new  species  of  Cretaceous  Fossils,"  by  "Win.  M. 
Gabb. 

"  Catalogue  of  the  shell-bearing  Mollusca  found  in  the  vicinity  of  Mo- 
hawk, N.  Y.,"  by  James  Lewis,  M.  D. 

Permission  being  granted,  the  Report  of  the  Biological  Department 
for  December  was  read  and  ordered  to  be  printed  with  the  Proceed- 
ings of.  the  month. 

Mr.  Lea,  in  referring  to  the  death  of  Augustus  E.  Jessup,  one  of  our  old 
members,  mentioned  that  the  deceased  was  elected  in  1818,  and  that 
he  had  been  an  ardent  student  of  mineralogy  and  a  most  persevering 
collector,  being  in  the  habit  of  visiting  on  foot  and  collecting  largely  from  dis- 
tant localities.  In  1819  he  accompanied  Major  Long's  expedition  to  the  Rocky 
Mountains  as  mineralogist  and  geologist,  and  handed  in  his  report  to  the  Depart- 
ment, but  for  some  reason,  unknown  at  present,  it  was  not#inserted  in  the 
Journal  of  that  Expedition  as  published.  Having  entered  into  an  active  busi- 
ness career,  in  which  he  was  eminently  successful,  he  retired  in  the  year 
1853  with  an  ample  fortune,  having  made  many  friends  by  his  probity,  punc- 
tuality and  liberality.  He  was  frank  and  open  in  his  manners,  prompt  and 
just  in  his  dealings  and  liberal  in  his  views.  While  immersed  in  the  cares  of 
a  large  business,  he  did  not  forget  his  early  attachment  to  the  Academy.  He 
was  unable,  from  his  residence  being  at  some  distance,  to  attend  the  meetings, 
but  he  watched  with  pleasure  the  growth  and  usefulness  of  our  institution, 
and  was  always  ready  to  contribute  liberally  to  promote  the  objects  of  Natural 
History.  He  died  suddenly,  on  the  17th  day  of  December,  1859,  at  his  resi- 
dence in  Wilmington,  Del.,  in  his  63d  year. 

In  conclusion  Mr.  Lea  offered  the  following  resolutions : 

Resolved,  That  in  the  decease  of  our  fellow  member,  Augustus  E.  Jessup,  we 
have  lost  an  old,  esteemed  and  valued  associate,  who,  through  a  long  and  sue- 

I860.]  1 


&  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  ACADEMY  OF 

cessful  career  had  not  ceased  to  promote  the  objects,  which,  in  early  life,  at- 
tached him  to  the  study  of  Natural  History. 

Resolved,  That  while  the  members  are  sensible  of  the  loss  they  have  sus- 
tained, they  are  not  forgetful  of  the  sorrows  of  his  afflicted  family,  to  whom 
they  offer  their  condolence. 

Which  were  adopted. 


January  \§th. 

Mr.  Lea,  President  in  the  Chair. 

Forty-nine  members  present. 

Tiie  following  papers  were  presented  for  publication  : 

"  Appendix  to  the  paper  entitled  New  Genera  and  Species  of  North 
American  Tipulidse  with  short  palpi,"  by  R.  Osten  Sacken. 

"  Contributions  to  American  Lepidopterology,  No.  3,"by  Brackenridge 
Clemens,  M.  D. 

Mr.  Lea  having  stated  some  facts  in  relation  to  the  history  of  Anthra- 
cite, Dr.  Pickering  mentioned  that  Mr.  Shoemaker's  first  load  of  An- 
thracite was  taken  to  the  factory  of  Mr.  Samuel  Wetherill,  at  the  cor- 
ner of  12th  and  Cherry  streets,  but  in  consequence  of  the  impossibility 
of  burning  it,  it  was  buried. 

Permission  being  granted,  the  following  resolutions  were  passed,  in 
relation  to  the  application  made  this  evening  by  Dr.  Evans,  for  the  co- 
operation of  the  Academy,  in  his  efforts  to  transport  the  meteorite  now 
lying  near  Port  Orford,  W.  T. 

Resolved,  That  the  Academy  will  cheerfully  co-operate  with  Dr. 
Evans  in  his  endeavors  to  rescue  for  science  the  meteorite  of  Washing- 
ton Territory. 

Resolved,  That  a  Committee  of  three  be  appointed  to  prepare  a 
memorial  in  such  form  as  may,  in  their  opinion,  conduce  to  the  carrying 
out  of  the  views  of  Dr.  Evans,  a  draft  of  the  same  to  be  reported  at  the 
next  meeting. 

The  death  of  Peter  A.  Browne,  late  a  member  of  the  Academy,  at 
Philadelphia,  on  the  9th  instant,  was  announced. 


•  January  Ylth. 

Mr.  Lea,  President,  in  the  Chair. 

Forty-five  members  present. 

The  following  papers  were  presented  for  publication  : 

"  Additional  new  species  of*  Fossils  to  a  paper  by  T.  A.  Conrad." 

"  Notes  on  the  nomenclature  of  North  American  Fishes,"  by  Theo. 

Gill. 

"  On  the  pertinence  of  Alosa  teres,  Dekay,  to  the  genus  Dussumieza. 

Val,"  by  Theo.  Gill. 
Pursuant  to  the  order  of  the  last  meeting  the  Committee  to  prepare 

a  memorial   in   aid  of  Dr.  Evans'   attempts   to  procure   the   meteorite 

near  Port  Orford,  W.  T.,  reported  and  was  discharged. 

[Jan. 


NATURAL   SCIENCES   OF  PHILADELPHIA. 

January  2i tJi. 
Vice  President  Bridges  in  the  Chair. 

Forty  members  present. 

A  paper  entitled   the   Mexican   Humming   Birds,  No.  1,  by  Rafael 
Montes  de  Oca  was  presented  for  publication. 

Mr.  Lea  exhibited  some  specimens  of  Unionida?.,  and  remarked  that  he  had 
often  been  asked  as  to  the  number  of  species  which  inhabited  the  United 
States,  a  question  he  could  not  answer,  as  he  had  never  made  a  separate  cata- 
logue of  such  species.  Recently  he  had  been  requested  by  the  Secretary  of  the 
Smithsonian  Institution  to  furnish  a  list  for  publication  by  that  Institution, 
which  he  had  just  finished  and  sent  to  Washington.  In  making  the  list  he 
had  used  the  manuscript  which  he  had  prepared  for  a  new  and  enlarged  edi- 
tion (4)  of  his  "  Synopsis. "  From  the  list  he  had  carefully  eliminated  the 
synonyms,  and  there  remained  in  it  the  extraordinarily  large  number  of 
five  hundred  and  twenty  species  which  have  been  described,  inhabiting  the 
Rivers,  Lakes  and  Pools  of  the  United  States  and  Territories,  and  he  stated 
that  he  had  some  30  to  40  in  his  possession  not  yet  named  or  described. 
These  520  may  be  thus  divided  : — 

Unio,     .........         441  species. 

Margaritana,  .......  26       do. 

Anodonta,     ........  53       do. 


520 
New  species  in  Mr.  Lea's  possession,  but  yet  not  described,      30 


550 
Mr.  Lea  further  remarked  that  it  was  very  probable  that  at  least  100  more 
species  would  be  added  to  this  list,  as  inhabiting  within  the  present  limits  of 
the  United  States,  as  almost  every  naturalist,  searching  in  unexplored  waters, 
was  constantly  discovering  new  forms.  In  reflecting  on  the  profusion  of  this 
kind  of  animal  life  in  the  United  States,  the  naturalist  is  astonished  at  the 
great  number  of  forms  characteristic  of  the  various  species,  and  he  is  the  more 
struck  with  the  extent  of  it,  when  a  comparison  is  made  with  the  small  num- 
ber of  species  which  inhabit  the  continent  of  Europe,  there  not  being  in  the 
fresh  waters  of  that  quarter  of  the  globe  more  perhaps  than  ten  species,  viz: 
seven  Uniones,  one  Margaritana,  one  Monocondylcca,  and  one  Anodonta.  Mr. 
Lea  stated  that  he  had  taken  great  pains  to  procure  specimens  from  all  parts 
of  Europe,  and  he  was  satisfied  that  there  were  98  synonyms  made  by  Euro- 
pean authors,  for  the  single  species  of  Anodonta  cygnea,  Draparnaud,  the 
Mytilus  cygneus  of  Linnaeus,  and  the  synonymy  is  nearly  as  profusely  erroneous, 
in  Unio  pictorum,   Unio  tumidus,  Unio  Batavus  and   Unio  littoral  is. 

Mr.  Slack  remarked,  in  connection  with  the  bones  presented  this  evening, 
that  they  were  discovered  some  two  weeks  since  by  Mr.  O.  C.  Herbert,  in  his 
marl  pits,  near  Marlborough,  Monmouth  Co.,  N.  J.,  at  a  depth  of  twenty-five 
feet  beneath  the  surface.  Having  received  information  of  their  discovery  from 
Mr.  Hopper,  of  Freehold,  on  Monday  week,  Mr.  S.  visited  the  pits  and  pro- 
cured the  specimens  from  Mr.  H.  They  consist  of  fragments  of  the  femur 
and  fibula  of  the  Mosasaurus,  and  are  of  great  interest,  the  long  bones  of  this 
reptile  having  until  recently  been  unknown. 

On  motion  of  Mr.  Slack,  the  thanks  of  the  Academy  were  ordered 
to  be  tendered  to  Messrs.  J.  M.  Hopper  and  O.  C.  Herbert,  of  Mon- 
mouth Co.,  N.  J.,  and  also  to  Mr.  Edward  L.  Perkins,  for  donations 
presented  by  them. 

I860.] 


4  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  ACADEMY  OP 

Jan.  %\st. 
Mr.  Lea,  President,  in  the  Chair. 

Forty-four  members  present. 

The  report  of  the  Biological  Department  for  the  present  month  was 
read. 

On  report  of  a  Committee  of  the  Biological  Department,  the  paper  en- 
titled "  Remarks  on  errors  in  the  Anatomical  Diagnosis  of  Cancer,  by 
J.  J.  Woodward,  M.  D.,"  was  recommended  for  publication  in  a  Medical 
Journal. 

On  report  of  the  respective  Committees  the  following  papers  were 
ordered  to  be  published  in  the  Journal  of  the  Academy  : 

"  Reflections  upon  the  nature  of  the  temporary  star  of  the  year  1572, 
an  application  of  the  Nebular  Hypothesis,  by  Alexander  Wilcox,  M.  D." 

"  Descriptions  of  New  Cretaceous  and  Eocene  Shells  of  Mississippi 
and  Alabama,  also  with  notes  on  Eocene  fossil  shells,  by  T.  A.  Conrad." 

"  Descriptions  of  new  species  of  Fossils,  probably  Triassic,  from  Vir- 
ginia, by  W.  M.  Gabb." 

"  Descriptions  of  new  species  of  Cretaceous  fossils,  by  W.  M.  Gabb." 

"  Additional  new  species  of  Fossils  to  a  paper  by  T.  A.  Conrad." 

And  the  following  in  the  Proceedings  : 

Contributions  to  American  Lepidopterology.— No.  3. 

BY  BRACKENRIDGE    CLEMENS,  M.  D. 

TltfEINA. 

The  plan  of  these  papers  will  hereafter  be  changed,  and  no  diagnosis 
of  genera  will  be  given,  except  when  there  is  doubt  respecting  the  identity  of 
the  European  and  American  groups,  and  when  the  genera  are  new.  The  in- 
tention of  giving  some  conception  of  the  systematic  arrangement  of  the  group 
Tineina  will  therefore  be  abandoned,  and  the  subsequent  papers  be  confined 
simply  to  the  description  of  species.  I  find  myself  compelled  to  adopt  this 
course,  in  consequence  of  perceiving,  as  I  advance  in  the  recognition  of  generic 
groups,  that  the  diagnoses  of  the  families  heretofore  cited  are  too  limited,  and 
that,  in  order  to  represent  my  conception  of  these  groups,  I  shall  be  obliged 
to  make  them  more  comprehensive.  These  changes,  together  with  generic 
synopses  of  the  families,  will  be  best  treated  in  a  monograph  of  the  Tineina, 
which  will  be  undertaken  as  soon  as  the  collection  of  the  writer  represents, 
with  some  degree  of  completeness,  the  genera  found  in  our  country.  In  order 
that  the  accomplishment  of  this  may  not  be  too  long  delayed,  contributions  of 
specimens  are  respectfully  solicited  from  collectors,  either  in  accordance  with 
the  call  from  the  Secretary  of  the  Smithsonian  Institution,  in  the  Report  for 
1858,  or  the  request  made  at  the  present  time.  Contributions  may  be  sent  to 
the  Smithsonian  Institution,  or  to  myself,  but,  in  the  latter  case,  the  charges 
for  carriage  must  be  prepaid  ;  and  should  the  contributor  desire  it,  a  suite  of 
named  specimens  will  be  returned  to  him.  Full  directions  for  the  collection 
and  preservation  of  Lepidoptera  are  contained  in  the  Smithsonian  Report  for 
1858,  and  may  be  had  on  application  to  the  Secretary  of  the  Institution. 

Coleofhora  Zeller. 
Stalk  of  antenna  clothed  with  erect  scales  to  the  middle. 
C.  coruscipennella  . — Labial  palpi  and  head  bronzy  green.   Antenna?, 

[Jan. 


NATURAL    SCIENCES    OF   PHILADELPHIA.  0 

basal  half  bronzy  green,  with  a  reddish  violet  reflection  ;  terminal  half  white, 
annulated  with  brown.  Fore  wings  uniform,  bronzy  green,  with  the  apical 
portion  reddish  violet,  or  of  a  reddish,  coppery  hue.  Hind  wings  dark  brown  ; 
cilia  the  same. 

Stalk  somewhat  thickened,  with  scales  not  erected. 

C.  laticornella . — Labial  palpi  and  head  brownish  ochreous.  Antenna? 
pale  brownish  ochreous  towards  the  base,  becoming  white  with  an  ochreous 
tinge  toward  the  tip,  and  annulated  with  dark  brown  throughout.  Fore  wings 
rather  deep,  uniform  brown,  with  a  whitish  ochreous  streak  along  the  costa, 
from  the  base  to  the  costo-apical  cilia,  narrowing  behind,  and  not  reaching 
beyond  the  subcostal  nervure.    Hind  wings  rather  dark  brown  ;  cilia  the  same. 

Antennal  italic  simpJe;  basal  jo'nt  thickened  with  scales. 

C.  coenosipennella . — Labial  palpi  and  head  white.  Antennae  white, 
annulated  with  dark  brown  ;  basal  joint  white.  Fore  wings  dull  yellow,  with 
a  white  streak  along  the  basal  portion  of  inner  margin,  one  along  the  costa, 
and  one  along  the  subcostal  nervure,  separated  from  the  former  by  a  narrow 
line  of  the  general  hue  ;  an  oblique,  white  streak  along  the  disk,  and  inclined 
to  the  inner  angle,  and  one  in  the  fold,  with  three  rather  faint,  oblicpze,  white 
streaks  between  the  terminal  portions  of  the  costal  and  discal  streaks.  Hind 
wings  rather  dark  gray  ;  cilia  fulvous. 

C.  infuscatella . — Labial  palpi  brownish  gray.  Head  pale  leaden  gray, 
whitish  on  the  sides  and  above  the  eyes.  Antennae  gray,  annulated  with  dark 
brown.  Fore  wings  grayish  brown,  with  a  white  streak  along  the  costa  to  the 
tip,  and  one  along  the  inner  margin  ;  a  white  streak  along  the  fold,  and  one 
parallel  to  it  along  the  middle  of  the  wing,  and  somewhat  dilated  on  the  inner 
margin  ;  cilia  grayish  brown.     Hind  wings  gray  ;  cilia  the  same. 

C.  c  r  et  at  ieo  s  tella  . — Labial  palpi  white.  Head  white,  tinged  with 
yellowish.  Antennas  white,  annulated  with  brownish.  Fore  wings  shining 
yellow,  with  rather  a  broad  white  streak  along  the  costa,  extended  nearly  to 
the  tip  ;  somewhat  streaked  with  ochreous,  and  the  tip  rather  deep  ochreous.  The 
inner  margin  of  the  wing  is  whitish.  Hind  wings  ochreous  brown  ;  cilia  the 
same. 

Incuevakia  Haworth. 

I.  russatella . — Head  ochreous.  Antenna?  dark  brown,  ochreous  at  the 
base,  and  annulated  with  ochreous.  Thorax  purplish  brown.  Fore  wings 
deep  fuscous,  with  a  beautiful  purple  reflection.  Near  the  base  of  the  wing 
is  a  very  pale  yellow  band,  broadest  on  the  inner  margin,  and  a  costal  and 
dorsal  spot  of  the  same  hue  opposite  each  other,  a  little  beyond  the  middle  of 
the  wing.     Hind  wings  pale  fuscous  tinged  with  purplish  red  ;  cilia  pale  brown. 

The  wing  structure  of  the  following  species  departs  from  that  of  the  genus. 
Both  wings  are  pointed,  the  fore  wings  with  a  single  discal  nervure,  given  off 
to  the  inner  margin  and  the  hind  wings  with  two  discal  nervules  branching 
from  a  common  stalk. 

I.  Acerif oliella. — Ornix  Acerifoliella  Fitch,  Reports,  1  and  2,  p.  269. 
Head  reddish  ochreous.  General  hue  a  fine  metallic  green  ;  fore  wings  without 
markings.  I  am  indebted  to  the  kindness  of  Dr.  Fitch  for  a  specimen  of  this 
insect. 

Plutblla  Schrank. 

P.  vigilaciella . — Head  white,  with  fuscous  before  and  behind  the  eyes. 
Labial  palpi  white  ;  exterior  of  second  joint  fuscous.  Antennae  ochreous,  an- 
nulated with  white,  especially  towards  the  tips.  Thorax  white  ;  teguhe  dark 
I860.] 


6  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  ACADEMY  OF 

fuscous.  Fore  wings  white,  streaked  with  ochreous,  with  a  dark  ochreous  streak 
at  the  hase  of  the  fold,  margined  on  the  inner  side  with  dark  brown.  The 
inner  border,  from  near  the  base  to  the  tip  of  the  wing,  is  closely  dotted  with 
dark  brown  ;  and  on  the  costa,  toward  the  tip,  are  a  few  dots  of  the  same  hue, 
and  in  the  middle  of  the  wing  an  elongated  dark  brown  dot  ;  cilia  white  and 
dark  brown  intermixed.     Hind  wings  dark  gray.     Abdomen  dark  gray. 

P.  limbipennel  la. — Head  pale  ochreous.  Labial  palpi  whitish  :  tuft  dark 
brown.  Antenna?  brown,  slightly  annulated  with  white.  Thorax  yellowish 
white  ;  tegulre  dark  brown.  Fore  wings  cinereous  brown,  dusted  with  dark 
brown,  witli  a  dark  brown  sinuated  streak  along  the  fold,  and  the  inner  mar- 
ginal portion  of  the  wing  pale  yellowish  white,  with  three  rounded  projections 
toward  the  fold.  Hind  wings  brown,  with  a  purplish  hue ;  cilia  brownish 
ochreous.     Abdomen  dark  brown. 

P.  mollip  edella . — Head  and  thorax  pale  brownish  ochrecus.  Fore 
wings  pale  brownish  ochreous,  somewhat  paler  along  the  costa,  and  dotted 
with  dark  brown,  with  a  fuscous,  sinuated  streak  in  the  fold,  narrowly  edged 
with  ochreous  gray.  The  inner  marginal  portion  of  the  wing  pale  brownish 
ochreous,  with  three  projections  toward  the  fold,  and  the  inner  border  dotted 
with  dark  broion  to  the  tip  of  the  wing.  Hind  wings  dark  gray  ;  cilia  brownish 
ochreous. 

Gtkacilaria  Zeller. 

G.  superbifrontella . — LaMal  palpi  yellow,  tipped  with  brownish.  An- 
tenna? dull  yellow,  with  very  faint  brownish  rings.  Head  stramineous, 
tinged  with  reddish  violet  on  the  forehead.  Thorax  stramineous,  with  tegula? 
externally  striped  with  reddish  violet.  Fore  wings  beautiful  reddish  violet, 
with  a  shining  stramineous  patch  on  the  inner  margin  at  the  bas'e,  and  a  large 
costal  triangle  of  the  same  hue,  reaching  almost  across  the  wing,  and  extending 
along  the  costa  from  the  basal  third,  nearly  to  the  apex.  Hind  wings  black- 
ish gray  ;  cilia  dark  fuscous. 

This  insect  must  approach  very  closely  the  European  Swederella. 

The  larva  may  be  found,  in  the  middle  of  July,  in  cones,  on  the  leaves  of 
Hamamelis  Virginica  (Witch  Hazel),  and  the  imago  appears  early  in 
August.  The  head  of  the  larva  is  pale  green  ;  body  pale  green,  darker 
colored  by  the  ingesta,  with  the  tenth  ring  whitish,  and  the  cervical  shield 
pale  brown. 

Gr.  f  u  1  g  i  d  e  1 1  a  . — Head  and  antenna?  yellowish  white.  Fore  wings  white, 
with  a  silvery  lustre,  with  a  dark  brown  blotch  near  the  base,  not  extended 
across  the  wing.  Rather  beyond  the  middle  of  the  wing  is  a  broad,  dark 
brown  band,  with  the  exterior  margin  darkest,  and  sharply  angulatcd  just  above 
the  inner  margin.  The  apical  portion  of  the  wing  contains  two  rather  broad, 
dark  brown  costal  streaks,  somewhat  confluent  in  the  middle  of  the  wing, 
with  a  white  costal  spot  between  them.  The  extreme  apex  of  the  wing  is 
dark  brown,  with  a  white  costal  streak  before  it,  and  opposite  the  costal  white 
spot  is  another,  at  the  interior  angle,  sometimes  two  not  distinctly  separated. 
Hind  wings  dark  fuscous  ;  cilia  the  same. 

Gr.  venustella  .—Labial  palpi  white,  with  a  blackish  spot  near  the  mid- 
dle, and  one  near  the  tip.  Antenna?  dark  brownish.  Head  silvery  white. 
Fore  wings  dark  cinereous,  with  a  purplish  hue,  and  white  along  the  inner  mar- 
gin from  "the  base  to  the  middle.  At  the  basal  third  of  the  wing  is  a  small, 
white  costal  spot ;  three  oblique,  equidistant,  slender  white  bands,  dark  mar- 
gined on  both  sides,  the  first  about  the  middle  of  the  wing,  the  second  and 
third  converging  at  the  inner  margin,  with  a  white  spot  at  the  extreme  apex, 
dark-margined  on  both  sides  by  short  streaks  ;  cilia  cinereous  and  white  in- 
termixed.    Hind  wings  blackish  gray ;  cilia  rather  paler. 

[Jan. 


NATURAL   SCIENCES    OP   PHILADELPHIA.  i 

Or.  strigifinitella . — Labial  palpi  yellowish  white,  dotted  with  dark 
brown,  and  with  two  dark  brown  rings  before  the  tip.  Head  and  antennae 
dull  yellow.  Fore  wings  brownish  gray  suffused  with  dark  brown,  with  the 
inner  margin,  from  near  the  base  to  the  middle,  varied  with  white  and  dark 
brown  ;  on  the  middle  of  costa  a  white  streak,  and  a  few  small,  costal,  dark 
brown  blotches.  Near  the  tip,  on  the  inner  margin,  a  slender,  very  oblique 
white  streak,  dark  margined  on  both  sides,  which  crosses  an  oblique  streak  of 
the  same  hue  from  the  costa,  likewise  dark-margined  on  both  sides  above  the 
streak  from  the  inner  margin,  and  curved  beneath,  forming  a  white  hinder- 
marginal  line  in  the  cilia,  beneath  the  tip,  and  extending  nearly  to  the  apex 
of  the  wing.  Beyond  these,  toward  the  base,  in  the  apical  third  of  the  wing, 
are  two  oblique,  dark  brown  costal  streaks,  with  a  short,  white  one  between 
them,  the  first  irregular  and  somewhat  diffused,  the  second  margined  behind 
with  brownish  yellow.  Apical  portion  of  the  wing  dark  brown.  Hind  wings 
dark  brown  ;  cilia  somewhat  paler. 

G  violacella. — Head  and  face  pale  yellowish,  tinged  with  reddish 
violet.  Labial  palpi  yellowish  white,  annulated  at  the  tip  with  brownish. 
Fore  wings  with  the  external  half  pale,  shining,  cream  yellow,  interior  half 
suffused  with  a  pale  violet  iridescence.  About  the  middle  of  the  costa  are  a 
few  separated  blackish  brown  dots,  and  in  the  middle  of  the  wing  a  blackish 
brown  comma  spot,  and  near  the  tip  an  atom  of  the  same  hue.  The  posterior 
part  of  the  fold  somewhat  suffused  with  fuscous  ;  cilia  reddish  fuscous.  Hind 
wings  dark  gray,  with  a  reddish  tinge  ;  cilia  reddish  fuscous. 

Argyresthia  Hubner. 

A.  or  ease  11a. — Labial  palpi  silvery  white.  Head  silvery  white;  fore- 
head and  face  faintly  tinged  with  pale  golden  brown.  Antennae  silvery,  annu- 
lated with  dark  brown.  Fore  wings  silvery  white,  with  a  pale  golden  brown 
streak  at  the  base  of  the  costa.  About  the  middle  of  the  wing  is  an  oblique, 
dark  golden  brown  band,  broadest  on  the  inner  margin,  and  tapering  to  the 
costa,  beyond  which  is  a  narrower,  oblique  band  of  the  same  hue  produced  in 
the  middle,  as  a  rather  broad,  somewhat  curved  streak  toward  the  tip,  behind 
which  it  is  arrested  ;  cilia  pale  golden  brown,  with  a  darker  hinder-marginal 
line  ;  hind  wings  dark  gray  ;  cilia  the  same. 

Another  specimen,  on  the  middle  of  the  inner  margin,  has  a  rectangular, 
golden  brown  patch,  not  extended  to  the  costa,  with  an  irregular,  obliquely 
placed  patch  of  the  same  hue  on  the  inner  margin,  near  the  tip,  and  slightly 
connected  with  a  small  costal  patch  placed  midway  between  the  patches,  on 
the  inner  margin.  The  tip  of  the  wing  is  golden  brown,  and  is  scarcely  con- 
nected With  the  second  patch  by  a  posteriorly  produced  portion. 

Taken  on  wing,  June,  July. 

Ornix  Zeller. 

0.  trepidella . — Labial  palpi  yellowish  white,  annulated  with  dark  brown 
near  the  tip.  Head  dark  brown.  Antennae  dark  brown,  slightly  annulated 
with  whitish.  Fore  wings  dark  purplish,  dusted  with  dark  brown.  Along  the 
costa  are  several  short,  oblique,  obscure  yellowish  streaks,  with  dark  brown 
streaks  between,  extending  from  the  middle  of  the  wing  to  the  tip,  obliquely 
placed  till  near  the  apex.     Hind  wings  dark  gray  ;  cilia  the  same. 

0.  festinella. — Labial  palpi  silvery  gray,  with  the  second  joint  at  the 
apex  annulated  with  dark  brownish.  Head  dull  brownish  gray.  Antenna? 
dark  brown,  annulated  with  whitish.  Fore  wings  grayish,  somewhat  suffused 
with  brownish  from  the  base  to  the  middle,  with  the  costa  at  base  dark 
brown.  From  the  middle  to  the  tip  freely  dusted  with  dark  brown,  with 
several  whitish,  rather  obscure  costal  streaks,  becoming  plainer  near  the  tip, 
and  two  or  three  on  the  inner  margin,  near  the  tip.    At  the  tip  are  a  few  dark 

I860.] 


8  PROCEEDINGS    OF   THE   ACADEMY    OF 

brown  scales,  with  the  cilia  of  extreme  apex  white  ;  cilia  grayish,  with  dark 
brown  tipped  scales  intermixed.  Hind  wings  pale  gray  ;  cilia  similar.  Ab- 
domen blackish,  tipped  with  yellowish  ochreous. 

0.  C  ratfegif  oliella. — Labial  palpi  whitish.  Head  dark  brown  and 
gray  intermixed.  Antennae  dark  brown,  faintly  annulated  with  whitish. 
Fore  wings  dark  brown,  with  a  purplish  hue.  Along  the  inner  margin,  from 
the  base  to  the  anal  angle,  whitish,  dusted  with  dark  brownish.  In  the  fold 
at  the  base  is  a  dark  brown  streak,  and  a  small  blotch  of  the  same  hue  be- 
yond the  middle,  nearly  reaching  to  the  inner  margin.  Toward  the  tip  are  a 
few  whitish,  costal  streaks,  and  at  the  apex  a  small,  round,  dark  brown  spot, 
in  a  whitish  patch,  with  a  circular,  dark  brown  apical  line  behind  it ;  cilia 
blackish  gray.  Hind  wings  blackish  gray  ;  cilia  rather  paler.  Abdomen 
blackish,  tipped  with  dull  yellow. 

The  larva  mines  the  leaves  of  Crataegus  tomentosa  (Black  Thorn),  in 
September,  and  becomes  a  pupa  early  in  October,  weaving  a  reddish  brown 
cocoon  in  a  turned  down  edge  of  the  leaf.  The  pupa  case  is  thrust  from  the 
end  of*  the  cocoon  at  maturity,  the  imago  appearing  early  in  May.  There  is, 
doubtless,  a  summer  brood,  but  I  have  not  sought  for  it.  The  head  of  the 
larva  is  brown ;  the  body  greenish  white,  with  the  dorsum  reddish  brown. 

Hyponomeuta  Zeller. 

H.  multipunc  t  ella  . — Labial  palpi,  head,  antennae  and  thorax,  white. 
Thorax  with  a  black  spot  on  the  front  of  tegulae,  and  a  few  spots  of  the  same 
hue  on  the  disk.  Fore  wings  white,  with  the  costa  at  the  base  blackish,  and 
longitudinal  rows  of  distinct  black  dots  ;  two  of  which,  one  along  the  inner 
margin  and  one  along  the  fold,  are  very  plain.     Hind  wings  blackish  gray. 

Bedellia  ?  Stainton. 

This  genus  is  represented  by  a  single  species,  in  Europe.  It  was,  therefore, 
a  surprise  to  myself,  when  I  found  the  species  described  below,  corresponded 
to  the  European  not  only  in  structure  but  in  ornamentation.  There  is,  how- 
ever, a  slight  difference  in  the  neuration  of  the  posterior  wings  of  the  two  in- 
sects when  compared  with  Mr.  Stainton's  delineation,  and  hence  I  give  a  full 
generic  diagnosis  of  the  American  species. 

The  anterior  wings  are  narrow  and  pointed,  and  the  posterior  very  narrow, 
almost  setiform.  The  discoidal  cell  of  the  anterior  is  acute  behind,  with  three 
subcosto-marginal  nervules,  the  last  of  which  arises  at  the  apex  of  the  cell, 
together  with  the  apical  nervule,  which  sends  off,  at  about  its  middle,  a  ner- 
vulet  to  the  inner  margin,  and  is  furcate  near  the  tip  of  the  wing.  The  median 
nervure  sends  only  a  single  branch  to  the  inner  margin.  Both  the  costal  and 
sub-median  nervures  are  short.  The  posterior  wings  without  discoidal  cell ; 
the  costal  nervure  is  very  short ;  the  sub-costal  runs  through  the  middle  of 
the  wing,  and  sends  a  branch  to  the  inner  margin,  rather  beyond  the  middle, 
and  is  furcate  at  its  extremity,  the  lower  branch  proceeding  to  the  tip,  along 
the  inner  margin.  Above  the  subcostal  nervure  is  a  rather  indistinct,  paral- 
lel fold.  The  median  nervure  is  long,  well  marked,  and  simple  ;  placed  near 
the  inner  margin  of  the  wing. 

Head  rough  above,  and  in  front,  between  the  antenna?,  almost  tufted  ;  face 
smooth,  moderately  broad,  and  rounded.  Ocelli  none.  Eyes  moderately 
prominent,  round,  and  partially  covered  with  hairs  from  above.  Antennae  as 
long  as  the  anterior  wings,  filiform,  simple  ;  basal  joint  squamose.  No  max- 
illary palpi.  Labial  palpi  very  short,  pointed,  and  rather  porrected,  with  two 
joints  only  distinguishable.     Tongue  naked  and  short. 

B.  ?  Staintoniella . — Labial  palpi  and  head  ochreous,  the  latter  some- 
what reddish  ochreous  above.  Antennae  oclu-eous.  Fore  wings  ochreous, 
dusted  with  dark  fuscouSj  but  leaving  a  streak  of  the  general  hue  along  the 

[Jan. 


NATURAL    SCIENCES    OF   PHILADELPHIA.  9 

inner  margin.     Hind  wings  dark  gray ;  cilia  rather  dark  ochreous.     Abdomen 
dark  brown  and  ochreous  mixed. 

Cosmiotes. 

Fore  wings  rather  narrowly  ovate-lanceolate,  with  the  discoidal  cell  closed 
acutely.  The  sub-costal  nervure  is  attenuated  toward  base  of  the  wing,  and 
subdivides  into  three  marginal  branches,  the  first  of  which  arises  at  about 
its  middle,  and  sends  from  the  angle  of  the  disk  a  trijid  branch,  which  is 
either  forked  on  the  costa  by  an  exceeding  short  branch  before  the  tip,  and 
gives  rise  at  about  its  middle  to  a  branch  to  the  inner  margin,  or  is  trifid  at 
its  extreme  tip.  The  median  is  two  or  three-branched  near  its  end.  The 
sub-median  is  simple.  Hind  wings  are  without  a  discoidal  cell ;  and  the 
costal  nervure  is  moderately  long.  The  sub-costal  runs  through  the^  mid- 
dle of  the  wing,  (is  central),  and  is  furcate  near  the  tip.  The  median  is 
well  indicated,  with  two  or  three  short,  approximated  branches  about  the  mid- 
dle of  the  inner  margin. 

Size  very  small.  Head  smooth.  Without  ocelli.  Forehead  rather  elevated 
and  rounded  ;  face  rounded,  and  nearly  equally  broad.  Eyes  very  small, 
oval,  and  somewhat  sunken,  scarcely  visible  in  front.  Labial  palpi-  mode- 
rately long  and  slender,  smooth,  pointed,  and  somewhat  recurved  ;  the  second 
joint  slightly  compressed  laterally.  No  maxillary  palpi.  Antennae  inserted 
laterally  ;  basal  joint  short  and  rather  thick,  with  a  few  cilia  at  the  base  be- 
fore ;  stalk  simple,  slender,  and  scarcely  as  long  as  the  body.  Tongue  naked, 
and  about  as  long  as  the  labial  palpi. 

§  Median  vein  of  hind  ivings  two-branched.     Apical  vein  trifid  at  the  tip. 

C.  illectella. — Labial  palpi  and  head  yellowish  brown.  Anteunse  fus- 
cous. Fore  wings  fuscous,  dusted  with  dark  brown,  with  a  broad,  transverse 
silvery  white  band  near  the  middle  of  the  wing,  a  spot  of  the  same  hue  on 
the  costa  near  the  tip,  and  an  opposite  one  on  the  inner  margin,  nearly  join- 
ing it  in  the  middle  of  the  wing.  The  extreme  apex  of  the  wing  has  a  silvery 
streak  in  the  cilia,  margined  behind  with  a  row  of  dark  brown  atoms  on  their 
ends.     Hind  wings  grayish  fuscous  ;  cilia  the  same. 

§§  Median  vein  of  hind  icing  three-branched.  Apical  vein  forked  on  the  costa, 
with  a  nervulet  to  the  inner  margin. 

C.  maculoscella. — Labial  palpi  dull  yellowish.  Head  dark  brownish. 
Antenna?  fuscous.  Fore  wings  shining  silvery  grayish,  suffused  with  dark 
golden  brown,  with  a  rather  obscure  silvery  band  in  the  middle  of  the  wing 
and  a  silvery  spot  on  the  costa  just  before  the  tip.  The  extreme  apical  por- 
tion of  the  wing  is  blackish  brown  ;  cilia  grayish  brown.  Hind  wings  grayish, 
dusted  with  dark  brown  ;  cilia  grayish  brown. 

§§  Medio-posterior  and  central  veins  opposite  the  space  between  the  second  and 
third  sub-costo  marginals. 

C.  madarella . — Head  dark  silvery  gray.  Antennae  dark  brown,  yellow- 
ish white  at  the  tips.  Fore  wings  dark  golden  brown,  silvery  gray  at  the 
base,  with  an  oblique,  pale  golden  band  near  the  middle  of  the  wing,  the 
costal  portion  being  nearest  the  base.  On  the  costa,  near  the  tip,  is  a  pale 
golden  spot,  with  a  spot  of  the  same  hue  opposite  on  the  inner  margin,  and 
one  in  the  middle  of  the  wing  before  the  tip ;  cilia  pale  brown,  dotted  with 
dark  brown.     Hind  wings  grayish  brown  ;  cilia  rather  darker. 

Cosmoptekyx  ?  Hiibner. 

The  anterior  wings  are  rather  narrow,  and  slenderly  caudate.  The  discoidal 
cell  is  elongate  and  very  narrow,  and  closed  acutely  behind  with  three  sub- 
costo-marginal  nervules,  the  first  arising  about  the  middle  of  the  wing.  The 
median  sendsybwr  nervules  to  the  inner  margin,  the  first  arising  midway  be- 

1860.] 


10  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  ACADEMY  OF 

tween  the  first  and  second  subcostal  branches,  and  the  last  from  the  apex  of 
the  discoidal  cell,  together  with  an  apical  branch,  which  almost  immediately 
sends  off  a  nervulet  to  the  inner  margin,  whilst  the  apical  proceeds  through 
the  middle  of  the  slender,  acicular  caudate  extremity  to  its  tip.  At  the  basal 
third  of  the  wing,  the  sub-costal  nervure  becomes  attenuated.  The  costal  is 
nearly  coincident  with  the  margin  ;  the  sub-median  furcate  at  the  base.  The 
posterior  wings  are  narrow,  almost  setiform,  and  without  a  discoidal  cell. 
The  sub-median  is  central,  simple,  and  faintly  indicated  until  near  the  tip, 
when  it  becomes  furcate.  The  median,  which  is  better  defined,  runs  near  the 
inner  margin,  and  subdivides  into  three  branches  to  the  inner  margin.  The 
costal  is  coincident  with  the  marginal. 

Head  perfectly  smooth,  advanced,  long,  and  flattened  above  ;  forehead  very 
convex  and  globose ;  face  full,  rounded,  and  somewhat  retreating.  Ocelli 
none.  Eyes  flattened,  scarcely  visible  in  front,  oval.  Antenna?  nearly  as 
long  as  the  anterior  wings  ;  basal  joint  long,  slender,  and  clavate  ;  stalk  seta- 
ceous and  simple.  Maxillary  palpi  extremely  short,  scarcely  perceptible.  Labial 
palpi  very  long,  slender,  much  recurved,  and  pointed  ;  the  second  joint  some- 
what compressed  toward  the  end,  shorter  than  the  third.  Tongue  scaled,  as 
long  as  the  thorax  beneath. 

C.  ?  gem  mif  erella  . — Labial  palpi  dark  greenish  brown,  with  a  silvery 
stripe  on  the  front  of  the  third  joint,  and  another  behind,  continued  to  the 
second  joint.  Face,  head,  and  thorax,  dark  greenish  brown,  with  a  narrow, 
central,  silvery  line  continued  to  the  thorax,  and  one  of  the  same  hue  above 
the  eyes  on  each  side.  Antennae  dark  greenish  brown,  with  two  silvery  lines 
on  the  basal  joint,  the  stalk  annulated  with  silvery,  and  a  broad,  silvery  ring 
before  the  tip,  which  is  likewise  silvery.  Fore  wings  dark  greenish  brown  to 
the  middle,  and  from  the  apical  third  to  the  tip,  with  an  orange-colored  patch 
rather  beyond  the  middle  of  the  wing,  extended  across  the  wing,  and  a  little 
produced  along  the  costa  behind,  having  a  large,  transverse,  oval,  smooth 
patch  of  elevated,  silvery  scales  somewhat  violet-hued,  on  its  internal  margin 
the  patch  extending  nearly  across  the  wing ;  another  smaller  and  similar, 
nearly  round  one  behind  it,  on  the  inner  margin,  and  another  small  one  on 
the  costa,  behind  the  produced  portion,  with  a  white  costal  streak  above  it  in 
the  cilia.  All  these  patches  are  somewhat  black-margined.  Near  the  base  of 
the  wing  are  three  short,  silvery  streaks,  one  nearly  on  the  disk,  one  near  the 
fold  beneath  it,  and  an  oblique  one  above  it,  near  the  costa.  The  cilia  of  the 
extreme  apex  is  silvery  white,  black-margined  above,  with  a  violet  silvery 
scale  in  the  middle  of  the  wing,  before  the  tip.  The  inner  margin,  at  the  base 
of  the  wing,  is  silvery.     Hind  wings  dark  brown ;  cilia  somewhat  paler. 

The  ornamentation  of  this  insect  is  very  elegant.  Taken  on  wing  in  June, 
July. 

EUDARCIA. 

Head  and  face  rough.  Without  ocelli.  Eyes  small,  hemispherical  quite 
prominent,  with  a  naked  space  above  ?  Labial  palpi  short,  rather  smooth, 
and  separated  ;  the  third  joint  somewhat  less  thick  than  the  second,  and 
nearly  as  long.  Maxillary  palpi  long,  folded,  and  five  or  six-jointed.  An- 
tennae, basal  joint  moderately  long,  approximated  on  the  front,  simple,  and 
full  as  long  as  the  anterior  wings.  Tongue  naked  and  very  short,  scarcely  as 
long  as  the  labial  palpi,  and  not  reaching  beyond  the  front. 

Fore  wings  with  the  subcostal  nervure  attenuated  at  the  base  ;  at  the  basal 
third  arises  a  long  marginal  branch,  and  about  its  middle  a  furcate  branch, 
and  thence  the  subcostal  is  faintly  indicated  to  the  discal  nervure,  beyond 
which  it  reappears  as  a  furcate  branch  to  the  costa  behind  the  tip.  The  dis- 
coidal cell  is  closed,  and  sends  a  single  branch  to  the  inner  margin  behind 
the  tip.  The  median  subdivides  into  three  approximate  branches.  The  sub- 
median  is   furcate  at  the  base.      In  the  hind    wing  the  costal  nervure  is 

[Jan. 


NATURAL  SCIENCES  OF  PHILADELPHIA.  11 

rather  long  and  distinct  ;  subcostal  simple,  and  obsolete  from  the  middle  to 
the  base  ;  discoidal  cell  unclosed,  with  an  independent  discal  nervule,  faintly 
indicated  from  the  base,  and  furcate  at  the  apical  third.  The  median  strongly 
indicated  and  bifid  rather  beyond  the  middle  of  the  inner  margin. 

E.  s  imu  1  atr  ic  el  la  . — Head  brownish  ochreous.  Antennae  ochreous, 
annulated  with  dark  brown.  Fore  wings  dark  brownish,  with  a  white  band 
about  the  basal  third  of  the  wing,  a  white  spot  on  the  costa,  near  the  middle, 
and  one  on  the  inner  margin,  a  little  behind  it,  and  a  white  transverse  streak 
near  the  tip.     Hind  wings  dark  brown  ;  cilia  the  same. 

This  insect  has  considerable  resemblance  to  an  Incurvaria.  Its  neuration, 
however,  places  it  in  a  very  distinct  group. 

Antispila  Herrich-Schaffer,  Frey. 

A.  Ny  saef  o  1  i  ella  . — Head  above  dark  brown.  Face,  labial  palpi,  and 
fore  feet  shining  yellowish  ochreous.  Antennae  dark  brown  ;  basal  joint  yellowish 
ochreous.  Fore  wings  dark  brown,  with  a  greenish  reflection,  and  the  base 
with  a  bright  coppery  hue.  Near  the  base  is  a  rather  broad,  bright  golden 
band,  broadest  on  the  inner  margin,  where  it  is  nearest  the  base,  and  con- 
stricted at  the  fold  of  the  wing ;  a  spot  of  the  same  hue  on  the  costa,  at  the 
apical  third  of  the  wing,  and  one  on  the  inner  margin,  midway  between  this 
and  the  band  ;  cilia  somewhat  coppery,  and  rather  grayish  at  the  inner  angle. 
Hind  wings  purple  brown  ;  cilia  grayish  ochreous. 

The  larva  mines  the  leaves  of  Nysa  multiflorain  September.  The  head 
is  dark  brown  ;  first  segment  dark  brownish  ;  body  very  pale  green  with  dark 
atoms  along  the  dorsum  ;  ventral  surface  with  a  line  of  two  black  spots.  After 
the  last  molting  the  first  segment  is  black,  and  the  dorsal  spots  become  a 
black,  vascular  line.  When  full  fed,  the  larva  weaves  an  oval  cocoon  within 
the  mine,  and  cutting  the  two  skins  of  the  leaf  into  a  correspondent  form, 
permits  it  to  fall  to  the  ground.  There  is  thus  left  an  oval  hole  in  the  de- 
serted mine.     The  imagos  appear  during  the  following  May. 

A.  co  r  n  if  oliella  . — Head,  face,  labial  palpi,  and  fore  feet  dark  brown. 
Antennae  dark  brown  ;  basal  joint  somewhat  ochreous.  fore  wings  rather 
dull  dark  brown,  with  a  coppery  hue.  Near  the  base  is  a  rather  narrow, 
golden  band,  not  constricted  on  the  fold,  and  rather  indistinct  toward  the  costa, 
where  it  is  somewhat  suffused  with  a  coppery  hue,  and  nearest  the  base  on  the 
inner  margin.  At  the  apical  third  of  the  wing  is  a  small  golden  spot,  and 
nearly  opposite,  on  the  inner  margin,  another  of  the  same  hue,  with  the 
hinder  portion  of  the  wing  tinged  with  a  bright  reddish  coppery  hue  ;  cilia 
dark  grayish.  Hind  wings  purplish  brown  ;  cilia  somewhat  paler,  with  a  cop- 
pery hue. 

The  larva  mines  the  leaves  of  Cornus  florida,  in  September.  It'may  pos- 
sibly be  a  variation  of  Nysaefoliella.  The  larvae  of  the  insects  are  very 
like  each  other,  but  I  don't  know  whether  that  ofCornifoliella  undergoes 
the  same  change  of  coloration  after  the  last  molting  as  that  of  Nysaefoli- 
ella.  The  head  and  shield  dark  brown  ;  body  nearly  white,  with  seven 
minute,  black  points  along  the  dorsum,  and  eight  on  the  ventral  surface, 
somewhat  larger,  and  more  distinct.  Its  mode  of  preparing  for  pupation  is 
the  same  as  the  previous  species,  but  whilst  the  individuals  of  Nysaefoli- 
e  1 1  a  on  a  single  tree  are  almost  innumerable,  those  ofCornifoliella  are 
not  abundant. 

Aspidisca. 

Fore  wings  with  no  discoidal  cell.  The  subcostal  nervure  traverses  the 
middle  of  the  wing,  attenuated  from  the  base  to  the  basal  third,  where  it  gives 
origin  to  a  long,  marginal  branch,  which  reaches  the  costa  at  the  apical  third 
of  the  wing  ;  near  the  tip  it  subdivides  into  three  short  branches,  one  of  which 
is  delivered  to  the  costa  behind  the  tip,  one  to  the  tip,  without  attaining  the 

I860.] 


12  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  ACADEMY  OF 

extreme  apes,  and  one  to  the  inner  margin,  somewhat  behind  the  second 
marginal  branch.  The  median  nervure  is  wanting.  The  sub-median  simple. 
Hind  wings  with  no  discoidal  cell.  The  subcostal  nervure  is  central  and 
attenuated  towards  the  base,  and  at  about  its  apical  third  delivers  a 
branch  to  the  inner  margin,  and  is  bifid  behind  the  tip  of  the  wing.  The 
median  is  simple.     The  submedian  obsolete  or  wanting. 

Size  extremely  small.  Head  and  face  smooth,  covered  with  closely  ap- 
pressed  scales.  Face  rather  broad,  and  somewhat  produced  beneath  into  a 
point.  Forehead  rounded.  Ocelli  none.  Eyes  extremely  small,  not  visible 
from  above,  and  scarcely  visible  in  front.  Antennae  held  extended  at  the 
sides,  very  short,  scarcely  one-half  &§  long  as  the  anterior  wings,  rather  thick, 
obtuse,  and  rougheired  with  scales.  Maxillary  palpi  none.  Labial  palpi 
none.     Tongue  none. 

A.  splendorif  er  ella  . — Head  golden.  Antennas  fuscous,  tinged  with 
golden.  Fore  wings,  from  the  base  to  the  middle,  leaden  gray,  with  a  splen- 
dent lustre,  and  from  the  middle  to  the  tip  golden,  with  a  broad,  nearly 
straight,  metallic,  silvery  streak,  extending  from  the  costa  near  the  tip  to 
the  middle  of  the  wing,  and  dark-margined  on  both  sides.  This  is  nearly 
joined  by  a  dorsal  streak  of  the  same  hue,  almost  opposite  to  it,  with  con- 
verging dark  margins,  and  with  a  blotch  of  dark  brown  scales  adjoining  it  be- 
hind. In  the  costo-apical  cilia  is  a  short,  blackish  brown  streak,  parallel  to 
the  dark  margin  of  the  silvery  costal  streak. 

At  the  tip  is  a  black,  apical  spot,  with  metallic,  silvery  scales  in  its  centre, 
and  a  few  silvery  scales  in  the  cilia  above  and  beneath  it.  A  blackish  brown 
hinder  marginal  line  in  the  cilia,  interrupted  by  a  silvery  streak  in  the  cilia 
beneath  the  apical  spot,  and  the  cilia  yellowish  brown.  Hind  wings  leaden 
gray  ;  cilia  yellowish  brown. 

The  larva  mines  the  leaves  of  Crataegus  tomentosa  early  in  September. 
The  mine  appears  at  first  as  a  very  narrow  line,  and  is  subsequently  expanded 
into  a  small,  transparent  blotch.  At  maturity,  the  larva  weaves  a  cocoon 
between  the  cuticles,  and  cuts  a  small  oval  disk.  This  is  sometimes  carried 
quite  a  distance,  and  is  ultimately  secured  to  some  object  by  one  of  its  ends 
tied  down  on  a  little  button  of  white  silk.  It  enters  the  pupa  state  toward 
the  latter  part  of  September,  and  appears  as  an  imago  early  in  spring. 

The  mature  larva  has  a  head  much  smaller  than  the  first  ring,  rounded 
above,  and  elliptical.  The  body  is  flattened,  and  tapers  posteriorly  from  the 
anterior  rings.  The  segments  are  rather  deeply  incised,  the  thoracic  ob- 
tusely rounded  at  the  sides,  and  the  rest  with  a  minute  lateral  nodule  or 
mammilla.  It  is  without  legs  or  prolegs,  but  on  the  second  and  third  thoracic 
rings,  on  both  the  dorsal  and  ventral  surfaces,  are  spots  or  cup-like  depres- 
sions, one,  on  each  side,  capable  of  being  contracted  and  expanded.  So,  like- 
wise, from  the  sixth  to  the  ninth  inclusive,  on  the  ventral  surface  are 
transversely  placed  oval  spots,  similar  to  the  thoracic,  and  one  on  each  seg- 
ment. On  the  segment  next  the  last  is  a  protuberance,  both  dorsal  and  ven- 
tral, with  two  cup-like  depressions  on  each  surface.  These  are  not  supplied 
with  hooks,  and  if  they  are  substitutes  for  feet,  must  act  like  suckers.  They 
are  all  pale  brown.  The  head  is  dark  brown ;  the  body  brown,  with  blackish 
along  the  dorsal  and  ventral  surfaces. 

"When  the  larvae  are  young,  it  is  extremely  difficult  to  discover  their  mines, 
and  the  transparent  blotch  is  not  much  larger  than  the  cocoon,  leaving  a  space 
in  which  the  ' '  frass  ' '  is  collected. 

Diachorisia. 

Fore  wings  pointed,  narrowly  ovate- lanceolate  ;  discoidal  cell  closed  behind 
by  a  very  faintly  indicated  nervure,  with  a  faintly  indicated  secondary  cell. 
The  subcostal  nervure  obscurely  indicated  from  the  secondary  cell  to  the  base 
of  the  wing,  with  a  long  and  distinct  marginal  nervule  from  near  the  base, 

[Jan. 


NATURAL   SCIENCES   OF  PHILADELPHIA.  13 

one  from  the  middle  of  the  secondary  cell,  and  three  from  the  end  of  it  to  the 
costa.  Three  nervules  from  the  discal  nervure  to  the  inner  margin,  heneath 
the  tip.  The  median  without  branches  ;  beyond  the  discal,  it  proceeds  to  the 
inner  margin,  as  a  9ingle  short  vein  ;  perhaps  it  may  be  bifid.  The  submedian 
is  simple.  Hind  wings  lanceolate,  clothed  with  scales,  with  the  discoidal 
cell  closed  by  a  very  faintly  indicated  nervure.  The  costal  nervure  is  long, 
and  extends  nearly  to  the  tip  of  the  wing.  The  subcostal  is  simple,  and. 
wanting  from  near  the  origin  of  the  discal  nervure,  where  it  is  slightly  pro- 
duced inwardly,  but  well  indicated  thence  to  near  the  tip.  The  discal  ner- 
vure gives  rise  to  a  discal  branch  which  quickly  becomes  bifid,  and  its 
branches  well  defined  near  to  the  tip,  above  and  beneath.  The  median  is 
well  indicated,  and  is  three-branched,  the  last  very  faintly  connected  with 
the  second.     No  submedian  nervure.  • 

Size  very  small.  Head  rough  and  hairy  above  and  in  front.  Ocelli  none. 
Eyes  rather  large,  round,  and  salient,  not  set  on  a  naked  circular  portion  of 
the  head,  nor  with  a  naked  space  above  the  eyes.  Antennse  about  one-half 
as  long  as  the  anterior  wings,  inserted  laterally,  and  microscopically  pubes- 
cent beneath ;  basal  joint  moderately  long,  stalk  roughened  with  scales. 
Maxillary  palpi  rather  long  and  folded.  Labial  palpi  moderate,  slender, 
smooth,  cylindrical,  separated,  and  somewhat  drooping  ;  the  third  joint  nearly 
as  long  as  the  second,  which  has  a  few  bristles  at  its  end  and  beneath. 
Tongue         ?. 

D.  velatella  . — Labial  palpi  dark  brownish.  Head  brownish  gray.  An- 
tennse grayish  fuscous,  with  the  basal  joint  whitish,  having  a  blackish,  ex- 
ternal streak.  Fore  wings  whitish,  dusted  with  dark  fuscous,  with  a  few 
dark  fuscous  spots  along  the  costa,  and  one  of  the  same  hue  about  the 
middle  of  the  disk,  beneath  which,  on  the  fold,  is  another  of  the  same  hue. 
Toward  the  apex,  in  the  middle  of  the  wing,  beneath  the  last  costal  spot,  is  a 
small,  dark  fuscous  spot,  sometimes  connected  toward  the  base  of  the  wing 
with  a  dusted  streak  of  the  same  hue;  cilia  whitish,  somewhat  dotted  with 
dark  fuscous.     Hind  wings  grayish  brown  ;  cilia  the  same. 

The  relationship  of  this  insect  tolncurvaria  and  its  allied  genera,  espe- 
cially to  Acerifoliella  and  toEudarcia,  is  very  obvious. 

Bucculatrix?  Hiibner. 

The  anterior  wings  lanceolate  ;  the  discal  cell  is  closed  acutely  behind,  with 
the  subcostal  nervure  faintly  indicated  from  the  middle  of  the  wing  to  the  base, 
and  sending/owr  nervules  to  the  costa,  the  first  about  the  basal  third,  and  its 
origin  from  the  subcostal  faintly  indicated ;  the  three  others  arising  near  the 
apical  portion  of  the  wing,  with  the  subcostal  between  the  second  and  last  rather 
faintly  indicated  ;  the  third  nervule  scarcely  noticeable,  and  the  last  branch 
arising  from  the  apex  of  the  discoidal  cell.  The  median  is  strongly  indicated 
throughout,  and  sends  off  to  the  inner  margin  at  its  posterior  end,  a  very 
faintly  indicated  branch,  whilst  the  apical  branch,  which  appears  to  be  a  con- 
tinuation of  it,  becomes  bifid  behind  the  tip  of  the  wing.  The  posterior  are 
narrowly  lanceolate,  without  discoidal  cell.  The  subcostal  nervure  is  central, 
and  subdivides  beyond  the  middle  of  the  wing  into  three  branches,  two  to  the 
inner  margin,  and  one  along  the  exterior  margin  to  the  tip.  The  median  ner- 
vure is  simple. 

Size  extremely  small.  Head  rough,  tufted  in  the  middle.  Face  smooth  and 
retreating.  Eyes  salient,  visible  in  front.  Antennse  with  a  spreading,  basal 
eye-cap,  expanded  above  the  eyes  ;  stalk  very  slender,  simple,  scarcely  more 
than  one-half  so  long  as  the  body.  No  labial  or  maxillary  palpi.  Tongue 
naked,  very  short,  not  one-half  as  long  as  the  anterior  coxae. 

B. ?  coronatella. — Face  yellowish-white.  The  head  with  the  tuft  pale 
orange  chrome  ;  the  eye-caps  pale  yellow,  touched  behind  with  orange  chrome. 
Antennse  yellow,  dotted  above  with  dark  brown.  Fore  wings  pale  orange 
I860.] 


14  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  ACADEMY  OF 

chrome,  with  a  whitish  patch  near  the  base  above  the  fold,  one  nearly  oppo- 
site, on  the  inner  margin,  and  one  about  the  middle  of  the  wing,  on  the  costa. 
Near  the  tip  of  the  wing  is  a  rather  indistinct,  narrow,  whitish  band,  becoming 
somewhat  diffuse  on  the  inner  margin,  about  the  middle  of  the  cilia  ;  extreme 
apex  of  the  wing  whitish,  mixed  with  scales  of  the  general  hue:  cilia  grayish 
fulvous.  Hind  wings  dark  gray ;  cilia  fulvous  gray.  Abdomen  pale  orange 
chrome,  with  a  dark  brownish  stripe  along  the  dorsum,  varied  with  fulvous. 

PYRAL1DINA.     Fam.  HERMINID^E. 
Epipaschia. 

Anterior  wings  with  two  approximated,  subcosto-marginal  nervules  arising 
near  tb^e  end  of  the  disk,  with  a  short  nervulet  to  the  costa,  from  near  the  tip 
of  the  subcosto-apical  nervule  ;  the  origin  of  the  post  apical  is  midway  between 
the  discal  and  marginal  nervulet;  the  subcosto-inferior  and  discal  have  coinci- 
dent origins.  The  discal  is  nearly  circularly  curved,  and  is  continued  to  the 
disco-central  nervule  which  anastomoses  by  contact  with  the  medio-superior. 
Median  three-branched.  Submedian  furcate  at  the  base.  In  the  posterior 
wings  the  discal  nervure  is  long,  with  a  sweeping  curve,  and,  as  in  the  anterior 
wings,  is  continued  to  the  disco-central  nervule,  anastomosing  by  contact  with 
the  medio-superior. 

Head  with  ocelli.  Eyes  round,  rather  large  and  salient.  Maxillary  palpi 
short,  scaly  and  porrected.  Labial  palpi  smooth,  recurved,  but  not  exceeding 
the  vertex,  cylindrical  and  pointed;  third  joint  rather  short,  and  indistinctly 
marked.  Tongue  scaled  at  the  base,  and  nearly  as  long  as  the  thorax  beneath. 
Antennae  with  an  arlicitlated  appendage  arising  from  the  basal  joint,  throicn  back- 
wards, and  as  long  as  the  thorax,  and  clothed  with  scales  and  spreading  hairs  at  its 
tip;  the  stalk  is  exterior  to  it,  slender,  its  joints  roughened  with  scales,  and 
finely  ciliated  beneath. 

E.  supera  tali  s. — Head  yellowish.  Labial  palpi  yellowish,  dusted  with 
dark  ochreous,  with  a  dark  brown  spot  at  the  base  of  the  third  joint.  An- 
tennas brownish,  annulated  with  yellow,  the  antennal  appendage  yellow,  dusted 
with  blackish  brown,  especially  exteriorly.  Fore  wings  pale  yellowish,  dusted 
with  dark  brownish  to  an  irregular  dark  brown  line,  crossing  the  nervules  from 
the  costa  to  the  inner  margin,  beyond  which  it  is  dull  reddish  brown.  About 
the  middle  of  the  costa  is  a  blackish  brown  spot,  a  small  one  of  the  same  hue 
on  the  discal  nervure;  a  minute  one  at  the  base,  and  the  base  of  the  fold,  with 
the  inner  margin  at  the  base  tinted  with  reddish  brown.  On  the  posterior 
margin  of  the  wing  is  a  line  of  dark  brown  dots.  Hind  wings  fuscous,  with  a 
dark  brown  round  spot  near  the  exterior  margin  of  the  base,  and  a  brownish 
marginal  line,  with  one  of  the  same  hue  in  the  cilia. 

From  Edward  Norton,  of  Farmington,  Conn. 

SPHINGINA.     Fam.  ^GERIID.E. 

Trochilium  Scopoli. 

I  regard  this  genus  as  synonymous  with  the  ^Egeria  of  Dr.  Harris;  it  in- 
cludes, likewise,  the  group  he  has  characterized  by  this  name. 

Both  wings  transparent.  Antennce  little  thickened  at  the  tips.  Abdomen  sessile, 
tufted  at  the  tip.     Hind  tarsi  very  slender  and  smooth,  as  long  as  the  tibice. 

T.  A  c  er  n  i  . — Head  and  labial  palpi  deep  reddish  orange,  the  former  white 
in  front  of  the  eyes.  Antennas  bluish  black,  the  basal  joint  reddish  orange  in 
front.  Thorax  ochreous  yellow,  with  the  tegulse  in  front  touched  with  pale 
bluish  black.  Abdomen  bluish  black,  varied  with  ochreous  yellow;  terminal 
tuft  deep  reddish  orange.  Fore  wings  with  the  margins  and  median  nervure 
bluish  black,  dusted  with  yellowish  ;  a  large  discal,  bluish  black  patch ;  termi- 
nal). 


NATURAL    SCIENCES  OP  PHILADELPHIA.  15 

nal  portion  of  the  wing  ochreous  yellow,  with  a  blackish,  subterminal  band, 
and  the  nervules  blackish  ;  the  hinder  margin  bluish  black,  and  the  cilia  deep 
fuscous.  Hind  wings  with  a  black  discal  patch  ;  nervules  blackish,  and  hinder 
margin  blackish.  Under  surface  of  the  body  ochreous  yellow,  with  a  bluish 
black  patch  on  each  side  of  the  second  abdominal  segment.  The  middle  and 
posterior  tibia  annulated  with  bluish  black  at  their  ends,  the  anterior  blackish, 
with  the  coxae  touched  with  reddish  orange.  All  the  tarsi  touched  with 
blackish  above.     The  larva  bores  the  trunk  of  the  maple. 

Note. — In  the  November  number,  1859,  the  following  corrections  should  be 
made  : 

In  the  first  line  of  the  note  on  p.  317,  preceding  should  read  succeeding. 
In  Divsion  II.,  of  the  Table  of  species,  on  p.  318,  an  should  read  no. 
On  page  327,  for  vitcgcnella  read  vitigenella. 


Appendix  to  the  paper  entitled  New  Genera  and  Species  of   North  American 

Tipulidae  with  short  palpi,  &c. 

BY   R.    OSTEN    SACKEN. 

The  following  are  some  additions  and  corrections  to  my  paper,  suggested  by 
the  examination  of  the  entomological  collections  of  the  British  Museum,  the 
Jardin  des  Plantes,  and  the  Museum  of  the  University  of  Berlin,  as  well  as  of 
some  private  collections. 

The  British  Museum  afforded  me  the  desired  information  about  the  Lim- 
n  o  b  i  ae  described  by  Mr.  Walker  in  his  "  List  of  Specimens,  etc." 

L.  simulans  Walk,  is  my  Dicranomyia  defuncta.  Mr.  Walker,  (1.  c. 
p.  45)  describes  this  species  as  "pale  yellow,  legs  yellow,  tips  of  the  thighs,  of  the 
shanks,  and  of  the  feet,  black, "  etc.;  whereas,  in  reality,  the  body  is  cinereous,  the 
legs  are  dark  brown,  almost  black,  with  a  whitish  ring  before  the  tip  of  the  femora, 
etc.  Mr.  Walker's  description  was  drawn  from  a  single  old  and  faded  speci- 
men ;  no  wonder,  therefore,  that  it  could  not  be  identified. 

L.  badia  Walk,  seems  to  be  my  Dicranomyia  humidicola.  The  only 
specimen  in  the  British  Museum  is  without  leg9.  The  characteristic  mark  of 
the  species,  the  white  ring  at  the  tip  of  the  tibice,  was  therefore  not  mentioned  in 
the  description.     (Walker,  1.  c.  p.  46.) 

Anisomera  longicornis  Walk,  appears  to  be  the  species  which  I  have 
identified  for  it. 

Not  having  seen  Mr.  Saunders's  collection,  I  have  not  been  able  to  identify 
the  Limnobias  ignobilis,  prominens,  biterminata,  and  t  u  r  p  i  s  de- 
scribed by  Mr.  Walker  in  the  Diptera  Saundersiana. 

In  the  Museum  of  Berlin  I  have  found  a  considerable  number  of  undeter- 
mined Limnobiae  and  Eriopterse  from  Georgia,  most  of  which  I  have  been 
able  to  identify  with  the  species  described  in  my  paper.  Only  a  few  were  new 
to  me.  I  will  give  here  a  list  of  these  species,  as  an  addition  to  the  knowledge 
of  their  geographical  distribution.  Some  observations  and  corrections  to  my 
descriptions,  especially  when  they  were  drawn  from  a  limited  number  of  speci- 
mens, may  also  find  their  place  here. 

Limnophila  adusta  in  two  (^  £)  specimens.  The  brown  line  in  the  middle 
of  the  thorax  was  hardly  apparent.  The  tips  of  the  femora  were  distinctly  in- 
fuscated. 

Limnophila  imbecilla(?)  A  single  tf*  specimen,  which  had  the  neura- 
tion  of  the  wings,  the  long  verticils,  etc..  of  said  species,  but  the  coloring  of  the 
body  of  which  was  somewhat  different,  namely,  brownish  ferruginous,  shilling  on 

I860.] 


16  PROCEEDINGS  OP  THE  ACADEMY  OF 

the  thorax.     This  coloring  may  have  been  merely  accidental,  and  produced  per- 
haps after  the  death  of  the  specimen. 

Limnophila  pavonina,  a  single  $  specimen,  slightly  different  from  the 
specimen  from  which  my  description  was  drawn.  The  first  joint  of  the  antennae 
is  cinereous,  the  second  brown,  the  following  are  orange.  The  tip  of  the  an- 
tenna is  brownish.  The  abdomen  shows  a  brown  stripe  along  the  middle  of  the 
tergum  and  indications  of  such  stripes  along  the  lateral  margins.  The  brown 
spots  on  the  wings  are  more  confluent  than  in  my  specimen,  so  that  the  outlines 
of  the  ocelli  and  ocelliform  marks  are  less  distinct  than  is  mentioned  in  my 
description. 

Limnophila  te  n  u  ip  e  s  Say.  Limnophila  n.  sp.  (onespecimen.)  Araa- 
lopis  inconstans.  Teucholabis  complex  a.  Teucholabis  n.  sp.  (with  a 
ferrugineous,  shining  thorax.)  Geranomyia  communis.  Gnophomyia  t  r  i  s  - 
tissima.  Gnophomyia  lugubris.  Dicranoptycha  sobrina.  Dicra- 
noptycha  sororcula.  Erioptera  v  e  n  u  s  t  a .  E  r  i  o  c  e  r  a  n.  sp.  (?  very  like 
the  cinereous  specimens  mentioned  at  the  end  of  my  description  of  Eriocera 
f  uli  gin  osa.) 

Nov.  gen.  et  sp.  (?)  of  my  group  of  Tipulre  anisomeraeformes,  and  very 
like  Eriocera,  but  distinguished  by  the  presence  of  a  petiolated  areolet 
and  the  antennae,  which  are  a  little  longer,  especially  those  of  the  $.  The 
species  is  easily  distinguished  by  the  color  of  the  tarsi,  which  are  white,  except 
at  the  base. 

In  the  same  museum  I  saw  Gonomyia  b  Ian  da  and  Limnophila  lutei- 
pennnis,  from  South  Carolina ;  Rhipidia  domestica,  from  Brazil,  (!)  and 
Rhamphidia  brevirostris,  from  South  Carolina.  The  latter  had  the  tho- 
rax a  little  darker,  and  the  three  stripes  on  it  more  distinctly  marked  than  in 
my  specimens ;  nevertheless,  I  hardly  doubt  of  their  identity. 

I  succeeded  besides  by  examining  the  dipterological  collections  in  Europe,  in 
ascertaining,  as  I  had  hoped,  the  occurrence,  in  other  parts  of  the  world  than 
in  North  America,  of  some  of  the  new  genera  adopted  in  my  paper. 

Gnophomyia  occurs  in  Brazil  and  in  Europe.  I  saw  two  elegant  species 
of  this  genus  (Gnophomyia  nigrina  Wied.,  and  «.  sp.  ?)  in  the  Berlin  Museum, 
and  a  European  species  (taken  near  Berlin)  in  a  private  collection. 

Dicr  ano  ptyc  h  a  is  also  European.  The  Limnobia  c  i  n  e  r  as  cen  s  3Ieiy., 
(syn.  L.  rufescens  Schum.l)  belongs  to  this  genus,  as  I  ascertained  in  Mr. 
Loew's  collection. 

Antochais  also  found  in  Europe ;  a  species  very  like  my  A.  opalizans 
occurs  there.     (Mr.  Loew's  collection.) 

Dactylolabis  the  L.  di  la  tat  a  Loeiv  from  Croatia,  (described  in  his 
Neue  Beitriige,  4tes  Heft,)  belongs  to  this  subgenus.  The  remarkable  dilata- 
tion of  the  anterior  margin  of  the  wing,  in  the  stigmatical  region,  which  is 
peculiar  to  this  species,  is  hardly  perceptible  in  my  D.  montana;  still  it 
exists,  although  in  a  rudimental  state;  besides  this,  the  structure  of  the  ^ 
forceps,  (as  far  as  could  be  ascertained  from  dry  specimens,)  that  of  the  an- 
tennae, and  the  situation  of  the  spots  on  the  wings,  coincide  in  both  species. 

Epiphragma.  A  Brazilian  species  of  this  subgenus,  very  like  my  E. 
solatrix,  is  in  the  Berlin  Museum;  another,  from  Venezuela,  is  in  Mr. 
Loew's  collection. 

Teucholabis.  Two  species  from  Brazil  in  the  Berlin  Museum;  one  of 
them  is  exceedingly  like  T.  complexa. 

A  further  object  which  I  had,  in  examining  the  collections  in  Europe,  was 
to  ascertain  the  possible  identity  of  some  of  the  American  species,  which  I  had 
described  as  new,  with  European  ones.  The  general  result  of  my  observations 
is,  that  although  cases  of  apparent  analogy  are  not  unfrequent,  those  of  real  identity 
seem  to  be  much  rarer.  My  L.  t  r  i  s  t  i  g  m  a  is  very  distinct  from  L.  tripunctata 

[Jan. 


NATURAL    SCIENCES    OF   PHILADELPHIA.  17 

Meig.  The  position  of  the  clouds  round  the  stigma  is  quite  different  in  these 
species;  likewise,  the  insect  which  I  have  redescribed  under  the  name  of  L. 
morio  Fair,  is  different  from  the  European  insect  of  that  name.  Although 
I  had  no  American  specimen  at  hand  for  comparison,  I  could  perceive  at  once 
that  the  wings  of  the  European  ones  were  less  infuscated.  I  restore,  therefore, 
to  the  American  species  the  name  ofL.  morioides,  which  I  at  first  intended 
for  it. 

Limnophila  f  as  ciat  a  Linn.  andRhipidia  m  ac  ul  at  a  Meig.  have  not  struck 
me  as  being  different  from  the  American  species  which  I  have  re-described 
under  the  same  names  ;  still,  as  I  had  no  specimens  of  the  latter  for  comparison, 
I  would  not  rely  on  a  mere  impression. 

My  Amalopis  inconstans  has  the  greatest  resemblance  with  Limnobia 
littoralis  Meig.  My  A.  auripennis  is  closely  related  to  A.  occulta. 
Other  cases  of  analogy  which  I  observed  are  between  Pedicia  albivitta 
Walk.,  and  P.  rivosa,  Dactylolabis  montanaO.&rf.,  and  Limnophila 
sexmaculata  Meig.,  Limnobia  c  i  n  c  t  i  p  e  s  Say.  and  L.  a  n  n  u  1  u  s  Meig., 
L.  solitaria  and  L.  quadrinotata. 

In  establishing  the  genus  Elephantomyia,  T  had  ventured  the  suppo- 
sition that  Toxorhina  Loew  had  been  founded  on  female  specimens  011I3-, 
and  that,  if  the  males  were  known,  the  neuration  of  their  wings  would  be  found 
to  be  like  that  of  the  males  of  Limnobiorhynchus  Westw.,  that  is, 
considerably  different  from  the  females.  This  supposition  has  proved  correct. 
Mr.  Loew  has  obtained  since  several  male  specimens  of  Toxorhina  (fossil.) 
They  have  a  distinct  radial  vein,  which,  as  usual,  runs  between  the  cubital  and 
the  radial  areae.  The  question  of  the  synonymy  of  Limnobiorhynchus 
and  Toxorhina  may  therefore  be  considered  as  settled. 

The  examination  of  specimens  of  Macrochile  Loew  included  in  amber, 
proved  that  this  genus,  like  my  Protoplasa,  has  the  anal  angle  of  the 
wing  square  and  not  rounded. 

Note.— In  the  analytical  table  on  p.  232  (Proc.  1859,)  the  fifth  line  should 
be  continuous  with  the  fourth,  the  species  L.  fuscovaria  forming  in  fact 
the  group  Dicranophragma. 


Catalogue  of  the  Mollusks  in  the  vicinity  of  Mohawk,  New  York. 

BY  JAMES   LEWIS,    M.  D. 

The  following  Catalogue  embraces  the  various  species  of  shell-bearing  Mol- 
lusca,  observed  in  the  vicinity  of  Mohawk,  Herkimer  Co.,  N.  Y.,  and  in  various 
small  Lakes  a  few  miles  south  of  Mohawk.  Some  of  the  species  referred  to 
have  been  entered  here,  from  a  single  dead  specimen. 

Unio  complanatus  Lea.     Erie  canal  and  Mohawk  river.     Common, 
radiatus  Lamarck.     Lakes.     Abundant, 
cariosus  Say.     Mohawk  river.     Nearly  or  quite  extinct, 
ochraceus  Say.       "  "  "  ;<  " 

Tappanianus  Lea.  "  "  Very  rare, 

luteolus  Lam.        "  "  Very  rarely  seen. 

Margaritana    rugosa  Barnes.     Canal  and  river.     Common. 

marginata  Say.         "  "  Not  plenty, 

undulata  Say.     Lakes.     One  seen  in  river.     Rare. 
Anodonta  fluviatilis  Lea.     Canal.     Rare.     Streams  south,  less  rare, 
lacustris  Lea.     Lakes.     Abundant.     (Nov.  sp.) 
Lewisii  Lea.     Canal.  "  " 

edentula  Say.  "  Rare.  Streams  south,  common. 
Ferussaciana  Lea.  Canal  and  rivers.  Small  and  rare 
imbecilis  Say.  "  "  "  » 

subcylindracea  Lea.     Herkimer. 
I860.]  2 


18  PROCEEDINGS   OP   THE   ACADEMY   OF 

Cyclas  sulcata  Lam.     (similis  Say.)     Lakes.     Common. 

?     River.     Rare.     (nov.  sp)  ?     Rare. 

striatina  Lam.     (edentula  Say.)     Canal  and  rivers.     Common, 
transversa  Say,     Canal  and  rivers.     Smaller  than  from  the  west, 
rhomboidea  Say.     (elegans  Ad.)     Lakes.     Rare, 
partumeia  Say.     Stagnant  waters. 

occidentalis  Prime.     Boggy  streams  and  meadows.     Plenty. 
Pisidium  virginicum  Bgt.     (dubium  Say.)     River.     Not  very  plenty, 
abditum  Hold.     Stagnant  waters.     Plenty, 
compressum  Prime.     Rivers  and  small  streams.     Not  rare, 
equilaterale  Prime.     River  east  of  Herkimer.     Rare, 
ferrugineum  Prime.     River  and  lakes, 
ventricosum  Prime.     Lakes  and  stagnant  pools. 
Paludina  integra  Say.     Canal  and  river.     Very  plenty  in  canal, 
decisa  Say.  "  "  Very  plenty  in  river, 

rufa   Raid.  "  "  Not  plenty.     Recently  introduced. 

Melaniasubularis  Lea.       "  "  Common, 

exilis  Raid.  "  "  " 

virginica  Say.     Canal.     Recently  introduced.     Not  plenty.     Local. 
Amnicola  limosa  Say.     Canal  and  river.     Plenty. 

lustrica  Say.       "  "         Plenty  in  river, 

pallida  Lea.     Lakes.     Not  very  plenty. 
tenuipes  ?  Raid.     Lakes.     Not  very  plenty. 
Valvata  tricarinata  Say*     Mohawk  river  plenty.     Canal  less  plenty. 

var.  simplex  of  tricarinata  Say,  in  Thompson's  Vermont  shells. 

Whorls   round,  simple,  (inornate) ;    apex   elevated  ;    umbilicus 
wide  and  deep  ;  epidermis  blue,  varying  to  brown,  but  not  green, 
nor  iridescent, 
sincera  Say.     Lakes.     Very  rare.     1  to  1000  of  the  above. 
Lyransea  elodes  Say.  Canal,  ditches,  pools,  &c.  varieties  emarginata  and  catas- 
copium,  I   have  ascertained,  may  be  produced  from  the  eggs  of 
elodes,  by  change  of  station, 
desidiosa  Say.     Stagnant  pools,  margins  of  streams  and  lakes, 
humilis  Raid.  ?        "  (i  "  "  " 

umbilicata  Adams  "  "       in  wood  lots.      (is  not  caperata  Say.) 

gracilis  Jay.     Schuyler's  lake,  Otsego  Co.     Plenty, 
appressa  Say.     Little  Lakes.     A  single  dead  shell  observed, 
columella  Say.     Lakes.     Not  abundant  nor  large. 
Physa  heterostropha  Say.     Everywhere  in  pools,  lakes  and  small  brooks, 
ancillaria  Say.     May  be  a  var.  of  preceding.     Rivers,  very  rare, 
hypnorum  Drap.     Stagnant  pools.     Small  and  rare. 
Planorbis  trivolvis  Say.     Common. 

bicarinatus  Say.     Common.     In  some  localities,  (lakes)  white, 
campanulatus  Say.     Lakes.     Less  common  than  the  preceding, 
armigerus  Say.     Stagnant  waters.     Common, 
hirsutus  Say.     Lakes.     Rare, 
exacutus  Say.     Lakes.     Very  rare, 
parvus  Say.     Stagnant  waters.     Very  plenty. 
Ancylus  tardus  Say.     Mohawk  river.     Common  on  stones  and  Uniones. 
parallelus  Raid.     Lakes.     Common  on  water  plants, 
fuscus  Adams.     Lakes  or  waterfalls.     Less  abundant. 


*  A  variety  occurs  in  Little  Lakes,  which  presents  much  diversity  of  carination,  some 
specimens  being  almost  entirely  destitute  of  carinas,  but  retaining  the  characteristic  iri- 
descent green  tinge.  Those  specimens  in  which  the  carinas  are  obsolete  have  the  upper 
surface  of  the  whorls  flattened,  and  the  spire  somewhat  depressed.  The  conclusions  of 
authors,  who  suppose  these  varieties  run  into  the  following,  are  erroneous. 

[Jan. 


NATURAL   SCIENCES   OE  PHILADELPHIA.  19 

Helix   albolabris  Say. 

alternata  Say. 

arborea  Say. 

chersina  Say.     Rarely  seen. 

concava  Say. 

electrina  Gould. 

fallax  Say.     Small  var. 

fuliginosa  Griffith.     Rare  and  solitary. 

bydrophila  Ingalls.     Very  plenty  and  gregarious. 

indentata  Say.     Rarely  seen. 

intertexta  Binney. 

lineata  Say.     Not  plenty. 

inornata  Say.     Rare. 

minuta  Say.     Very  plenty  in  damp  grounds. 

minuscula  Binney.     Only  very  recently  observed,  and  quite  rare. 

monodon  Rackett.     Our  most  common  Helix. 

palliata  Say. 

Sayii  Binney.     Very  rare. 

striatella  Anthony. 

thyroides  Say.     Rare. 
Succinea  obliqua  Say. 

vermeta  Say.     (Is  not  avara.) 
ovalis  Gould. 
Bulimus  lubricus  Brug. 
Pupa  pentodon  Say. 
contracta  Say. 
Vertigo  ovata  Say. 

Gouldii  Bin. 
Carychium  exiguum  Say. 

I  have  made  some  experiments  for  the  purpose  of  ascertaining  if  various 
species  of  Uniones  would  bear  transplanting.  The  following  species  have  been 
placed  in  the  Erie  Canal,  at  various  times,  but  no  evidence  has  yet  been  had  of 
their  multiplying :  Unio  radiatus  from  Schuyler's  Lake.  Unio  campto- 
don  Say,  from  Ohio ;  U.  parvus  Say,  from  Ohio ;  U.  undulatus  Bar., 
from  Ohio  ;U.  cariosus  Say,  from  Troy,  N.  Y.;  An.  i  m  p  1  i  c  a  t  a  Say,  from 
Troy,  N.  Y. 

A  variety  of  Lymnaea  known  as  catascopium  Say,  abounds  in  the 
Canal,  and  it  is  very  usual  for  their  eggs  to  be  washed  over  the  sides  of  an 
aqueduct  into  a  small  creek,  where  they  come  to  maturity,  to  be  washed  into 
the  river  with  the  fall  floods.  One  or  two  favorable  seasons  have  enabled 
me  to  ascertain  that  those  which  came  to  maturity  have  the  form  of 
el  o  d  e  s.  A  small  pool  of  stagnant  water,  formerly  the  bed  of  the  Canal  pre- 
vious to  its  enlargement,  is  populated  by  thousands  of  Ly  mnasa  that  for- 
merly formed  part  of  the  Canal  family.  These  vary  in  their  forms  in  different 
seasons ;  some  retain  the  form  of  catascopium,  others  diverge  to  emar- 
g  i  n  a  t  a,  but  a  larger  number  are  elodes.  ThePaludinaof  the  Lakes  I 
regard  as  de  ci  s  a,  but  they  are  probably  not  the  same  as  the  shells  of  the 
Canal  and  River  that  have  that  name. 


Notes  on  the  Nomenclature  of  North  American  Fishes. 

BY   THEO.    GILL. 

The  following  notes  are  selected  from  a  large  number  on  American  and  foreign 
fishes  in  the  possession  of  the  author.  Others  upon  North  American  fishes  are 
reserved  until  a  more  complete  examination  can  be  made ;  it  is  hoped  that  the 
following  may,  in  the  mean  time,  be  of  service  to  the  student  of  American 
Ichthyology. 

I860.] 


20  PROCEEDINGS    OP   THE   ACADEMY   OP 

1.  Labrax  chrysops  Girard. — There  is  little  doubt  that  the  Labrax 
albidus  of  Dr.  Dekay*  and  the  Labrax  osculatii  of  Filippi  f  are  identi- 
cal with  the  Labrax  chrysops.  Filippi,  although  acquainted  with  the  work 
of  Dekay,  compares  his  Labrax  osc  ula  tii  only  with  the  L.  li  n  e  at  us  Cuv., 
and  chiefly  distinguishes  it  from  that  species  by  its  higher  body  and  lingual 
dentition.  The  specimens,  from  which  the  species  of  Filippi  was  described, 
were  sent  to  the  Museum  of  Milan  by  the  traveller  to  whom  it  was  dedicated, 
(M.  Osculati,)  and  are  stated  by  Filippi  to  have  been  obtained  in  Lake  Ontario. 
Notwithstanding  this,  Filippi  has  stated  that  it  is  an  inhabitant  of  the  sea  and 
the  rivers  of  the  United  States.  "Hab.  in  mare  et  fluvis  confederationis  Amer- 
icanse." 

2.  Lepomis  ach  i  gan  Gill. — RafinesqueJ  first  indicated  the  Cicha  fas- 
ciata  of  Lesueur  or  Centrarchus  obscurus  of  Dekay,  under  the  name  of 
Bodianus   achigan.     His  specific  name  must  be  preserved. 

3.  Ambloplites  rupestris  Gill. — The  Bodianus  rupestris  of  Rafin- 
esque,  described  in  December,  181 7, $  appears  to  be  the  same  as  the  species 
subsequently  named  Cichla  senea  by  Lesueur. 

4.  Pomotis  maculatus  Gill. — The  common  sun  fish  of  New  York  was 
first  named  Morone  maculata  by  Mitchell. ||  His  specific  name  should  be 
retained. 

(Corinia  oxyptera  Dekay.  H) — This  is  a  species  of  the  genus  Serranus. 

5.  Orthopristis  fulvo-maculatus  Gill. — If  the  genus  Orthopris- 
t  i  s  is  valid,  the  Haemulon  fulvo-maculatum  of  Dekay**  must  be  referred 
to  it  under  the  above  name.  That  species  differs  very  little,  if  at  all,  from  the 
Orthopristis  duplex  of  Dr.  Girard. ff     The  two  are  probably  identical. 

6.  Sargus  ovicephalus  Gill. — The  common  sheep's-head  was  first  named 
by  BlochJJ  from  the  description  of  Schoepf.$$ 

Palindrichthys  Gill. 

This  name  is  proposed  as  a  substitute  for  P  a  1  i  n  u  r  u  s  of  Dekay.  The  latter 
name  having  been  applied  to  a  well-known  genus  of  crustaceans,  it  is  inadmis- 
sible in  any  other  branch  of  the  animal  kingdom. 

7.  Palinurichthys  perciformis  Gill. — Syn.  Palinurus  perciformis 
Dekay,  Zoology  of  New  York,  Fishes,  p.  118. 

Percina  Haldeman.lHI 
The  type  of  this  genus  is  congeneric  with  the  type  of  the  subsequently  estab- 
lished genus,  P  i  1  e  o  m  a  of  Dekay.     The  latter  name  is  therefore  a  synonym  of 
Percina,  and  must  be  suppressed. 

8.  Percina  semifasciata  Gill. — Syn.  Pileoma  semifaciata  Dekay, 
Zoology  of  New  York,  Fishes,  p.  16. 

Astroscopcs  Brev. 
Under  this  name,  Mr.  Brevoort  proposes  to  separate  from  Uranoscopus  the 

*  Dekay,  Zoology  of  New  York,  Fishes,  p.  13,  pi.  51,  fig.  165. 

T  Filippi,  Revue  et  Magasin  de  Zoologie,  2d  series,  vol.  v-  p.  164. 

X  Rafinesque.  American  Monthly  Magazine  and  Critical  Review,  vol.  ii.  p.  120. 

§  Loc.  cit.,  vol.  ii.  p.  120. 

||  Mitchell's  Report  in  part  on  the  fishes  of  New  York,  p.  19,  Jan.,  1814. 

\  Dekay,  loc.  cit.,  p.  77,  pi.  xxx.  fig.  96. 

**  Dekay,  loc.  cit.,  p. 

tt Girard,  Proc.  Acad.  Nat.  Sci.,  Philadelphia,  1859. 

XX  Bloch.  Schneider.,  Systema  Ichthyologia?,  p.  280. 

jgSchoepf  in  Schriften  der  Gesellchaft  Naturf.  Freunde  zu  Berlin,  vol.viii.  p.  152,  1788. 

PlHaldeman,  Journ.  Acad.  Nat.  Sci.,  vol.  viii.  p.  330,  1842. 

[Jan. 


NATURAL   SCIENCES   OF  PHILADELPHIA.  21 

American  U.  anoplos  of  Cuvier.  Astroscopus  differs  from  Uranos- 
copus  by  a  less  completely  armed  head,  and  by  the  absence  of  an  exsertile 
filament  to  the  membrane  behind  the  symphisis  of  the  lower  joint.  To  this 
genus  is  also  to  be  referred  the  Uranoscopos  y-graecum  of  Cuvier  and  Val- 
enciennes. 

9  Astroscopus  anoplos  Brev. — Syn.  Uranoscopus  anoplos  Cuv.  and  Val. 
Hist.  Nat.  des.  Poissons,  vol.  viii,  p.  493. 

(Lepisoma  cirrhosum  Dekay.*) — This  fish,  described  as  a  new  genus  of 
the  family  of  Percoids,  is  the  common  Chinus  pectinifer  of  Valen- 
ciennes,! a  West  Indian  species,  which  is  the  type  of  the  genus  Labrosomus 
of  Swainson.  J 

Leptoblennius  Gill. 

This  genus  is  founded  on  the  Blennius  serpentinus  of  Dr.  D.  H.  Storer. 
It  differs  widely  from  Blennius  by  the  elongated  form  of  the  body,  the  shape 
of  the  head,  absence  of  superciliary  tentacles,  &c.  It  is  equally  distinct  from 
the  genus  P  h  o  li  s  . 

10.  Leptoblennius  serpentinus  Gill. — Syn.  Blennius  serpentinus 
Storer,  Hist,  of  the  Fishes  of  Mass.,  p.  91,  pi.  xvii.  fig.  1. 

MOLACANTHUS    Sw.§ 

The  genus  called  by  Dekay  Acanthosorna  had  been  previously  named 
by  Swainson  Molacanthus,  and  that  appellation  has  been  accepted  by  the 
Prince  of  Canino.||  Swainson  founded  his  genus  on  the  Diodon  mola  of 
Pallas,  a  species  to  which  Dekay  has  referred  in  his  remarks  on  Acanthosorna 
carinatum. 

1 1.  Molacanthus  carinatus  Gill. — Syn.  Acanthosorna  carinatum  Dekay, 
Zoology  of  New  York  Fishes,  p.  350,  pi.  4,  fig.  179. 

Dr.  Richardson  has  figured  in  the  Ichthyology  of  the  Voyage  of  the  Sulphur,^ 
a  species  of  molacanthus,  which  he  has  named  Orthagoriscus  s  p  i  n  o  s  u  s 
Cuv.,  citing  for  that  name  the  Regne  Animal,  vol.  i.  p.  370.  On  reference  to 
the  volume  of  Cuvier,  it  will  be  seen  that  the  name  of  Orthogoriscus  s  p  i  n  o  s  u  s 
is  attributed  to  Bloch  of  Schneider;  in  a  foot  note  to  the  genns  enumerating 
the  species,  it  is  again  referred  to  as  Orthogoriscus  h  i  s  p  i  d  u  s  .  The  latter  is 
the  name  given  to  the  species  in  the  Systema  Ichthyologist,**  and  the  former  was 
probably  due  to  an  oversight  of  Cuvier.  The  species  of  Richardson  is  also, 
perhaps,  a  distinct  species  from  the  Molacanthus  hispid  us  Bon.,  and  is  an 
inhabitant  of  the  Chinese  seas. 


On  the  Pertinence  of  the  ALOSA  TERES  Dekay, to  the  Genus  DUSSUMIERA  Val. 

BY    THEO.    GILL. 

In  the  ichthyological  volume  of  "  Zoology  of  New  York,f  f "  Dr.  Dekay  has 
described  a  halecoid  fish  to  which  he  has  given  the  name  of  Alosa  teres.  He 
has  characterized  the  genus  Alosa  as  having  the  characters  of  Clupea 
(body  compressed,)  but  distinguished  by  the  tongue  and  the  roof  of  the  mouth 
being  smooth  or  edentulous.     Notwithstanding  this  definition,  he  has  without 

*  Dekay,  loc  cit.,  p.  41,  pi.  30,  fig.  91. 

tCuv.  Val.  Hist.  Nat.  kes  Poisons,  vol.  xi. 

X  Swainson,  Nat  Hist,  of  Fishes,  &c,  vol.  ii,  pp.  75  and  277,  1839. 

I  Swainson,  Nat.  Hist,  of  Fishes,  Amphibians  and  Reptiles,  vol.  ii.  p.  329. 

||  Bonaparte,  Catalogo  Metodico  dei  Pesci  Europei,  p.  87. 

IfRichardson,  loc.  cit.,  p.  125,  pi.  2,  figs.  10  and  11. 

**B1.  Schn.,  loc.  cit ,  p.  511. 

tt  Zoology  of  New  York  Fishes,  p.  262,  pi.  40,  fig.  128. 

I860.] 


22  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  ACADEMY  OF 

hesitation,  referred  to  the  genus  the  above  fish  which  he  describes  as  having 
the  "  body  cylindrical"  and  with  its  tongue  covered  "  with  asperities  on  its  surface." 
In  the  "  Histoire  Naturelle  des  Poissons,"*  Valenciennes,  misled  perhaps  by  the 
generic  definition  of  Dekay,  has  described  what  appears  to  be  a  true  Alosa, 
as  the  Alosa  teres  of  Dekay.  In  the  same  volume  f  he  has  described  a  fish 
to  which  he  has  given  the  name  of  Dussumiera  acuta;  this  fish  is  there 
stated  to  have  a  most  close  superficial  resemblance  to  the  sardines  of  the 
Clupeoid  family,  but  as  being  separated  from  them  on  account  of  the 
smooth  belly,  and  as  being  more  nearly  related  to  Butirinus,  between 
which  genus  and  E  1  o  p  s  it  was  believed  that  it  should  be  placed. 

Subsequently,  Mr.  James  C.  Brevoort,  in  his  "  Notes  on  the  Figures  of  Japan- 
ese Fish,"|  (originally  published  in  the  second  volume  of  the  Narrative  of  the 
United  States  Expedition  to  Japan,  under  Commodore  Perry,)  in  a  note  on 
Clupea  micropus  of  Temminck  and  Schleger,  corrected  the  erroneous  ref- 
erence of  Valenciennes,  and  noticed  the  near  affinity  of  the  Alosa  teres  to  the 
genus  Dussumiera. 

Recently,  in  the  Proceedings  of  the  Philadelphia  Academy,§  Dr.  Charles 
Girard  has  referred  the  same  species  to  the  genus  Harengula  of  Valenciennes, 
on  account  of  the  presence  of  teeth  upon  the  maxillar  bones,  the  tongue,  the 
palatines,,  and  the  pterygoidians,  whilst  the  vomer  is  toothless."  In  dentition, 
A.  teres  does  indeed  agree  with  Harengula,  but  is  totally  separated  from 
that  genus  by  the  form  of  the  body,  and  is  correctly  referable  to  D  u  s  s  u  m  e  r  i  a, 
which  has  teeth  upon  the  same  bones,  and  otherwise  agrees  with  Alosa  t  er  e  s  . 

The  species  must,  consequently,  be  hereafter  called  Dussumiera  teres,  and 
its  synonymy  will  be  as  follows : 

Dussumiera  teres  Brevoort. 

Synonymy. 

Alosa  teres  Dekay,  Zoology  of  New  York  Fishes,  p.  262,  pi. 40,  fig.  128,  1842 
"         Troschel,  Bericht  in  Archiv.  fur  Naturgeschichte,  1844,  vol.   ii 
p.  245,  (abstract). 
"  "        Storer,  Synopsis  of  the  Fishes  of  North  America,  p.  ,  ib.  in  Memoirs 

American  Academy,  vol.  ii.,  p.  460,  (compiled,)  1846. 
"  "        Baird,  Report  on  Fishes  of  New  Jersey  coast,  p.  35  ;  ib.  in  Ninth 

Annual  Report  Smithsonian  Institution,  p.  349,  1855. 
Dussumiera  sp.  Brevoort,  Notes  on  some  figures  of  Japanese  Fish,  p.  27  ;  ib.  in 
Narrative  of  Expedition  to  Japan,  vol.  ii.,  p.  279,  1807. 
Harengula  teres  Girard,Proc.  Acad.  Nat.  Sci.,  Philad'a,  p.  158.  May,  1859. 
(Not  "Alausa  teres  Dekay,"  Val.  Hist.  Nat.  des  Poissons,  vol.  xx.  p.  423.) 


Prodromus  descriptionis  animalium  ever tebrator urn,  quae  in  Expeditione  ad 
Oceanum  Pacificum  Septentrionalem,  a  RepublicaFederatamissa,  Cadwaladaro 
Ringgold  et  Johanne  Rodgers  Ducibus,  observavit  et  descripsit 

W.   STIMPSON. 

Pars  VIII.     CRUSTACEA  MACRURA. 

Thalassinidea. 

359.  Gebia  subspinosa,  nov.  sp.     G.  majori  affinis.     Foeminae  manus  pe- 
dum primi  paris  intus  spina  una  prope  polliceni,  ||  et  duabus  ad  basin  dac. 


*  Hist.  Nat.  des  Poissons,  vol.  xx.,  p.  423. 

t  Hist.  Nat.  des  Poissons,  vol.  xx.,  p.  467. 

\  Loc.  cit.,  p.  27. 

$Loc.  cit.,  May,  1859. 

II  Pollex  nobis  est  digitus  immobilis. 

[Jan 


NATURAL    SCIENCES    OF   PHILADELPHIA.  23 

tyli  armata  ;  pollex  intus  bidentatus,  dentibus  minutis  ;  dactylus  superne  ca- 
rinatus,  carina  crenulata.  Pedes  primi,  secundi,  tertiique  paris  prope  basin 
spina  acuta  armati. 

Eab. — In  simi  "  Simon's  Bay"  ad  Promont.  Bonae  Spei ;  in  fundo  arenoso, 
prof.  8  org. 

360.  (tebia  carixicauda,  nov.  sp.  G.  majori  affinis.  Carapax  antice  angus- 
tior,  dentibus  minus  prominentibus,  fronte  spinulis  erectis  sat  validis  pectiua- 
ta.  Pedum  primi  paris  manus  infra  spina  versus  pollicem  instructa  ;  pollex  in- 
tus subtiliter  denticulatus  ;  dactylus  superne  carinatus,  carina  laevi.  Pedum 
tertii  paris  foeminae  coxa  spina  parvula  super  aperturam  genitalem  armata. 
Sulci  laterales  segmentorum  abdominalium  validi,  segmenti  penultimi  validi- 
ores.  Abdominis  segmentum  ultimum  carina  transversa  acuta  prope  basin 
ornatum ;  lamellae  laterales  valide  carinatae,  marginibus  terminalibus  spin- 
ulis crenulatae.  Long.  1.77  ;  carapacis  long.  0.56  ;  carap.  regionis  anterioris 
lat.  0.19  ;  regionis  post.  lat.  0.29  poll. 

Eab. — In  portu  "  Hong  Kong  ;"  sublittoralis  in  locis  limoso-sabulosis. 

361.  Gebia  ppgettensis,  Dana;  U.  S.  Expl.  Exped.,  Crust.,  i.  510,  pi.  xxxii. 
f.  1.     Stimpson  ;  Bost.  Jour.  Nat.  Hist.,  vi.  48,  pi.  xxi. — Ad  oras  Californiae. 

362.  Callianassa  petalura,  nov.  sp.  Parva.  Antennae  externae  carapace 
plus  duplo  longiores.  Pedes  primi  paris  foeminae  eis  maris  similes ;  pedis 
dextri  merus  brevis,  robustus,  subtus  dente  valido  basali  instructus  quam 
merus  ipse  vix  tertia  parte  breviore,  antrorsum  porrecto,  serrato  ;  carpus  lon- 
gior quam  latior  et  quam  merus  multo  longior,  marginibus  parce  dilatatis  et 
laevibus  :  manus  elongata,  quam  carpus  angustior ;  palma  quam  carpus  non 
brevior,  superne  margine  laevis,  subtus  serrata  et  ciliata  ;  digiti  palma  quarta 
parte  breviores,  sat  graciles,  pilosi.  Pes  primus  sinister  gracillimus,  mero  in- 
terne edentato.  Lamellae  caudales  parvae,  laeves,  glabrae,  rotundatae,  subae- 
quales  ;  segmentum  caudale  in  foeminis  quam  in  maribus  latius,  margine  pos- 
teriore  leviter  sinuatum  ;  lamellae  externae  marginibus  externis  incrassatae 
vel  pulvinatae,  in  maribus  longe  ciliatae.  Foeminae  long.  1.57  ;  long,  carapa- 
cis, 0.36  ;  long,  carpi  manus  dactylique  cbelipedis  majoris,  0.70  poll. 

Eab. — In  portu  "  Simoda"  Japoniae. 

363.  Callianassa  californiensis,  Dana ;  Proc.  Acad.  Nat.  Sci.  Pbilad.,  vii. 
175.  Stimpson  ;  Bost.  Jour.  Nat.  Hist.  vi.  489,  pi.  xxi.  f.  4. — Ad  oras  Californiae 
prope  urbem  ' '  San  Francisco. ' ' 

Astacidea. 

364.  Ibacus  novemdentatus,  Gibbes  ;  Proc.  Am.  Assoc.  1850,  p.  193.  Inter 
/.  ciliatum  et  /.  peronii ; — an  distinctus  ?  Specimen  nostrum  dentes  octo  la- 
terales habet.     In  Mari  Sinensi  prope  "Hong  Kong;"  fundo  limoso  prof.  20 

org. 

365.  Parribacus  antarcticus,  Dana;  U.  S.  Expl.  Exped.,  Crust.,  i.  517,  pi. 
xxxii.  f.  6.  Scyllarus  antarcticus,  Fabr.  Ibacus  antarcticus,  M.  Edw. — Ad  in- 
sulas  Hawaienses  et  ad  insulam  "Tahiti." 

366.  Scyllarus  Sieboldii,  De  Haan  ;  Fauna  Japonica,  Crust.  153,  pi.  xxxvi., 
et  xxxvii.  f.  1. — Ad  insulam  "Ousima." 

367.  Arctus  sordidus,  nov.  sp.  Carapax  latus,  sed  non  latior  quam  longior  ; 
crista  mediana  tridentata,  dente  anteriore  parvo,  juxta  frontem  sito ;  crista 
laterali  dentibus  duobus  super  oculum  et  dente  uno  paullo  remoto  armata : 
angulis  antero-lateralibus  prominentibus.  Antennarum  articulus  secundum 
utrinque  dente  uno  solum  valido  armatus,  angulo  anteriore  acuto  prominente, 
crista  valida  sed  laevi ;  articulus  quartus  margine  antico  dentibus  quatuor 
magnis  obtusis,  et  dente  uno  acuto  intus  uni-denticulato  introrsum  sito  arma- 
tus.   Sternum  antice  bifurcatum,  furcis  triangularibus,  dentiformibus.    Fusco- 

1860.] 


24 


PROCEEDINGS    OF   THE   ACADEMY   OF 


luteus ;  pedes  nigro  quadri-annulati ;    abdominis   segmentum  prinium  nigro 
uni-niaculatum.     Foeminae  long.  2.2  poll.     A.  urso  (Scyllaro  arcto,)  Auct. 
aflinis.     Ab  A.  rugoso  differt  abdominis  segmento  tertio  non  gibboso. 
Hob. — In  portn  "Hong  Kong  ;"  f.  conchoso  p.  8  org.  vulgaris. 

368.  Palinurus  Lalandei,  Milne-Edwards  ;  Hist.  Nat.  des  Crust,  ii.  293. — 
Ad  Promont.  Bonae  Spei. 

369.  Panulirus  ornatus,  Gray.  Palinurus  ornatns,  Bosc,  M.  Edwards  ;  Hist. 
Nat.  des  Crust,  ii.  296  (?J — Prope  oras  insulae  "  Hong  Kong." 

370.  Panulirus  interrupted,  Stimpson.  Palinurus  interruptus,  Randall ; 
Jour.  Acad.  Nat.  Sci.  Philad.,  viii.  137. — California. 

371.  Panulirus  penicillatus,  Gray,  Dana.  Palinurus  penicillatus,  (Oliv.) 
M.  Edwards;  Hist.  Nat.  des  Crust,  ii.  299. — Ad  insulam  "Tahiti." 

372.  Panulirus  japonicus,  Gray.  Palinurus  japonicus,  Siebold,  De  Haan ; 
Fauna  Japonica,  Crust.  158,  pi.  xli.  et  xlii. — Ad  oras  Japonicas  prope  urbem 
"Simoda." 

373.  Astacds  nigrescens,  Stimpson ;  Bost.  Jour.  Nat.  Hist.  vi.  492. — Califor- 
nia. 

Caridea.* 

374.  Crango.v  capensis,  nov.  sp.  C.  vulcjari  paullo  affinis,  in  spina  mediana 
carapacis,  etc.  Carapax  medio  parce  carinatus,  carina  dente  minuto  in  medio 
armata  ;  dentibus  v.  spinis  lateralibus  mullis.  Maxillipedes  externi  squamam 
vel  appendicem  antennalem  superantes.  Pedum  primi  paris  palma  obliqua, 
fere  longitudinalis.  Pedes  quinti  eos  primi  paris  superantes.  Abdomen  vix 
oarinatum;  cauda  valde  compressa.  Long,  foeminae,  0.9  poll.  C.  affini,  De 
Haan,  proximus. 

*  Simulacrum  carapacis  Carideorum. 


A. 

B. 
C. 
D. 
E. 
F. 
G. 


a. 

h 
c. 
d 
e. 

/• 

or 


Regio  gastrica. 
Regio  branchialis 
Regio  cardiaca. 
Regio  hepatica. 
Regio  orbitalis. 
Regio  antennalis. 
Kegio  frontalis. 


]. 
2. 

3. 
4. 

5. 
6. 


Spina  supraorbitalis,  (interdum  duae ) 
Angulus    orbitae    externus,   interdum 

spiniformis, 
Spina  antennalis. 
Spina   branchiostegiana   (in  generibus 

Leander  et  Pandalus  conspicua.) 
Spina  pterygostomiana 
Spina  hepatica  (in  Palaemonibus,  Pen- 

aeis,  etc.) 

Sutura  v.  sulcus  cervicalis,-— pars  dorsalis  in  Stenopis,  Sicyoniis,  Alpheis  etc  plus 

minusve  distincta,  pars  antero-lateralis  in  quibusdam  Penaeis  et  Leandris. 
Sutura  cardiaco-branchialis,  raro  distincta. 

Sulcus  antennalis,  et  c  hepaticus,  in  Penaeis  multis  valde  conspicuus. 
Sulcus  gastro-orbitalis,  in  Crangonibus. 
Sulcus  gastro-frontalis,  in  Penaeo  monocero. 
Sulcus  gastro-hepaticus,  in  Stenopis,  Penaeis,  etc. 
Sulcus  orbito-antennalis,  in  Alpheo  et  Spongicola. 

[Jan. 


NATURAL   SCIENCES   OF   PHILADELPHIA.  25 

Hab. — In  sinu  "Simon's  Bay,"  Promont.  Bonae  Spei ;  f.  arenoso,  prof.  12 
org. 

375.  Crangon  carinicauda,  nov.  sp.  Carapax  depressus,  pubescens,  sep- 
temcarinatus  ;  carinis  levibus,  retrorsum  distinctis  ;  mediana  antice  obsoleta : 
tribus  lateralibus  approximatis,  quarum  prima  et  tertia  unispinosis,  spinis  ad 
quartam  anteriorem  carapacis  sitis.  Rostrum  valde  angustatum,  longitudinal- 
iter  sulcatum,  extremitate  bifidum.  Pedes  primi  crassi,  palma  obliqua  magis 
longitudinali ;  secundi  quam  tertii  robustiores  sed  dimidia  breviores,  non  in- 
fiexi,  carpo  manuque  quam  merus  breviores,  manu  cbelata  digitis  rectis  pa- 
rallels ;  tertii  filiformes ;  quarti  quintique  valde  graciles  ;  quiuti  primos  su- 
perantes.  Abdomen  insculptum,  sulcis  plerisque  transversis,  pubescentibus  ; 
segmentis  tertio,  quarto  quintoque  gibbosis,  valide  carinatis.  Long.  0.66  ; 
carap.  long.  0.16  ;  carap.  lat.  0.139  poll. 

Ilab. — In  portu  Sinensi  "  Hong  Kong." 

376.  Crangon  franciscorum,  Stimpson ;  Crust,  and  Echin.  Pacific  Coast  of 
N.  Am.,  55.  ;  Bost.  Jour.  Nat.  Hist.  vi.  495,  pi.  xxii.  f.  5. 

Hab. — In  portu  "San  Francisco,"  Californiae. 

377.  Crangon  nigricauda,  Stimpson  ;  Crust,  and  Ecbin.  Pacific  Coast  of  N. 
Am.,  56. ;  Bost.  Jour.  Nat.  Hist.  vi.  496,  pi.  xxii.  f.  6.  C.  vulgaris,  Owen,  Dana, 
(non  Fabr.) 

Hab.— In  portu  "  San  Francisco,"  Californiae. 

378.  Crangon  propinquus,  nov.  sp.  C.  vulgari  et  C.  nigriraudae  valde  af- 
finis,  sed  abdominis  segmento  quarto  (et  interdum  tertio  quoque,)  in  adultis 
carinato.  Segmentum  ultimum  extremitate  spinulis  sex  armatum.  A  C.  nigri- 
cauda differt  pedum  primi  paris  manu  angustiore,  palma  magis  obliqua,  digi- 
toque  immobili  longiore.  A  C.  affini  maxillipedibus  externis  et  pedibus  quin- 
tis  brevioribus  ut  in  C.  vulgari.     Long.  2.5  poll. 

Hab. — Prope  oras  boreales  Japoniae  ;  in  fundis  arenosis  limosisque  prof.  4-20 
org. 

379.  Crangon  salebrosus,  Owen ;  Beecbey's  Voy.  Zool.  88,  pi.  xxvii.  f.  1. — 
In  sinu  "  Avatska"  Kamtscbatkae  ;  vulgaris  in  fundo  limoso,  inter  Eudendria 
ad  prof.  10  org. 

380.  Crangon  boreas,  Fabr.,  Milne-Edwards;  Hist.  Nat.  des  Crust,  ii.  342; 
Regne  Anhn.,  pi.  li.  2.  Owen  ;  Beechey's  Voy.,  Zool.  87.  Brandt ;  Sib.  Reise, 
Zool.  114. — In  freto  Beringiano  et  in  Oceano  Arctico  ;  ad  prof.  10-26  org. 

381.  Crangon  angusticauda,  De  Haan;  Fauna  Japonica,  Crust.  183,  pi.  xlv. 
f.  15.— In  portibus  "  Simoda"  et  "  Hakodadi, "  Japoniae ;  sublittoralis,  vul- 
garis inter  algas. 

382.  Crangon  interjiedius,  nov.  sp.  Carapax  laevis,  nitidus,  medio  cari- 
natus,  carina  bi-spinosa,  spina  anteriore  debili  prope  rostrum  sita,  altera  me- 
diana, valida ;  latera  spinis  quatuor  armata,  duabus  in  margine  antico,  una 
valida  in  superficie  laterali,  et  una  minuta  prope  carinam.  Rostrum  elevatum 
prominens,  non  acuminatum.  Maxillipedes  extend  graciles,  appendicem  anten- 
nalem  superantes.  Pedes  primi  apicem  appendicium  non  attingentes  ;  secundi 
tertiis  paullo  breviores  ;  quarti  quintique  longi,  eis  C.  boreae  multo  graciliores, 
seddactylislongis,  curvatis.  Sternum  inerme.  Abdomen  superficie  marginibus- 
que  inferioribus  laeve  ;  carina  parvula,  sed  in  segmento  antepenultimo  acuta, 
in  penultimo  duplicata  ;  segmento  ultimo  valde  elongato,  minuente,  extremi- 
tate fere  acuto.  Foeminae  long.  1.7  ;  carap.  long.  0.38  ;  segmenti  abdominis 
ultimi  long.  0.32  poll.     Facie  et  armatura  carapacis  Nectocrangoni  lari  similis. 

Hab. — In  mari  Beringiano  prope  Promontorium  ' '  Chepoonski ; "  ad  prof.  40 
org. 

383.  Nectocrangon  lar,  Brandt ;  Sib.  Reise,  Zool.  115.  Crangon  lar,  Owen, 
I860.] 


26 


PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  ACADEMY  OF 


Beechey's  Voy.,  Zool.  88,  pi.  xxviii,  f.  1.  Argis*  lar,  Kroyer ;  Tidsskrift,  iv. 
255  ;  pi.  v.  f.  45-62.— In  sinu  "  Avatska,"  in  freto  Beringiano,  et  in  Oceano 
Arctico  ;  fundis  limosis  prof.  10-20  org. 

384.  Sabinea  septemcarinata,  Owen  ;  App.  to  Ross'  Voy.  82.  Kroyer ;  Tids- 
skrift, iv.  244,  pi.  iv.  f.  34-40  et  pi.  v.  f.  41-44.  Crangon  septemspinosus,  Sa- 
bine.— In  Oceano  Arctico,  prope  oras  Siberiae. 

_  385.  Nica  edulis,  Risso  ;  Milne-Edwards  ;  Hist.  Nat.  des  Crust,  ii.  364.— In 
sinu  "Funchal"  insulae  Madeirae ;  f.  arenoso,  p.  15  org. 

386.  Nica  macrognatha,  nov.  sp.  Corpus  robustum,  minus  compressum. 
Carapax  sat  latus,  leviter  depressus,  laevis,  non  carinatus,  rostro  brevi, 
quam  oculi  ruulto  breviore,  acurninato.  Antennnularum  flagellum  breve. 
Maxillipedes  externi  grandes,  extremitates  antennularum  fere  attingentes ; 
mero  crasso,  pedibus  primi  paris  non  angustiore,  et  carapace  vix  tertia 
parte  breviore.  Pedes  primi  robusti ;  pes  dexter  vel  chelatus  robustior,  sed 
quam  sinister  paullo  brevior.  Abdominis  segmentum  terminale  dorso  longi- 
tudinaliter  late  sulcatum  et  paribus  duobus  aculeorum  armatum  ;  extremitate 
aculeis  sex  pectinatum,  duabus  longis,  duabus  mediocribus  et  duabus  brevi- 
bus.  Long.  1  poll.  N.  eduli  etc.  valde  affinis.  Ab  N.  eduli  differt  corpore 
robustiore,  et  rostro  breviore  ;  ab  N.  hawaiensi,  oculis  minoribus,  et  pedibus 
primi  paris  brevioribus  ;  ab  N.japonico,  maxillipedibus  externis  longioribus, 
et  segmento  ultimo  abdominis  aculeis  dorsalibus  armato. 

Bab. — In  portu  "  Hong  Kong;"  f.  conchoso,  p.  8  org. 

Hippolysmata,  nov.  gen.  Carapax  rostro  sat  longo  verticaliter  dilatato  et 
dentato  instructus.  Antennulae  flagellis  duobus  longis  instructae.  Mandibulae 
valde  incurvatae,  nee  bipartitae  nee  palpigerae.  Maxillipedes  externi  elongati 
exognatho  flagelloque  instructi ;  articulo  ultimo  gracili.  Pedes  lmi— 4ti 
flagello  instructi.  Pedes  primi  crassiusculi,  cbelati,  manu  oblonga ;  secundi 
filiformes,  chelati,  carpo  multi-aunulato.  Abdomen  dorso  laeve.  Lysmatae 
affinis,  sed  anteimulis  nagellis  duobus  tantum  praeditis.  Ab  Hippolyte  differt 
mandibularum  forma. 

387.  Hippolysmata  vittata,  nov.  sp.  Carapax  per  dimidiam  anteriorem 
carinatus,  rostro  apicem  articuli  penultimi  pedunculi  antennularum  attingente, 
superne  septem- dentato,  dentibus  gracilibus  antrorsum  porrectis,  dente  pos- 
teriore  vel  primo  paroe  ante  medium  carapacis  sito,  et  dente  secundo  intervallo 
duplo  remoto  ;  rostro  infra  prope  extremitatem  tridentato,  dentibus  parvis. 
Margo  carapacis  anterior  utrinque  spina  sub  oculo  et  dente  minuto  acuto 
pterygostomiano  armatus.  Antennularum  flagellum  externum  corpore  fere 
duplo  longius  ;  parte  basali  incrassata,  pedunculo  non  breviore,  infra  ciliata. 
Appendix  antennarum  extremitatem  pedunculi  antennularum  attingens. 
Maxillipedes  externi  appendices  multo  superantes  ;  exognatho  longitudine 
tertiam  partem  endognathi  adequante.  Pedes  primi  paris  apicem  appen- 
dicium  attingentes  ;  pedum  secundi  paris  carpus  20-articulatus  ;  pedes  postici 
longi.  Segmentum  caudale  triangulare,  dorso  paribus  duobus  aculeorum 
armatum.     Color  pallide  ruber  ;  corpus  coccineo-vittatum.     Long.  1.3  poll. 

Hab. — In  portu  "Hong  Kong  ;"  f.  limoso  p.  sex.  org. 

TozEiniAf,  nov.  gen.  Corpus  valde  elongatum,  lanceolatum,  utrinque  at- 
tenuatum,  compressum.  Rostrum  gracile  longissimum,  interdum  corpore  vix 
brevius.  Antennulae  breves,  flagellis  duobus  instructae.  Appendix  antennarum 
longa.  Mandibulae  sat  robustae,  valde  incurvatae,  nee  bipartitae  nee  palpi- 
gerae. Maxillipedes  externi  brevissimi,  exognatho  nullo,  et  flagello  nullo 
praediti.     Pedes  breves  epipodis  destituti.    Pedes  primi  brevissimi,  crassiores, 


*  Nomen  Kroyeri  praeoccupatum  est. 
f  Ti^tvfxa,  telum. 


[Jan. 


NATURAL    SCIENCES   OF   PHILADELPHIA.  27 

chelati ;  secundi  filiformes,  clielati,  carpo  tri-articulato.     Abdomen  dorso  den- 
tibus  armatum  ;  articulo  ultimo  elongato  fere  lanceolato. 

388.  Tozeuma  lanceolatum,  nov.  sp.  Corpus  gracillimum,  in  maribus  valde 
compressum.  Carapax  ecarinatus.  Rostrum  aciculiforme,  quam  corpus  vis 
quarta  parte  brevius,  superne  obtuse-rotundatum,  superficie  carapace  con- 
tinuum ;  infra  serratum  et  versus  basin  lamellatum.  Margo  carapacis  anterior 
sub  oculo  acutus,  et  ad  angulum  antero-lateralem  spina  acuta  armatus.  An- 
tennulae  appendicem  antennarum  adequantes,  fiagello  externo  omnino  incras- 
sato  et  quam  internum  multo  breviore.  Antennae  rostro  breviores  ;  squamis 
elongatis,  longitudine  tertiam  partem  rostri  aequantibus,  vix  minuentibus, 
latitudine  quartam  longitudinis  aequante.  Abdomen  superne  carinatum  et  acute 
tridentatum,  (segmentis  3tio  4to  5toque  dentigeris)  ;  segmento  ultimo  lamellis 
lateralibus  longiore,  dorso  paribus  tribus  aculeorum  armato.  Animal  vivum 
fere  pellucidum,  rostro,  cauda,  et  ventro  rubris  exceptis.  Long.,  rostro  in- 
cluso,  2.5  ;  alt.  tboracis,  0.18  poll. 

Hab. — In  portu  ' '  Hong  Kong  ; "  in  fundo  limoso  prof.  sex.  org.  sat  vul- 
garis. 

Latreutes,*  nov.  gen.  Rhynchocyclo  affinis.  Carapax  dorso  spina  mediana 
armatus.  Eostrum  grande,  elongatum,  lamellatum,  cultriforme,  margine 
superiore  recto  jVel  rectiusculo.  Antennulae  bi-flagellatae,  squama  basali 
brevi,  orbiculata,  sub  oculo  celata.  Antennarum  appendix  acuta.  Mandibulae 
robustae,  breves,  valde  incurvatae.  Maxillipedes  externi  breves,  exognatbo 
flagelloque  instructi.  Pedes  primi,  secundi,  tertii,  quartique  paris  fiagello  in- 
structs    Pedum  secundi  paris  carpus  tri-articulatus. 

389.  Latreutes  ensiferus.  Hippolyte  ensiferus,  Milne-Edwards  ;  Hist.  Nat. 
des  Crust,  ii.  374.  Goodsir ;  Ann.  Mag.  Nat.  Hist.  xv.  74.  Dana  ;  U.  S. 
Expl.  Exped.,  Crust.,  i.  562. — In  Oceano  Atlantico,  lat.  bor.  30° — 35°  ;  vul- 
garis in  Sargasso. 

390.  Latredtes  dorsalis,  nov.  sp.  Elongatus  et  compressus.  Carapax 
dorso  carinatus  et  dentibus  duobus  armatus,  dente  anteriore  spiniformi  an- 
trorsum  porrecto,  dente  posteriore  obtuso  fere  obsolescente.  Rostrum  cultri- 
forme carapace  non  brevius,  antennulas  et  appendices  antennarum  superans, 
paullo  reflexo  ;  marginibus  supra  infraque  subtiliter  partim  dentiralatis. 
Margo  carapacis  anterior  prope  angulum  antero-lateralem  dentibus  minutis 
spiniformibus  pectinatus.  Antennularum  pedunculus  flagellorum  tertiam 
partem  longitudine  adequans  ;  fiagella  aequalia.  Antennarum  pedunculus 
eum  antennularum  non  superans  ;  appendix  elongato-triangularis,  vel  lanceo- 
lata,  valde  acuta.  Maxillipedes  externi  apicem  pedunculi  antennarum  attin- 
gentes.  Pedes  breves,  et,  primis  exceptis,  graciles.  Pedum  secundi  paris 
carpi  articulus  secundus  articulos  primum  tertiumque  junctos  adequans.  Abdo- 
men obtuse-carinatum,  dorso  undulatum,  marginibus  infernis  inerme;  segmento 
caudali  aculeis  dorsalibus  carente,  aculeis  extremitatis  longis.  Color  coccineus  ; 
dorsum  albo  univittatum.     Long.  0.8  poll. 

Hab. — In  sinu  "  Hakodadi"  Japoniae  ;  vulgaris  in  fundo  conchoso,  prof. 
8  org. 

Rhynchocyclus,  Stm.  (Cyclorhynchus,  De  Haan  ; — nom.  praeoc.)  Rostrum 
grande,  orbiculatum,  lamellatum.  Antennulae  flagellis  duobus  instructae ; 
pedunculo  brevi ;  squama  basali  orbiculata,  sub  oculo  celata.  Maxillipedes 
externi  breves,  exognatho  flagelloque  instructi.  Pedes  lmi — 4ti  fiagello 
instructi.     Carpus  pedum  secundorum  tri-articulatus. 

391.  Rhynchocyclus  planirostris.  Cyclorhynchus  planirostris,  De  Haan ; 
Fauna  Japonica,  Crust.,  175,  pi.  xlv.  f.  7. — In  sinu  "  Hakodadi, "  et  prope  oras 
boreales  insulae  ' '  Nipbon  ; "  in  fundis  sabulosis  arenosisque  prof.  10 — 20  org. 

*AoT^wri»f,  cultor. 
I860.] 


28  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  ACADEMY  OP 

392.  Rhynchocyclus  mucronatus,  nov.  sp.  Dorsum  carapacis  spina  una 
solum  armatum,  mediana,  valida  et  spiniformi.  Rostrum  ovatum,  quam  in 
C.  planirostri  angustius,  appendices  antennarum  paullo  superans,  extremitate 
valide  mucronatum,  margine  antico  supra  infraque  sex-denticulatum.  Margo 
anterior  carapacis  spina  sub  oculo  armatus,  et  ad  basin  antennarum  spinis 
minutis  octo  pectinatus.  Abdomen  ecarinatum  ;  segmento  tertio  dorso  sat 
prominente.  Color  pallide  fuscus,  albo-maculatus.  Pedes  subrufi.  Long.  1 
poll. 

Hab. — In  freto  "Ly-i-moon"  prope   Hong  Kong  ;  f.  conchoso  p.  25  org. 

393.  Rhynchocyclus  compressus,  nov.  sp.  Corpus  compressum.  Carapax 
crista  valida  dorsali  instructus  bi-dentata,  dentibus  obtusis,  dente  anteriore 
majore  et  spina  minuta  antice  armato.  Rostrum  latius  (altius)  quam  longius, 
appendices  antennarum  superans,  oblique  truncatum;  margine  superiore  con- 
cavo,  laevi ;  margine  supero-anteriore  sex-dentato  ;  margine  inferiore  convexo, 
arcuato,  laevi.  Spina  infra-ocularis  minuta.  Margo  carapacis  ad  insertionem 
antennarum  tri-denticulatus.  Maxillipedes  externi  extremitate  obtusi  et 
spinis  validis  corneis  septem  armati.  Pedes  toti  valde  breves.  Carpus  pedum 
primi  paris  obtusus.  Abdomen  dorso  obtusum.  Color  purpureo-fuscus,  dorso 
paullo  ceruleus.     Long.  0.75  poll, 

Hab. — In  portu  "Jackson"  Australiae  ;  f.  algoso  p.  2  org. 

394.  Gnathophyllum  fasciolatum,  nov.  sp.  G.  eleganti  valde  affinis,  colore 
excepto.  Corpus  obesum.  Carapax  dorso  obtuse  carinatus,  carina  retrorsum 
obsoleta  et  antrorsum  rostro  continua  ;  rostro  brevi,  apicem  articuli  antepe- 
nultimi  antennularum  pedunculi  non  attingente,  superne  oblique  truncato, 
paullo  concavo  et  sexdentato,  extremitate  acuto,  carinis  lateralibus  juxta 
marginem  inferiorem  laevem  sitis.  Oculi  grandiores.  Segmentum  caudale 
aculeis  duobus  marginalibus  versus  extremitatem,  et  duobus  longis  ad  ex- 
tremitatem  armatum.  Corpus  album,  pellucidum,  fasciis  linearibus  trans- 
versis  purpureo-fuscis  ad  10  ornatum  ;  peduuculis  oculorum  bi-vittatis  ;  max- 
illipedibus  externis  superficie  annulis  quatuor  eidem  coloris  notatis.  Long. 
0.8  ;  carapacis  lat.  0.23  poll. 

Hab. — In  portu  "Jackson"  Australiensi ;  in  fundo  limoso  prof,  sex  org. 

395.  Atyoida  bisulcata,  Randall;  Jour.  Acad.  Nat.  Sci.  Pbilad. ,  viii.  140; 
pi.  v.  f.  5.  Dana ;  U.  S.  Expl.  Exped.  Crust,  i.  540,  pi.  xxxiv.  f.  1.— Ad  in- 
sulam  "Hawaii." 

396.  Atyoida  tahitensis,  nov.  sp.  A.  bisulcatae  valde  similis,  (an  diversa?) 
sed  rostro  paullo  breviore,  latiore  et  magis  depresso  ;  flagello  externo  anten- 
nularum quam  internum  dimidia  breviore  ;  et  angulo  postero-inferiore  seg- 
menti  abdominis  quinti  minus  acuto.     Long.  1  poll. 

Hab. — In  aquis  dulcibus  insulae  "  Tahiti." 

397.  Caridina  grandirostris,  nov.  sp.  Rostrum  carapace  vix  brevius, 
appendices  antennarum  superans,  extremitate  gracile  paullo  reflexum  ;  crista 
dorsali  supra  oculos  fere  recta  et  denticulis  minutis  ad  20  serrata,  denticulo 
postico  supra  basim  pedunculorum  oculorum  sito  ;  cristae  parte  quarta  an- 
teriore edentula,  denticulo  uno  mediano  et  duobus  apicalibus  exceptis  ;  rostri 
margine  inferiore  obscure  8 — 10-denticulato.  Pedum  primi  paris  carpus  quam 
manus  multo  brevior  ;  secundi  paris  carpus  valde  gracilis  et  manu  parce 
longior.  Segmentum  caudale  lamellis  lateralibus  quarta  parte  brevius,  dorso 
paribus  sex  aculeorum  instructum.  Long.  1  poll.  C.  denticulatae  affinis  sed 
rostro  longiore.  A  C.  longirostri  differt  dentibus  rostri  superne  magis  numero- 
sis. 

Hab. — Ad  insulam  "  Loo  Choo." 

398.  Caridina  leucosticta,  nov.  sp.  Rostrum  circiter  carapacis  longitudine, 
pedunculo  antennularum  longius  ;  margine  superiore  recto,  dentibus  tenuibus 
ad  17  +  3  armato,  apicem  versus  parce  resimo  et  edentulo  ;  margine  inferiore 

[Jan. 


NATURAL   SCIENCES   OP   PHILADELPHIA.  29 

10-dentato.      Spina   antennalis   alte  posita.      Pedes   gracillinii ;    posticorum 
merus  margine  inferiore  spinulis  longis  2 — 5  armatus.     Color  obscure-fuscus, 
maculis  vel  stigmis  minutis   crebris  albis  iiotatus.     Long.  1  poll.     A   C.  den- 
ticulata  differt  rostro  recto  magis  denticulate. 
Hab. — In  flumine  prope  urbem  ' '  Simoda' '  Japoniae. 

399.  Caeidina  multidentata,  nov.  sp.  Rostrum  medium  articuli  ultimi 
pedunculi  antennularum  attingens  ;  crista  dorsali  lamellato-dilatata,  arcuata, 
supra  bases  oculorum  oriente,  et  denticulis  20 — 30  serrata ;  extremitate  ro- 
busta,  acuta,  vix  denticulata ;  margine  inferiore  14-denticulato.  Margo 
carapacis  anterior  spina  antennali  armatus.  Pedes  secundi  paris  pedunculum 
antennularum  superantes ;  carpo  manu  longiore ;  digitis  depressis,  penicillis 
densis,  latis,  fere  flabelliformibus.  Dactyli  pedum  posticorum  breves,  septi- 
mam  partem  articuli  penultimi  longitudine  non  superantes.  Segmentum  cau- 
dale  dorso  non  concavum,  paribus  quinque  aculeorum  instructum ;  lamellae 
laterales  grandes,  segmento  caudale  fere  duplo  longiores,  extremitatibus  pro- 
duces subtriangularibus.  Long.  1.5  poll. 

Hab. — Ad  insulas   "  Bonin  ;"  in  rivulis  montanis. 

400.  Caeidina  seeeata,  nov.  sp.  Rostrum  breve,  articulum  antepenulti- 
mum  pedunculi  antennularum  vix  superans,  elongato-triangulare  et  ad  basin 
sat  latum  in  piano  horizontal:,  extremitate  acutum  ;  crista  dorsali  satdilatata, 
arcuata  et  dentibus  14  serrata.  Pedes  secundi  paris  longi,  appendices  antenna- 
rum  superantes  ;  carpo  valde  gracili ;  manu  robusta,  penicillis  quam  in 
manibus  primis  multo  longioribus.     Long.  0.75  poll. 

Hab. — Ad  insulam  "Hong  Kong;"  in  rivulis. 

401.  Caeidina  acuminata,  nov.  sp.  Thorax  sat  compressus.  Rostrum 
breve,  oculos  parce  superans,  trigonum,  ad  basin  horizontaliter  latum,  ad  ex- 
tremitatem  paullo  defiexum ;  marginibus  totis  levibus ;  crista  dorsali  non 
dilatata,  dorso  continua.  Antennularum  flagella  longitudine  aequalia.  Manu- 
um  penicilli  parvi,  breves.  Pedes  postici  spinulis  asperi;  tertii  et  quinti 
paris  quam  quarti  paris  longiores.  Color  olivaceus,  punctatus.  Long.  1 
poll. 

Hab. — Ad  insulas  "Bonin;"  in  rivulis  montanis. 

402.  Caeidina  beevieosteis,  nov.  sp.  Corpus  gracile.  Rostrum  brevissimum, 
oculis  brevius,  trigonum ;  margine  superiore  obtuso,  laevi.  Margo  carapacis 
ad  basin  antennarum  inermis.  Manus  primi  paris  digiti  breves,  quam  palma 
multo  breviores.  Pedum  posticorum  dactyli  robusti,  vix  curvati ;  et  quartam 
partem  articuli  penultimi  longitudine  aequantes.  Long.  0.5  poll.  C.  acumi- 
natae  affinis,  rostro  breviore. 

Hab. — Ad  insulam  "Loo  Choo  ;"  in  aquis  dulcibus. 

403.  Caeidina  exilieosteis,  nov.  sp.  Rostrum  ei  C.  typi  fere  simile,  sed 
minus ; — valde  gracile,  compressum,  angustum,  acutum,  medium  articuli  pe- 
nultimi antennularum  pedunculi  parce  superans ;  margine  superiore  laevi 
carapace  continuo  ;  margine  inferiore  obsolete  2-3-dentato.  Pedes  secundi 
paris  longi,  valde  graciles  ;  manu  parva,  compressa ;  carpo  manu  longiore. 
Pedum  posticorum  dactyli  tertiam  partem  articuli  penultimi  longitudine  ade- 
quantes.     Long.  1.25  poll. 

Hab. — Ad  insulam  "Loo  Choo  ;"  in  aquis  dulcibus. 

404.  Alpheps  eapax,  Fabr. ;  Suppl.  Ent.  Syst.,  405.  De  Haan ;  Fauna  Ja- 
ponica,  Crust.  177,  pi.  xlv.  f.  2. — Prope  oras  Sinenses  in  lat.  bor.  23° ;  in  fun- 
do  limoso  prof.  6-20  org. 

405.  Alpheus  avaeds,  Fabr.;  Suppl.  Ent.  Syst.,  440  A.  strenuus,  Dana; 
U.  S.  Expl.  Exped.,  Crust,  i.  543,  pi.  xxxiv.  f.  4.— Ad  insulas  "Hawaii," 
"Bonin"  et  "Ousima;"  in  portibus  "Simoda"  et  "Hong  Kong;"  et  in  freto 
I860.] 


30  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  ACADEMY  OF 

"Gaspar;"  littoralis  vel  sublittoralis  sub  lapidibus  in  sabulo  babitans  ; — in- 
terdum  in  aquis  sat  profundis. 

406.  Alpheus  bis-incisus,  De  Haan;  Fauna  Japonica,  Crust,  pi.  xlv.  f.  3. 
A.  avarus,  De  Haan  ;  (non  Fabr.)  1.  c.  p.  179. — In  sinu  "  Kagosima"  Japoniae  ; 
in  fundo  nigro-arenoso  ad  prof.  20  org. 

407.  Alpheus  pachychirus,  nov.  sp.  Frons  lata,  truncata.  Carapax  inter 
oculos  carinatus,  carina  postice  obsolescente,  antice  marginem  frontalem  vix 
superante  ;  palpebris  valde  tumidis,  sed  aeque  marginem  non  superantibus. 
Antennularum  pedunculi  articulus  penultimus  quam  antepenultimus  paullo 
longior.  Antennae  carentes  spina  basali  externa  ;  appendice  quam  pedunculus 
multo  breviore.  Maxillipedes  externi  sat  graciles,  articulo  ultimo  brevi,  elon- 
gato-ovato,  extus  depresso  et  parce  concavo,  marginibus  longe  ciliato.  Pedum 
primi  paris  manus  extroversa,  digito  exteriore.  Manus  major  crassissima,  ro- 
tundata,  laevis,  superne  et  versus  digitos  pilosa,  sinibus  nullis  ;  digitis  valde 
brevibus  ;  dactylo  dimidiam  palmae  non  aequante,  hamato,  apice  acuto.  Manus 
minor  maris  dimidiam  majoris  magnitudine  adequans,  valde  robusta,  superne 
pilosa  ;  digitis  palma  non  brevioribus  ;  dactylo  dilatato,  intus  concavo  et  dense 
pubescente,  prope  apicem  contracto.  Manus  minor/oewunae  parva,  valde  gra- 
cilis, digitis  brevibus,  teretibus.  Pedum  tertii  paris  merus  paullo  dilatatus  et 
apice  inferiore  dente  armatus.  Dactyli  pedum  sex  posticorum  breves.  Seg- 
mentum  caudale  medio  depressum.  Long.  1  poll.  A.  frontali,  M.  Edw.,  af- 
finis,  sed  fronte  minus  prominente  et  paullo  rostrata  ;  articulo  pedunculi  an- 
tennularum penultimo  breviore,  etc. 

Hub. — Ad  insulam  "Loo  Cboo." 

408.  Alpheus  streptochirus,  nov.  sp.  Frous  inter  oculos  sat  angusta,  le- 
viter  carinata  ;  rostrum  breve,  spiniforme  ;  orbita  rotundato-convexa,  spinula 
minuta  armata.  Articulus  antennularum  pedunculi  penultimus  antepenul- 
timo  sesqui  longior.  Antennarum  spina  externa  basis  obsoleta  ;  pedunculus 
longitudine  appendici  fere  aequalis.  Maxillipedum  externorum  articulus  ulti- 
mus  angustus,  minuiscens,  extremitate  pilosus.  Manus  major  versus  extremi- 
tatem  extrorsum  torta,  et  constricta  vel  utrinque  excavata ;  palma  superne  pi- 
losa, antice  spinulis  duabus  armata,  latere  externo  vel  inferiore  tri-sulcata,  sulco 
mediano  longiore  postice  defiexo,  sulcis  exterioribus  antice  sinibus  margin- 
alibus  confiuentibus  ;  pollex  brevissimus;  dactylus  exterior,  brevis,  latus,  valde 
curvatus.  Manus  minor  maris  robusta  ;  digitis  compressis  non  hiantibus,  pal- 
ma paullo  brevioribus  ;  dactylo  perlato.  Pedum  tertiorum  quartorumque  me- 
rus compressus,  sed  non  dilatatus,  extremitate  infra  dente  armatus.  Long. 
0.5  poll. 

Eab. — Ad  insulas  "Cape  de  Verdes ;"  inter  nulliporas  ad  prof.  20  org. 

409.  Alpheus  brevipes,  nov.  sp.  Carina  frontalis  et  orbitae  antrorsum  acu- 
tae,  apicibus  marginem  frontalem  vix  superantibus.  Apices  orbitarum  intror- 
sum  curvati.  Antennae  spina  externa  non  armatae  ;  appendice  parva,  acuta, 
quam  pedunculus  breviore.  Maxillipedes  externi  parvi.  Manus  major  cras- 
sissima, inflata,  rotundata,  laevis,  extrorsum  torta,  antice  paullo  contracta 
sed  non  excavata ;  dactylus  exterior,  brevis,  obtusus.  Manus  minor  exilis, 
digitis  brevibus,  nee  biantibus  nee  dilatatis.  Pedum  secundorum  articulus 
carpi  secundus  primo  duplo  longior.  Pedes  tertii  quartique  breves,  compressi ; 
mero  lato,  inferne  unidentato  ;  art.  penultimo  inferne  spinuloso ;  dactylo  gra- 
cile,  curvato,  simplici  vel  inermi.  Pedes  quinti  quartis  multo  breviores,  valde 
graciles.     Long.  0.5  poll. 

Hab. — Ad  insulas  Hawaienses  ;  inter  ramos  madreporarum. 

410.  Alpheus  collumianus,  nov.  sp.  Frons  inter  oculos  carinata ;  rostrum 
breve,  spiniforme  :  orbita  margine  spinula  armata.  Antennularum  pedunculus 
hirsutus  ;  articulo  penultimo  antepenultimo  sesqui  longiore.  Antenna  extus 
basin  spina  parva  armata ;  appendice  parva,  gracili,  acuta,  pedunculi  apicem 

[Jan. 


NATURAL    SCIENCES   OP   PHILADELPHIA.  31 

vix  attingente.  Maxillipedum  ext.  articulus  ultimus  gracilis,  dense  setosus. 
Manus  major  ei  A.  streptochiri  similis.  Manus  minor  maris  compressa,  digitis 
non  dilatatis,  vix  hiantibus,  longitudine  palmam  adaequantibus.  Pedes  tertii 
qnartique  mediocres,  compressi,  basi  spina  minuta  armati ;  mero  lato,  inferne 
spinuloso  et  apicem  unidentato  ;  articulo  penultimo  spinulis  sex  validis  inferne 
armato  ;  dactylo  longo  valde  gracili,  minus  curvato,  versus  apicem  dente  mi- 
nuto  armato.     Long.  0.75  poll. 

Hab. — Ad  insulas  "  Bonin  ;"  inter  corallia  viventia  ad  prof.  1  org. 

411.  Alpheus  neptunus,  Dana;  U.  S.,  Expl.  Exped.,  Crust,  i.  553,  pi.  xxxv. 
f.  5.  Maxillipedes  externi  elongati,  apice  spinulosi.  Manus  majoris  palma 
spina  ad  basin  digitorum  armata.  Pedum  secundorum  articulus  carpi  quar- 
tus  tertio  duplo  longior.  Pedum  posticorum  dactyli  bi-unguiculati.  ungui- 
culo  secundo  dorsali  vel  in  facie  anteriore  posito. 

Hab. — Prope  insulam  "Ousima;"  in  fundo  arenoso  prof.  30  org.  Etiam  in 
portu  "Hong  Kong." 

412.  Alpheus  biunguiculatus,  nov.  sp.  A.  neptuno  valde  affinis,  sed  denti- 
bus  frontalibus  brevioribus  ;  palma  manus  majoris  spina  ad  basin  dactyli  ca- 
rente  ;  pedibus  posticis  brevioribus,  dactylis  biunguiculatis,  unguiculo  secun- 
do ventrali.  Pedum  tertii  quartique  paris  merus  inferne  spinulis  non  armatus. 
Long.  0.5  poll. 

Hab. — Ad  insulas  Hawaienses  ;  inter  madreporas. 

413.  Alpheus  spiniger,  nov.  sp.  A.  neptuno  affinis.  Corpus  robustum. 
Dentes  frontales  validi,  acuti ;  rostrum  apicem  articuli  pedunculi  antennula- 
rum  penultimi  fere  attingens  ;  spinae  orbitales  rostro  dimidia  breviores.  An- 
tennae basi  spina  brevi  sed  gracile  armatae.  Antennularum  squama  basalis 
acuta,  brevis.  Maxillipedum  externorum  articulus  ultimus  brevis,  pilosus, 
apice  spinulis  gracillimis  armatus.  Manus  major  crassissima,  rotundata,  lae- 
vis,  nuda ;  palma  inermi ;  pollice  intus  bidentato ;  dactylo  compresso,  mar- 
gine  superiore  acuto.  Pedum  secundorum  carpi  articulus  primus  articulos 
quatuor  sequentes  adequans.  Pedum  trium  posticorum  merus  linearis,  iner- 
mis,  nudus  ;  unguiculus  secundus  dactyli  minutus  ventralis,  retrorsum  curva- 
tus.     Long.  1  poll. 

Hab. — Ad  insulas  "  Amakirrima"  prope  "Loo  Choo." 

414.  Alpheus  laevis,  Randall  ;  Jour.  Acad.  Nat.  Sci.  Philad.,  viii.  141. 
Dana;  U.  S.  Expl.  Exped.,  Crust,  i.  556,  pi.  xxxv.  f.  8. — Ad  insulam  "Ha- 
waii." 

415.  Alpheus  gracilipes,  nov.  sp.  A.  laevi  frontem  affinis.  Orbitae  antice 
acutae,  potius  quam  spiniferae.  Antennularum  squama  basalis  aj>ex  spinifor- 
mis,  apicem  articuli  pedunculi  antepenultimi  attingens  ;  art.  penultimus  ante- 
penultimo  fere  duplo  longior.  Antennae  basi  spina  minuta  armatae  ;  appendice 
pedunculum  superante.  Maxillipedes  externi  graciles,  articulo  ultimo  quam 
penultimus  tertia  parte  modo  longior,  apice  sparsim  longe  pilosus.  Manus 
major  recta,  elongata,  triplo  longior  quam  latior  ;  margine  superiore  versus  ba- 
sin dactyli  canaliculate,  inferiore  levi.  Manus  minor  mediocris,  digitis  palma 
parce  brevioribus,  non  hiantibus.  Pedum  secundorum  carpi  articulus  secundus 
primo  vix  brevior,  quintus  quarto  longior.  Pedes  postici  valde  graciles,  mero 
angusto  inermi ;  articulo  penultimo  infra  quadri-aculeato ;  dactylo  gracili, 
longo,  unguiculo  unico.     Long.  0.6  poll. 

Hab. — Ad  insulam  "  Tahiti ;"  inter  corallia  ad  prof.  org.  una. 

Genus  Betaeus,  Dana ;  U.  S.  Expl.  Exped.,  i.  558. — Frons  superficie  levis 
ecarinata,  margine  recta,  sinuata,  vel  dentata.  Antennularum  squama  vel 
spina  basalis  longissima.  Manus  forma  similes,  et  plerumque  subaequales. 
Pedum  secundorum  carpi  articulus  primus  praelongus. 

416.  Betaeus  australis,  nov.  sp.  Corpus  et  abdomen  gracilia,  sub-compres- 
1860.] 


32  PROCEEDINGS   OP   THE   ACADEMY    OP 

sa,  levia.  Frons  superficie  aequalis,  margine  convexa,  levis,  interdum  media 
convexa.  Antennularum  pedunculus  robustus,  cylindricus,  ei  antennarum 
aequalis  ;  squama  basali  longa,  apice  spiniformi,  articulo  peuultimo  superante. 
Antennarum  appendix  pedunculi  apicem  non  attingens  ;  flagellum  mediocris 
longitudinis,  parte  basali  crassum.  Maxillipedes  ext.  apicibus  non  spinosi. 
Pedes  primi  paris  elongati,  aequales  ;  mero  inferne  aspero  ;  carpi  marginibus 
anticis  dilatatis  et  4-5-dentatis,  basin  manus  circumdantibus  ;  manu  elongata, 
levi,  punctata,  inferne  paullo  pilosa  ;  digitis  gracilibus,  longitudinalibus,  palma 
brevioribus,  hiantibus,  intus  bidentatis,  apicibus  decussatis.  Pedum  secun- 
dorum  carpi  articulus  primus  tres  sequentes  conjunctos  adaequans.  Pedes 
postici  graciles  ;  mero  carpoque  cylindricis  inermibus  apicibus  incrassatis  ;  ar- 
ticulo penultimo  carpo  multo  graciliore,  subtiliter  spinuloso.  Segmentum  cau- 
dale  elongatum.     Color  viridis.     Long.  1  poll. 

Hab. — Portu  Jacksonensi  Australiae  ;  sublittoralis  inter  rupes  et  algas. 

417.  Betaeus  trispinosps,  nov.  sp.  Frons  rostro  longo  aciculiformi  et  den- 
tibus  duobus  orbitalibus  acuminatis  rostro  dimidia  brevioribus  armata.  An- 
tennulae  grandes  ;  pedunculo  appendicem  antennarum  multo  superante  ;  ar- 
ticulo pedunculi  penultimo  ultimo  fere  duplo  longiore  et  antepenultimo  ae- 
quali ;  spina  basali  medium  penultimi  attingente.  Antennae  extus  basi  iner- 
mes  ;  pedunculo  apicem  appendicis  non  attingente.  Maxillipedum  ext.  articulus 
ultimus  gracilis,  quam  penultimus  plus  duplo  longior,  apice  tenuis,  breviter 
ciliatus.  Pedes  antici  fere  aequales  ;  manu  elongata,  palma  duplo  longiore 
quam  altiore,  paullo  compressa,  laevi,  margine  inferiore  integra,  margine  su- 
periore  longitudinaliter  profunde  canaliculata  et  prope  dactylum  sinuata ;  digi- 
tis palma  vix  dimidia  brevioribus,  compressis,  intus  versus  basin  dentatis ; 
dactylo  lunato.  Pedum  secundorum  carpi  art.  primus  dimidiam  longitudinis 
carpi  formans,  art.  secundus  tertio  parce  longior  et  quinto  multo  brevior.  Pe- 
des postici  valde  graciles  ;  quartorum  quintorumque  merus  nee  dilatatus  nee 
inferne  armatus  ;  articulus  penultimus  apicem  inferne  aculeo  longo  armatus  ; 
dactylus  tertiam  partem  art.  penultimi  longitudine  aequans.  Segmentum  cau- 
dale  elongato-subtriangulare,  apice  parvo  truncate     Long.  0.6  poll. 

Hab. — Portu  Jacksoniensi ;  inter  spongias  e  fundo  limoso  prof,  sex  org. 

Arete,*  nov.  gen.  Betaeo  affinis,  sed  oculis  sub  carapace  non  celatis.  Cara- 
pax  sat  compressus,  dorso  elevato,  arcuato.  Rostrum  breve,  elongato-triangu- 
latum,  superne  obtusum.  Antennulae  bi-fiagellatae,  squamis  basalibus  grandi- 
bus.  Maxillipedes  ext.  eis  Alphei  fere  similes.  Pedes  primi  grandes,  aequales, 
manibus  inversis  depressis,  dactylo  exteriore.  Pedes  secundi  breves,  carpis 
quadriarticulatis. 

418.  Arete  dorsalis,  nov.  sp.  Corpus  leve,  nitidum.  Dorsum  obtusum. 
Rostrum  apicem  art.  penultimi  antennularum  pedunculi  attingens ;  basi 
utrinque  profunde  canaliculatum.  Oculi  retractiles  (?),  pedunculis  sub  cara- 
pace semper  celatis.  Orbita  angulo  externo  spina  armata.  Antennae  breves. 
Antennularum  pedunculi  art.  ultimus  articulos  duos  praecedentes  conjunctos 
adaequans  ;  squama  basali  medium  art.  ultimi  attingente.  Antennarum  ap- 
pendix brevis,  lata,  pedunculum  vix  superans.  Pedes  primi  paris  leves  ;  car- 
po crasso,  margine  anticojoasin  manus  circumdante  ;  manu  (digitis  inclusisj 
duplo  longiore  quam  latiore,  et  carapace  dimidia  breviore  ;  digitis  depressis, 
non  hiantibus,  extus  laevibus,  intus ■  denticulatis,  apicibus  hamatis  ;  dactylo 
palma  tertia  parte  breviore.  Pedum  secundorum  carpi  art.  primus  art.  se- 
quentes conjunctos  adaequans;  art.  quartus  articulos  secundum  tertiumque. 
Pedes  postici  inter  se  aequales,  sat  breves,  leves,  subcylindrici ;  dactylis  bi- 
unguiculatis.     Color  obscure-purpureus.     Long.  0.5  poll. 

Hab. — In  freto  "Ly-i-moon,"  prope  insulam  "Hong  Kong;"  inter  rupes 
sublittorales. 


*  'AfnTn,  nova.,  propr. 

[Jan. 


NATURAL    SCIENCES  OF  PHILADELPHIA.  33 

419.  Hippoltte  aculeata,  M.  Edw ;  Hist.  Nat.  des  Crust,  ii.  3S0.  Cancer 
aculeatus,  0.  Fabr.,  Fauna  Groenl.,  No.  217.  Hippolyte  armata,  Owen,  Bee- 
chey's  Voy.  Zool.,  p.  88,  pi.  xxvii.  f.  2.  H.  cornuta,  Owen,  1.  c,  p.  89,  pi. 
xxviii.  f.  2. — Infreto  "Seniavine''  et  in  sinu  "Avatska;"  e  fundo  limoso  prof. 
10-15  org.     Etiaru  in  Oceano  Arctico  ;  prof.  20-30  org. 

420.  Hippolyte  eectikostris,  nov.  sp.  Robusta.  Carapax  cristatus,  tertia 
parte  posteriore  excepta ;  margine  antico,  spina  antennali  et  spina  pterygosto- 
miana  praedito.  Rostrum  horizontale,  apicem  antennularum  pedunculi  attin- 
gens,  margine  superiore  recto,  sex-dentato,*  dentibus  aequalibus  et  aequidis- 
tantibus  ;  tribus  posterioribus  in  carapace  sitis  ;  margine  inferiore  antice  paulo 
dilatato  et  quadridentato,  dentibus  minutis.  Antennulae  appendicem  anten- 
narum  vix  superantes.  Maxillipedes  externi  robusti,  appendices  antennarum 
superantes  ;  epignatho,f  neque  exognatbo  praediti.  Pedes  primi  graciles,  manu 
elongata,  digitis  gracilibus  palma  multo  brevioribus.  Pedes  primi,  secundi, 
tertiique  paris  epipodof  praediti.  Abdominis  dorsum  leve,  ecarinatum,  sed 
segmento  tertio  paullo  acutum.  Segmentum  caudale  quatuor  paribus  acule- 
orum  dorsalium  armatum.     Long.  1.5  poll. 

Hab. — Portu  "  Hakodadi"  Japoniae  borealis  ;  in  locis  profundis  maris. 

421.  Hippolyte  ceistata,  nov.  sp.  Carapax  tertia  parte  anteriore  carinatus ; 
margine  antico  spina  antennali  et  spina  pterygostomiana  armato.  Rostrum 
gracile,  fere  horizontale,  pedunculo  antennularum  parce  brevius  ;  crista  supe- 
riore sex-dentata,  supra  oculos  arcuata,  dentibus  duobus  posterioribus  in  cara- 
pace, dente  posteriore  aliis  minore  et  remotiore,  dente  anteriore  etiam  minore 
et  ab  apice  rostri  paullo  remoto  ;  apice  subtus  bidentato.  Antennulae  apicem 
appendicis  antennarum  non  superantes.  Maxillipedes  ext.  graciles,  hunc  at- 
tingentes  apiGem,  epignatho  non  vero  exognatbo  instructi.  Pedes  primi,  se- 
cundi, tertiique  paris  epipodo  instructi.  Pedum  secundorum  carpus  septem- 
articulatus.  Abdomen  ecarinatum.  Tria  aculeorum  segmenti  caudalis  ultimi 
lateralium  paria.  Long.  1  poll.  Ab  H.  palpatore,  brevirostrique  |differt  niax- 
illipedibus  externis  brevioribus  ;  ab  H.  picta,  pedibus  secundo  tertioque  epi- 
podo instructis  ;  ab  H.  layi  rostro  breviore. 

Hab. — Portu  "  San  Francisco"  Californiae  ;   fundo  arenoso  prof.  5-10  org. 

422.  Hippolyte  brevirostkis,  Dana,  U.  S.  Expl.  Exped.,  Crust,  i.  556,  pi. 
xxxvi.  f.  5. — In  portu  "  San  Francisco." 

423.  Hippolyte  borealis,  Owen ;  Appendix  to  Ross'  Voyage,  p.  24,  pi.  i.  f. 
3.  Kroyer ;  Monog.  Fremstilling  af  Hippolyte's  Nordiske  Arter,  p.  122,  pi.  iii, 
f.  74-77. — In  profundis  Oceani  Arctici. 

424.  Hippolyte  polaris,  Owen;  App.  to  Ross'  Voy.  p.  85.  Kroyer;  Monog. 
Fremst.  Hippol.  p.  116,  pi.  iii.  f.  78-81.  Alpheus  polaris,  Sabine. — in  profun- 
dis sabulosis  Oceani  Arctici. 

425.  Hippolyte  camtschatica,  nov.  sp.  Gracilis.  Carapax  antice  breviter 
carinatus  ;  margine  antico  spina  antennali  et  spina  pterygostomiana  minutis- 
sima  armato.  Rostrum  subcultratum,  carapace  non  breviore,  apicem  appen- 
dicis antennarum  attingens,  superne  quinque-dentatum,  dentibus  subaequali- 
bus  et  aequidistantibus,  dente  secundo  supra  oculorum  basin  sito  ;  crista  infe- 
riore paullo  dilatato,  quinque-dentato,  dentibus  primo  ultimoque  minutis  ;  apice 
gracillimo,  acutissimo.  Antennarum  appendices  grandes.  Maxillipedes  ext. 
antennarum  pedunculum  paullo  superantes  et  medium  appendicis  attingentes, 
epignatho  non  vero  exognatho  praediti.  Pedes  longi,  epipodo  destituti.  Ab- 
domen leve,  ecarinatum  ;  articulo  tertio  modice  prominente.  Segmentum  cau- 
dale paribus  quinque  aculeorum  dorsalium  armatum.  Long.  1  poll.  Ab  H. 
sitchaensi  differt  rostro  magis  acuto  et  inferne  magis  dentato. 

*  Margine  cristae  carapacis  dorsalis  semper  incluso. 
t  Epignathus  et  epipodus=flagellum. 

I860.]  3 


34  PROCEEDINGS  OP  THE  ACADEMY  OP 

426.  Hippolyte  pandaloides,  nov.  sp.  Corpus  gracile,  fusiforme.  Carapax 
per  dimidiam  anteriorem  carinatus  ;  margine  antico  spina  antennali  solum  ar- 
mato.  Rostrum  gracillimum,  fere  rectum,  horizontale,  quam  carapax  multo 
longius  et  appendices  antennarum  multo  superans,  superne  10-12  dentatum, 
dentibus  duobus  posterioribus  in  carapace,  anterioribus  fere  obsoletis  ;  crista 
inferiore  decemdentata,  dentibus  quam  superiores  majoribus.  Appendices  an- 
tennarum grandes  carapace  non  breviores,  antennulas  superantes.  Maxilli- 
pedes  externi  brevissimi,  pedunculum  antennarum  non  superantes,  epignatho 
non  vero  exognatbo  instructi.  Pedes  epipodo  destituti  ;  secundi  paris  carpus 
septem-articulatus  ;  posticorum  merus  margine  inferiore  spinulosus.  Abdo- 
men ecarinatum,  sed  segmento  tertio  prominens  ;  segmento  ultimo  paribus  sex 
aculeorum  dorsalium  armato.     Color  viridis.     Long.  1.75  poll. 

Hab. — Sinu  "  Hakodadi ;"  inter  lapides  ad  prof.  2  org. 

427.  Hippolyte  geniculata,  nov.  sp.  Maxillipedes  ext.  epignatho  non  vero 
exognatho  instructi ;  pedes  epipodo  destituti.  77.  pandaloidae  valde  affinis,  ro- 
bustior,  rostro  breviore,  quam  carapax  non  longiore,  superne  quadridentato,  in- 
terne septem-dentato,  medio  paullo  dilatato.  Abdomen  segmento  tertio  forte 
geniculatum,  valde  prominens,  compressum,  cristatum.  Color  obscure-pnr- 
pureus,  linea  dorsali  alba.     Long.  2  poll. 

Hab. — Cum  praecedente. 

428.  Hippolyte  gracilirostris,  nov.  sp.  Carapax  levis,  antice  brevissime 
carinatus  ;  margine  antico  spina  pterygostomaica  solum  armato.  Rostrum  gra- 
cillimum, rectum,  paullo  deflexum,  breve,  articulum  penultimum  pedunculi 
antennularum  non  superans,  superne  sex-dentatum,  dentibus  aequalibus,  duobus 
posticis  in  carapace;  apice  bi-denticulato ;  margine  inferiore  denticulis  duobus 
approximatis  apice  paullo  remotis  armato.  Maxillipedes  ext.  appendices  anten- 
rarum  parce  superantes,  exognatho  epipodoque  praediti.  Pedes  primi  secundi 
tertiique  epipodo  instructi  ;  tertii  quarti  quintique  paris  graciles.  Abdomen 
dorso  leve  ecarinatum  ;  segmentum  ultimum  paribus  quatuor  aculeorum  dorsa- 
lium praeditum.     Long.  0.75  poll. 

Hab. — Portu  "Hakodadi ;"  in  regione  laminariarum. 

429.  Hippolytk  leptognatha,  nov.  sp.  Carapax  per  dimidiam  anteriorem 
carinatus  et  dentatus ;  margine  antico  spina  antennali  et  pterygostorniana 
armato.  Rostrum  pedunculum  antennularum  superans,  appendicis  antennarum 
apicem  vero  non  attingens,  horizontale  ;  crista  superiore  antrorsum  integra,  re- 
trorsum  4-5-dentata,  dentibus  posticis  tribus  vel  quatuor  in  carapace  ;  crista  in- 
feriore antice  paullo  dilatata  et  dentibus  parvulis  tribus  vel  quatuor  instructa. 
Appendices  antennarum  antennulas  adaequantes  vel  paullo  superantes.  Maxil- 
lipedes ext.  exiles,  pedunculum  antennarum  superantes,  appendices  vero  multo 
breviores,  exognatho  epignathoque  instructi.  Pedes  lmi  2di  3tiique  pari* 
epipodo  praediti ;  2di  paris  carpus  septem-articulatus,  articulo  tertio  aliis  lon- 
giore. Abdomen  dorso  laeve,  ecarioatum ;  segmento  tertio  sat  prominente  : 
segmento  ultimo  paribus  quatuor  aculeorum.  Pallide  rubra,  albo  variegata. 
Long.  1  poll. 

nab. — Sinu  "  Hakodadi ;"  vulgaris  in  fundis  algoso-arenosis,  prof.  2-6  org. 

430.  Hippolyte  turgida,  Kroyer ;  Monog.  Fremst.  Hippol.,  100,  pi.  ii,  f.  57- 
58;  pi.  iii,  f-  59-63. — In  Oceano  Arctico  ad  prof.  35  org. ;  et  in  freto  "  Senia- 
vine  :  "  fundo  sabuloso,  10-20  org. 

431.  Hippolyte  ochotensis,  Brandt.  ;  Sibir.  Reise,  120,  pi.  v,  f.  17. — In  sinu 
"  Hakodadi." 

432.  Hippolyte  spina,  White;  Brit.  Mus.  Cat.  Crust.,  1847,  p.  76.  Bell: 
Brit.  Crust.  284.  H.  sowerbei,  Lam'k ;  Kroyer;  Monog.  Fremst.  Hippol.,  90,  pi. 
jj;  f,  45-54. — In  freto  "  Seniavine;"  (prope  fretum  Beringianum;)  in  fundi* 
limosis  prof.  10-20  org. 

[Jan. 


NATURAL  SCIENCES  OF  PHILADELPHIA.  35 

433.  Hippolyte  gibba,  Kroyer ;  Monog.  Fremst.  Hippol.  80,  pi.  i,  f.  30,  31, 
et  pi.  ii,  f.  32-37. — In  freto  "  Seniavine"  et  in  Oceano  Arctico  ;  fundis  limo«JF 
et  arenosis  prof.  20-30  org. 

434.  Hippolyte  pectinifera,  nov.  sp.  Corpus  breve,  altura.  Carapax  lamina 
dentata  antrorsum  latescente  cristatus  ;  regione  orbitali  utrinque  spinis  tribas 
in  serie  longitudinali  instructa ;  margine  antico  infra  oculum  spinis  duabus 
(antennali  et  pterygostcmiana  forti)  armato.  Rostrum  latissimum,  suborbicu- 
latum,  (ei  Rhynchocycli  simili,)  antennularum  pedunculum  superans,  superne 
25-dentatum,  dentibus  posterioribus  majoribus,  dente  postico  ad  tertiam  partem 
anteriorem  carapacis  posito ;  margine  inferiore  bidentato,  dentibus  antrorsum 
sitis  et  quam  superiores  majoribus.  Antennularum  squamae  basales  validae 
acutae  ab  pedunculo  divergentes  ;  flagella  brevia  subaequalia.  Antennae  cor- 
pore  breviores ;  appendice  ovata,  antrorsum  acuta,  rostrum  superante.  Max 
ext.  exognatho  epignatboque  instructi.  Pedes  toti  (secundis  exclusis)  breves 
et  robusti ;  primi  secundi  tertiique  paris  epipodo  instructi ;  dactyli  pedum  pos- 
ticorum  eis  H.  aculeatae  similes.  Epimera  abdominis  segmentis  1-6  dentibus 
spinisve  4-5  pectinata,  spina  anteriore  vulgo  longiore.  Segmentum  caudaie 
paribus  tribus  aculeorum  dorsalium  munitum.  Color  pallide  purpureus,  margine 
carapacis  antico  et  apicibus  digitorum  albis.     Long.  0.75  poll. 

Hab. — Sinu  "  Hakodadi ;"  f.  concboso  org.  8. 

435.  Hippolyte  Fabricii,  Kroyer;  Monog.  Fremst.  Hippol.  p.  69,  pi.  i,  f.  12- 
20. — In  sinu  "Avatska." 

Virbius,*  nov.  gen.  Hippolytae  affinis.  Dorsum  carapacis  rostrique  ecari- 
natum.  Mandibulae  non  palpigerae.  Maxillipedes  externi  breves,  exognatho 
non  vero  epignatho  instructi.  Pedes  epipodo  destituti.  Pedum  primi  paris 
carpus  antice  excavatus ;  secundi  paris  carpus  tri-articulatus.  Hippolyte  acu- 
minata, viridis,  smaragdina,  obliquimana,  exiliro strata,  various  et  Prideauxiana  ad 
hoc  genus  pertinent. 

436.  Virbius  australiensis,  nov.  sp.  Carapax  levis,  spina  orbitali  instructus, 
spina  antennali  parvula,  pterygostomiana  nulla.  Rostrum  carapace  vix  breviuB, 
superne  laeve,  basi  norizontaliter  latiuscum,  apice  acutum,  margine  inferiore  cris- 
tatum  et  sexdentatum.  Antennulae  breves,  pedunculo  quam  rostrum  dimidia 
breviori,  flagello  interno  externo  duplo  longiore.  Antennarum  appendices 
grandes,  oblongae,  rostrum  superantes,  intus  apicem  antrorsum  dilatata ;  pe- 
dunculus  extus  spina  armatus  ad  basin  appendicis.  Maxillipedes  ext.  apicem 
antennarum  pedunculi  non  attigentes ;  articulo  ultimo  valde  compresso,  non 
duplo  longiore  quam  latiore  et  quam  art.  penultimus  non  longiore.  Pedes 
secundi  apicem  antennarum  pedunculi  non  attingentes.  Pedes  postici  parvi, 
articulo  penultimo  subtus  spinulis  armato ;  dactylo  intus  multi-unguiculato. 
Abdomen  laeve  forte  geniculatum.  Segmentum  caudaie  paribus  duobus  acule- 
orum dorsalium  munitum.     Color  viridis.     Long.  1.5  poll. 

Hab. — In  portu  Jacksoniensi  Australiae ;  inter  algas  ad  prof.  org.  2. 

437.  Virbius  acutus,  nov.  sp.  Carapax  spina  supra-orbitali  et  antennali 
armatus  ;  angulo  antero-inferiore  acuto.  Rostrum  gracillimum,  pedunculum 
antennularum  superans,  appendices  antennarum  vero  brevius,  superne  in  medio 
unidentatum  ;  crista  inferiore  prope  apicem  quadridentata.  Max.  ext.  breves, 
versus  basin  lati.  Pedum  secundorum  carpi  articuli  subaequales,  ultimus  paullo 
longior.  Pedum  posticorum  dactyli  intus  breviter  spinosi,  apice  bi-unguiculati. 
Abdomen  ecarinatum  geniculatum,  segmento  tertio  acute  prominens.  Appen- 
dices caudales  parvi.  Segmentum  caudaie  paribus  quatuor  aculeorum  plerum- 
que  munitum,  tribus  approximatis,  pari  posteriore  remoto.  Color  purpureus. 
variegatus.     Long.  0.5  poll. 

Hab. — Ad  insulam  "Loo  Choo ;"  littoralis  in  rupibus  algosis. 

*  Virbius,  Hippoljti  filius. 
I860.] 


36  PROCEEDINGS  OP  THE  ACADEMY  OP 

438.  Virbius  Kraussianus,  nov.  sp.  Carapax  latiusculus,  spina  supra- 
orbitali  et  antennali  armatus  ;  spina  pterygostomiana  nulla.  Rostrum  gracile, 
pedunculum  antennularum  paullo  longius,  apicem  appendicium  antennarum  vero 
non  attingens,  superne  basi  bidentatum,  apice  tridentatem,  margine  inferiore 
quadridentatum.  Flagella  antennularum  subaequalia,  appendices  ant.  vix 
superantia.  Max.  ext.  articulus  ultimus  penultimo  fere  duplo  longior.  Abdo- 
men ecarinatum,  forte  geniculatum ;  segmentis  caudalis  aculeorum  paribus 
duobus.     Long.  o.7  poll. 

Hab. — In  sinu  "Simon's  Bay,"  prope  Promontorium  Bonae  Spei. 

439.  Virbius  acdminatus.  Hippolyte  acuminata,  Dana ;  U.  S.  Expl.  Exped., 
Crust.,  i.  562,  pi.  xxx,  f.  1. — In  Oceano  Atlantico. 

Genus  Rhynchocinetes,  M.  Edw.  Maxillipedes  externi  exognatho  epignathoqne 
instructi ;  pedes  primi,  secundi,  tertii,  quartique  paris  epipodo  praediti. 

440.  Rhynchocinetes  rugulosus,  nov.  sp.  R.  typo  Chilensi  valde  affinis,  sed 
superficie  carapacis  transversim  striolata  vel  rugulosa,  rugis  quam  in  R.  typo 
magis  conspicuis  et  crassioribus.  Rostrum  parte  anteriore  marginis  superioris 
tridentatum,  subtus  12-dentatum.  Digiti  pedum  primi  paris  superne  nudi. 
Long.  2  poll. 

Hab. — In  portu  Jacksoniensi  Australiae ;  sublittoralis  inter  rupes. 

Ogybis*,  nov.  gen.  Carapax  parce  cristatus,  non  rostratus.  Oeuli  longis- 
simi,  pedunculos  antennarum  superantes,  pediculis  gracillimis.  Antennulae 
bi-flagellatae,  pedunculo  extus  processu  spiniformi  ad  basin  piaedito.  Anten- 
narum appendix  parvus,  pedunculo  multo  brevior.  Mandibulae  graciles,  pro- 
funde  bipartitae,  palpo  laminato,  biarticulato  instructae.  Maxillipedes  secundi 
non  pediformes  ;  externi  grandes,  longi,  exognatho  gracili  instructi ;  articulo 
endognathi  ultimo  brevi,  pilis  phimosis  longis  vestito.  Pedes  exopodo  des- 
tituti ;  primi  secundique  paris  chelati;  carpus  secundi  paris  triarticulatus. 
Pedes  3tii  4ti  5tique  paris  inter  se  dissimiles,  non  chelati.  Abdomen  inerme, 
lamellis  caudalibus  brevibus,  externis  angustis. 

441.  Ogyris  orientalis,  nov.  sp.  Carapax  pubescens,  crista  dorsali  laevissima, 
dentibus  4 — 5  minutis  antrorsum  armata.  Orbita  angulo  externo  acuta  vel 
spina  armata.  Oculi  carapace  non  dimidia  breviores,  pedunculos  antennula- 
rum superantes,  pediculis  pubescentibus  basi  valde  incrassatis.  Antennulae 
carapace  non  longiores,  flagellis  gracilibus,  longitudine  aequalibus,  externo 
verus  vasin  paullo  incrassato.  Antennae  corpore  tertia  parte  breviores,  ap- 
pendice  parvo  subovali.  Maxillipedes  externi  extremitates  antennularum  fere 
attingentes,  ad  commissuram  ultiman  geniculate  Pedes  sex  postici  pilosi, 
tertii  quartique  paris  crassi,  tertii  breviores,  quinti  longi  filiformes.  Abdomen 
dorso  laeve  convexum,  extremitate  segmenti  ultimi  late  rotundata,  laminis 
caudalibus  exterioribus  incrassatis,  extrorsum  curvatis,  acutis.     Long.  1  poll. 

Hab. — In  mari  Sinensi,  et  in  sinu  "Kagosima;"  in  fundis  arenosis  5 — 25  org. 
prof. 

442.  Pandalus  gonidrus,  nov.  sp.  Corpus  gracile  nudum.  Rostrum  tenue, 
carapace  tertia  parte  longius,  superne  9-dentatum,  dentibus  sparsis,  tribus  pos- 
terioribus  in  carapace  sitis,  duobus  posticis  minoribus  approximatis  et  ab  aliis 
magis  remotis ;  marginis  superioris  parte  dimidia  anteriore  edentulo :  apice 
bifurcato  vel  bidentato,  dente  superiore  minore;  margine  inferiore  T-dentato. 
Antennulae  rostro  non  breviores.  Antennarum  appendices  carapacis  longitu- 
dine. Pedes  primi  omnino  graciles,  pedunculum  antennarum  superantes.  Pe- 
dum posticorum  dactyli  longiores.  Abdomen  segmento  tertio  geniculatum, 
plus  minusve  acute  compresso,  prominente,  vix  vero  dentato.  Long.  2  poll.  P. 
annulicorni  affinis,  rostro  longiore,  et  abdominis  segmenti  tertii  dorso  compresso. 

*  "fty/p/c,  nomen  insulae  maris  Indici. 

[Jan. 


NATURAL   SCIENCES   OP  PHILADELPHIA.  37 

Hab. — In  siim  "  Avatska"  Kamtschatkae ;  in  fundo  limoso  prof.  10  org.  vul- 
garis. 

443.  Pandalus  prensor,  nov.  sp.  Gracilis.  Rostrum  thorace  vix  brevius, 
apicera  antennarum  appendicium  non  attingens  ;  margine  superiore  14-dentato, 
(dentibus  6  posticis  in  carapace,)  tertia  parte  versus  apicem  edentulo ;  apice 
tridentato  ;  margine  inferiore  quinque-dentato.*  Antennula,  rostro  fere  duplo 
longiores.  Maxillipedes  externi  apicem  antennarum  appendicium  fere  attin- 
gentes,  exognatho  destituti.  Pedes  primi  omnino  graciles.  Pedes  tertii  ma- 
jores,  subprehensiles ;  articulo  penultimo  plus  minusve  dilatato,  subcurvato, 
postice  convexo,  palma  spinulosa,  dactylo  longo,  ad  palmam  retractili.  Pedes 
quarti  quintique  paris  tertiis  minores,  dactylis  brevibus.  Abdomen  dorso  laeve, 
rotundatum  ;  segmento  penultimo  carapace  demidia  breviore  ;  segmento  ultimo 
quinque  aculeorum  instrncto  paribus.  Subtranslucidus,  pallide  coccineo-macu- 
latus.     Long.  2  poll. 

Hab. — Sinu  "  Hakodadi ;"  fundo  conchoso,  prof.  8  org. 

444.  Pandalus  robustus,  nov.  sp.  Corpus  breve  robustum.  Rostrum  carapacis 

8+11 

longitudine,  appendices  antennarum  paullo  superans;  dentibus \-3  arnia- 

1 
turn,  margine  superiore  versus  apicem  edentulum.  Antennulae  rostro  vix  longio- 
res. Maxillipedes  ext.  apicem  appendicium  ant.  attingentes  ;  exognatho  destituti. 
Pedes  primi  e  basi  graciles.  Pedum  tertiorum  articulus  penultimus  rectus,  super- 
ficie  asper;  dactylus  robustus  et  quam  iste  pedum  quartorum  quintorumque 
multo  longior.  Abdomen  dorso  laeve,  rotundatum  ;  segmento  sexto  perbrevi, 
longitudine  carapacis  tertiae  partis;  segmento  caudali  dorso  pubescente, 
quinque  aculeorum  armato  paribus.  Long.  2  poll. 
Hab. — Sinu  "Hakodadi,"  in  profundis. 

445.  Pandalus  gracilis,  nov.  sp.     Corpus  gracile.     Rostrum  carapace  lon- 

7+10 

gius,  appendices  antennarum  superans,  et  dentibus (-3  armatum,  margi- 

8 
nis  superioris  tertia  parte  anteriore  edentulum.  Antennulae  rostro  parum  lon- 
giores. Maxillipedes  ext.  medium  appendicium  antennarum  vix  superantes ; 
exognatho  destituti.  Pedum  tertiorum  articulus  penultimus  gracilis,  laevis, 
sparsim  pilosus,  margine  inferiore  sparsim  aculeatus  ;  dactylus  quam  iste  quarti 
quintique  paris  parum  longior.  Pedes  quarti  quintique  graciliores,  mero  sub- 
tus  spinuloso.  Abdomen  dorsi  medio  prominens,  sed  rotundatum;  segmento 
sexto  carapace  plus  dimidia  breviore  ;  ultimo  quinque  aculeorum  armato  paribus. 
Long.  1.25  poll. 

Hab.— Sinu  "Hakodadi." 

446.  Pandalus  escatilis,  nov.  sp.  Corpus  pubescens  coccineo-variegatum. 
Carapax  dimidia  anteriore  carinatus,  margine  antico  spina  antennali,  et  ptery- 
gostomiana  prope  antennae  insertionem  sita  armatus.  Rostrum  longum  gra- 
cile, horizontale  vel  resimum,  carapace  multo  longior,  superne  regulariter  60- 
denticulatum,  (dente  postico  ad  quintain  anteriorem  long,  carap.  sito,)  inferne 
serratum,  dentibus  quam  superioies  minoribus.  Maxillipedes  externi  exognatho 
instruct! ;  endognatho  ei  P.  annulicornis  simili.  Pedes  gracillimi ;  primi  paris 
apicem  rostri  attingentes,  secundi  paris  eum  maxillipedum  externorum.  Pede9 
3 til  4ti  Stique  paris  rostrum  multo  superantes;  mero  subtus  spinis  sparsis 
armato;  articulo  antepenultimo  quam  merus  multo  graciliore.  Long.  2.5  poll. 
P.  narwal  affinis,  sed  differt  rostro  magis  subtiliter  et  regulariter  serrata,  et 
pedibus  posticis  spinosis.     A  P.  prisle  differt  in  maxillipedibus  externis. 

Hab. — Prope  insulam  Madeirae  ;  in  profundis. 


6-f-8  , 
*  En  formula  talis  dentitionis,  — — ]-3 


I860.] 


38  PROCEEDINGS   OF   THE    ACADEMY    OF 

447.  Pandalus  leptorhynchus,  nov.  sp.  Corpus  gracillimuin.  Carapax  vix 
cristatus,  spina  una  dorsali  in  regione  gastrica  armatus  ;  margine  antico  spina 
supra-orbitali,  antennali  et  pterygostomiana  instructo.  Rostrum  tenuissimum, 
fere  filiforme,  carapace  non  brevius,  superne  dente  unico  antrorsum  porrecto 
versus  basin  armatum,  subtus  dentibus  minutis  duobus,  uno  mediano,  altero 
versus  apicem  acutum  sito.  Antennularuni  pedunculus  gracillinius,  rostro 
quarta  parte  breviore  ;  squama  basali  lata,  apice  externo  spiniformi ;  flagellum 
pedunculo  non  longius.  Antennarum  appendices  rostro  non  breviores.  Pe- 
des exiles  ;  tertii  quarti  quintique  paris  subprehensiles  ; — dactylo  ad  latus  pos- 
ticum  art.  penultimi  retractili.  Abdomen  forte  geniculatum,  segmento  tertio 
carina  perobtusa  armato ;  segmento  sexto  praelongo.  Subpellucidus,  lineis 
flavis,  punctisque  nigris  ornatus.     Long.  1  poll. 

Hab. — Portu  Jacksoniensi  Australiae  ;  ad  littora  arenosa  et  algosa. 

448.  Pontonia  maculata,  nov.  sp.  Foeminae  corpus  sat  gracile.  Carapax 
inermis.  Rostrum  art.  penultimum  antennularum  pedunculi  attingens,  gra- 
cile, superne  depressum,  subtus  acute  cristatum,  apice  truncatum,  marginibus 
edentulis.  Oculi  grandiores.  Antennularum  flagellum  pedunculo  brevius 
sed  appendiceal  antennarum  multo  superans.  Antennae  corpore  dimidia 
breviores,  appendice  carapace  plus  dimidia  breviores,  sed  pedunculum  antennu- 
larum paullo  superantes,  apice  rotundato-obtusse.  Max.  externorum  art.  ante- 
penultimus  gracilior.  Pedum  secundorum  manus  minor  (?)  gracilis,  digitis 
intus  edentulis  ;  (manus  altera  deest. )  Pedum  3  posticorum  dactyli  uncinati, 
intus  dente  armati.  Abdomen  spinis  nullis  ad  basin  segmenti  caudalis  arma- 
tum. Pellucida,  maculis  minutis  purpureis  conspersa.  Long.  0.75  poll.  A 
P.  tridacnae  differt  forma  elongata,  rostro  graciliore,  etc. 

Hab. — Ad  insulas  "Bonin  ;"  in  Tridacnis. 

449.  Coralliocaris*  graminea.  Oedipus  gramineus,  Dana;  U.  S.  Expl.  Exp., 
Crust,  i.  574,  pi.  xxxvii.  f.  3. — Ad  insulam  "Hong  Kong;"  in  madreporis. 

450.  Coralliocaris  superba.  Oedipus  superbus,  Dana;  U.  S.  Expl.  Exped., 
Crust,  i.  573,  pi.  xxxvii.  f.  2. — Ad  insulam  "Tahiti;"  in  corallis. 

451.  Coralliocaris  lamellirostris,  nov.  sp.  Corpus  depressum.  Rostrum 
longum,  pedunculum  antennularum  superans  sed  apicem  appendicis  antenna- 
rum non  attingens,  basi  angustum ;  crista  superiore  dilatata,  sexdentata, 
dente  postico  supra  oculos  sito ;  apice  acuminato  ;  margine  inferiore  apicem 
versus  etiam  dilatato,  4-5-denticulato.  Antennulae  appendices  antennarum 
non  superantes.  Antennae  corpore  dimidia  longiores.  Max.  externi  planati 
sed  sat  angusti.  Pedes  primi  apicem  appendicium  ant.  attingentes,  manibus 
vix  hirsutis.  Pedes  secundi  inaequales,  manu  majore  (foeminae)  valde  gra- 
cili,  digitis  parvis,  palma  dimidia  brevioribus,  dactylo  distorto  non  dilatato. 
Pedum  posticorum  dactyli  eis  C.  macrophthalmae  similes,  vix  setosi.  Abdo- 
men segmento  tertio  prominens.  Color  viridis  ;  carapax  longitudinaliter,  ab- 
domenque  transverse  rubro-fasciata.     Long.  0.75  poll. 

Hab. — Ad  insulam  "  Loo  Choo  ;"  inter  corallia  ad  prof.  2.  org. 

452.  Harpilics  depressus,  nov.  sp.  Corpus  late  depressum.  Carapax  spi- 
na hepatica  armatus.  Oculi  grandes,  et,  lateraliter  porrecti,  margines  carapa- 
cis  multo  superantes.  Rostrum  longum,  apicem  antennarum  appendicium 
fere  attingens,  crista  inferiore  parce  dilatata,  septem-dentata,  dente  postico 
parum  post  oculos  sito  ;  crista  inferiore  versus  apicem  valde  dilatata,  quadri- 
dentata,  dentibus  validis.  Antennulae  breviores,  appendicem  antennarum  ap- 
rum  superantes.  Antennae  corpore  non  longiores.  Maxillipedes  externi  valde 
graciles,  articulis  ultimo  penultimoque  conjunctis  antepenultimo  adequanti- 

*  Etym.  xep&KKiov,  corallium  ;  K*fi;,  squilla.  Nomen  Oedipus  Danae  praeoc- 
cupatur. 

[Jan. 


NATURAL   SCIENCES   OF  PHILADELPHIA.  39 

bus,  hoc  in  foeminis  quam  in  maribus  multo  latiore.  Pedes  secundi  grandes, 
laeves  ;  ischii,  meri,  carpique  apicibus  dentibus  spiniformibus  armatis  ;  manu 
carapace  duplo  longiore,  digitis  palma  dimidia  brevioribus,  intus  forte  2-3-den- 
tatis.  Pedes  postici  robusti,  dactylis  curvatis  apice  fere  obtusis.  Abdomen 
gracile ;  segmento  ultimo  acuto,  pari  unico  aculeorum  dorsalium  instructo. 
Long.  0.7  poll. 

Hab. — Ad  insulam  "Hawaii;"  inter  madreporas. 

453.  Anchistia  Danae,  nov.  sp.  Corpus  breve  robustum.  Carapax  sat  latus, 
spina  hepatica  armatus ;  margine  antico  spina  supra-orbitali  et  antennali  in- 
structo. Rostrum  parce  dilatatum,  pedunculum  antennularum  non  attingens. 
dentibus  superne  septem,  subtus  tribus  armatuin.  Oculi  grandes,  lateraliter 
margines  carapacis  multo  superantes.  Antennulae  appendices  antennarum  su- 
perantes ;  flagello  robusto  quam  flagellum  tenue  longiore,  extremitate  bifido. 
Appendices  ant.  apice  sat  latae.  Mandibularum  processus  molaris  ramus 
superior  apice  trifidus,  ramus  alter  5-6-dentatus,  dentibus  aliquibus  scalprifor- 
mibus.  Pedes  primi  carpum  secundorum  superantes.  Pedes  postici  gracillimi. 
Segmentum  caudale  apice  aculeis  duobus  longis  instructum.     Long,  0.5  poll. 

Hab. — Ins.  "Tahiti;"  in  corrallis. 

454.  Anchistia  brachiata,  nov.  sp,  Carapax  spina  hepatica  et  antennali 
armatus;  spina  supra-orbitali  nulla.  Rostrum  gracile,  paullo  resimum,  appen- 
dices antennarum  non  superantes,  superne  dentibus  5-f-  armatum,  dente 
secundo  supra  oculos  sito,  subtus  dentibus  2+  (apice  in  sp.  nostro  fracto).  Oculi 
grandes.  Antennarum  appendices  longae,  angustae,  extrorsum  curvantes,  car- 
apace longiores.  Pedes  secundi  inaequales ;  carpus  sinistri  appendices  ant. 
superans ;  carpo  meroque  basi  angustatis,  versus  apicem  incrassatis ;  mero 
apice  inferiore  uni-spinoso ;  carpo  apicem  superne  bi-spiaosa  subtus  uni-spinosa  ; 
manu  incrassata  quam  carpus  plus  duplo  longiore;  digitis  quam  palma  non 
dimidia  parte  brevioribus,  paullo  contortis,  intus  singulo  dentibus  duobus 
parvis  acutisque  armatis ;  dactylo  margine  superiore  extus  dilatato.  Pes 
secundi  paris  dexter  minor,  digitis  longioribus  compressis  nee  distortis  nee 
dentatis.     Abdominis  segmentum  penultimum  breve.     Long.  0.8  poll. 

Hab. — Portu  "  Lloyd  "  ad  insulas  "  Bonin." 

455.  Anchistia  grandis,  nov.  sp.  A.  ensifronli  affinis,  major.  Rostrum  an- 
gustius  et  appendices  ant.  non  superans,  margine  superiore  basi  non  concavo, 
septem-dentato,  dente  postico  aliis  paullo  remoto,  dente  antico  juxta  apicem 
sito.  Antennularum  pedunculi  art.  penultimus  interne  extusque  paullo  dilata- 
tus.  Appendices  antennarum  carapace  non  breviores,  angustae,  minuentes  sed 
apice  truueatae.  Pedes  secundi  paris  corpore  longiores  ;  mero  apicem  append. 
ant.  atlingente,  subtus  spina  armato  ;  carpoad  apicem  intus  uni-spinoso;  manu 
robusta,  carpo  fere  triplo  longiore ;  digitis  palma  dimidia  brevioribus,  medio 
hiantibus.  Pedes  quarti  apicem  appendicium  antennarum  attingentes.  Lon^. 
1.2  poll. 

Hab. — Ad  insulam  "  Ousima." 

Urocaris,*  nov.  gen.  Corpus  gracile,  compressum ;  abdomen  longum,  seg- 
mento penultimo  praecipue  elongato.  Rostrum  superne  cristatum,  dentatum, 
subtus  rectum  edentulum.  Oculorum  pedunculi  longiores.  Antennulae  eis 
Palaemonis  similes.  Mandibulae  non  palpigerae.  Maxillipedes  externi  pedesque 
cum  genere  Palaemone  conYemuut. — Typus  U.lovgicaudata'm  littoribus  Carolin- 
ensibus  habitans,  rostro  brevi,  crista  superiore  supra  oculos  valde  dilatata. 
arcuata,  octodentata;  dactylis  pedum  posticorum  biunguiculatis ;  abdomine 
quinquies  longiore  quam  carapax,  segmento  tertio  valde  tumido,  segmento 
penultimo  gracile  carapace  non  breviore. 

456.  Urocaris  longipes,  nov.  sp.  Carapax  spina  hepatica  et  antennali 
armatus.  Rostrum  gracile,  rectum,  minuens,  appendicium  antennarum  apicem 
non  attingens,  crista  superiore  minus  dilatata,  septem-dentata,  dente  postico 


I860.] 


*Etym.  oy/>«,  cauda;  **/><?.  squilla. 


40  PROCEEDINGS   OF   THE   ACADEMY   OF 

aliis  paullo  rernotiore,  denticulo  minuto  inter  dentes  sextum  et  septimum  atque 
uno  inter  dentem  septimum  et  apicem  ;  margine  inferiore  integro  non  ciliato. 
Antennularum  flagellum  crassum  breve,  tertia  parte  extreuia  aflagello  tenui  sep- 
aratum, hoc  eorpore  non  dimidia  breviore ;  flagellum  internum  externo  tenui 
brevius.  Antennarum  appendices  mediocres.  Pes  secundi  paris  sinister  long- 
issimus,  inermis ;  ischii  apice  apicem  appendicium  ant.  fere  attingente ;  mero 
carpo  longiore;  manu  cylindrica  meruni  carpumque  conjunctos  adequante,  dig- 
itis  brevibus,  palmae  long,  quartam  partem  vix  aequantibus.  Pedes  postici 
gracillimi,  dactylis  simplicibus.  Abdominis  segmentum  penultimum  minus 
elongatura.  Pellucida,  lineis  duabus  coccineis  ornata,  corporis  facie  inferiore 
etiam  coccinea,  manu  majore  pallide  rubra.  Long,  corporis,  0.65  ;  pedis  gran- 
dis,  0.7  poll. 
Hub. — Prope  insulam  "  Ousima  ;  "  fundo  arenoso,  prof.  20  org. 

457.  Palaemonella  tencipes,  Dana;  U.S.  Expl.  Exped.,  Crust.,  i.  582  ;  pi. 
xxxviii.  f.  3. — Ad  insulam  "  Ousima  ;  "  inter  algas  reticulatas  in  sinibus  are- 
nosis  minus  profundis. 

Genus  Leander,  Desmarest,  Ann.  Soc.  Entom.  de  France,  vii.  87.  Carapax 
spina  antennali  et  spina  branchios-tegiana  arinatus;  spina  hepataca  nulla. 
Species  plerumque  maricolae.     Typus  Palacmon  natator,  M.  Edw. 

458.  Leander  natator.  Palacmon  nalalor,  M.  Edw.;  Hist.  Nat.  des  Crust, 
ii.  393.  Dana;  loc.  cit.,  i.  588;  pi.  xxxviii,  f.  11. — In  Oceano  Atlantico,  lat. 
bor.  30° — 35°,  etc.;  vulgaris  in  Sargasso. 

459.  Leander  debilis.  Palaemon  debilis,  Dana;  U.  S.  Expl.  Exped.,  Crust., 
i.  585  ;  pi.  xxxviii,  f.  0,  7. — Ad  insulas  Hawainenses  et  ad  "  Loo  Choo  ; "  in 
littoribus  arenosis. 

460.  Leander  longicarpus,  nov.  sp.  Rostrum  longum,  carapace  paullo  lon- 
gius  et  appendices  ant.  multo  superans,  gracile,  reflexum,  superne  ad  basin 
convexumetquinquedentatum,  (dente  secundo  supra  oculos  sito,)  dimidia  versus 
apicem  edentulum;  crista  inferiore  paullo  dilatataet  4-  vel  5-dentata.  Anten- 
nularum flagella  duo  externa  parce  conjuncta.  Max.  ext.  gracillimi,  in  adultis 
pedunculum  antennarum  superantes.  Pedes  tenues  ;  primi  paris  apicem  ap- 
pendicium ant.  non  attingentes ;  secundi  paris  hunc  superantes  apicem  sed 
carpo  longo  cum  non  attingente,  manu  debili.  carpo  dimidia  breviore.  Pedes 
postici  nudi.  Segmentum  abdominis  penultimum  lamellarum  lateralium  fere 
longitudine.  Long.  1.5  poll.  P.  debili  affinis,  sed  deutibus  rostri  inferioribus 
paucioribus  et  pedibus  secundi  paris  longioribus. 

ILib. — Portu  "  Hong  Kong  "  Sinensi. 

461.  Leander  paocidens.  Palaemon  paucidens,  De  Haan  ;  Fauna  Japonica, 
Crust.,  170,  pi.  xlv,  f.  11.  Rostrum  in  sp.  nostris  superne  5-6  dentatum,  prope 
apicem  non  edentulum. 

Hab.— Prope  urbem  Japonicam  "  Simoda ;  "  in  aquis  dulcibus  fluvii,  mari 
non  remotis. 

462.  Leander  pacificus,  nov.  sp.  Corpus  robustum.  Rostrum  carapace  non 
brevius,  antennarum  appendices  superans;  crista  superiore  dentata,  (dente 
tertio  vel  quarto  supra  oculos  sito,)  versus  apicem  edentula;  apice  tridentato  ; 
crista  inferiore  dilatata,  4-  vel  5-dentata,  deutibus  fortibus,  dente  anteriore 
apice  reinoto.  Antennularum  flagella  duo  externa  parce  conjuncta,  flagello 
extremo  crasso,  pedunculo  paullo  longiore  et  margine  interno  valide  serrato. 
Maxillipedes  ext.  minuiscentes,  antennarum  pedunculum  parce  superantes. 
Pedes  primi  paris  apicem  antennularum  appendicium  attingentes  ;  secundi  paris 
sat  robusti,  hunc  superantes  apicem,  manu  paullo  incrassata,  digitis  palrna 
brevioribus;  pedes  postici  robustiores,  fere  nudi  et  inermes,  quinti  paris  anten- 
narum pedunculum  parum  superantes.  Color  pallide  viridescens,  eorpore  rubro- 
vel  olivaceo-lineato.     Long.  2.5  poll. 

J{ab.— In   Oceano  Pacifico  vulgaris,  littoralis  in  rupium  fossis ; — ad  insulas 
"  Hong  Kong"  et  "  Hawaii,"  etiam  in  portu  "  Simoda." 

[Jan. 


NATURAL   SCIENCES   OF   PHILADELPHIA.  41 

463.  Leander  serrifer,  nov.  sp.  Rostrum  appendices  antennarum  non  su- 
perans,  crista  superiore  fere  recta,  novem-dentata,  dentibus  posterioribus  1  et  2 
inter  se  et  ab  aliis  paullo  retnotioribus,  dente  tertio  vel  quarto  supra  oculos  sito, 
dente  anteriore  ab  apice  paullo  remoto,  (dentium  duorutn  spatio);  apice  acuto 
superne  bi-denticulato  ;  crista  inferiore  dilatata,  maxime  tridentata.  Antennu- 
larum  flagella  duo  externa  parce  conjuncta.  Pedes  primi  paris  apicem  appen- 
dicium  ant.  attingentes,  ischio  meroque  quam  carpus  robustioribus ;  secundi 
paris  longi,  sat  robusti,  carpo  appendicium  ant.  apicem  attingente,  et  quam 
uianus  non  breviore,  manu  elongata,  quater  longiore  quam  latiore,  digitispalma 
tertii  parte  brevioribus.  Pedes  postici  mediocres.  Segmentum  abdominis  pe- 
nultimum  lamellis  exterioribus  multo  brevius.     Long.,  1.75  poll. 

Hab. — Portu  "  Hong  Kong,"  et  sinibus  insulae  "  Ousima  ;  "  littoralis. 

464.  Leander  intermedius,  nov.  sp.  Spina  brancbiostegiana  longa,  acutis- 
sima,  retrorsum  sita,  margine  paullo  remota,  ut  facile  pro  hepatica  baberetur. 
Rostrum  tenue,  appendices  ant.  superans,  reflexum,  superne  septem-dentatum, 
(dente  tertio  supra  oculos,)  subtus  quadridentatum  ;  apice  bifido  vel  bidentato. 
Oculi  grandes.  Antennulae  corpore  non  breviores  ;  flagellis  duobus  externis  per 
dimidiam  longitudinis  flagelli  crassi  conjunctis.  Maxillipedes  externi  peduncu- 
lum  antennarum  parce  superantes.  Pedes  secundi  paris  appendices  ant.  parum 
superantes  ;  manu  paullo  incrassata  carpo  vix  loagiore,  digitis  palmae  longitu- 
dine.  Pedes  postici  mediocres,  aculeis  sparsim  armati ;  dactylis  longioribus. 
Pellucidus,  flavo-lineatus,  et  intendum  sparsim  nigro-punctatis.     Long.,  1  poll. 

Hab. — In  portu  Jacksoniensi  Australiae  ;  fundis  algoso-arenosis  prof.  2  org. 

Genus  Palaemon,  Fabr.  Carapax  spina  bepatica  armatus.  Species  omnes 
fluvicolae. 

465.  Palaemon  asper,  nov.  sp.  Descr.  maris  adulti.  Carapax  spinulis  vel 
granulis  acutis  corneis  plus  minusve  exasperatus.  Rostrum  apicem  appendi- 
cium antennarum  fere  attingens  ;  crista  dorsali  dilatata,  recta  vel  parce  convexa, 
12-  vel  14-dentata,  dente  posteriore  paullo  remotiore,  dente  quarto  supra  oculos 
sito ;  crista  inferiore  3-  vel  4-dentata.  Pedes  secundi  paris  corpore  non  bre- 
viores, cylindrici,  instar  carapacis  exasperaU,  interdum  breviter  pubescentes ; 
mero  apicem  antennarum  appendicium  superante ;  carpo  palma  manus  parce 
longiore  ;  digitis  palma  tertia  parte  brevioribus,  non  hiantibus,  interdum  dense 
hirsutis,  intus  prope  basin  dentibus  1-2  armatis ;  pollice  intus  lobo  marginis 
crenulato  ad  basin  praedito.  Pedes  postici  sat  longi,  extremitates  versus 
graciles,  minuiscentes ;  dactylis  tertiam  partem  long,  penultimi  adaequantibus. 
Pedes  ultimi  paris  appendices  ant.  superantes.  Segmentum  abdominis  ultimum 
apice  leviter  tridentatum,  dente  mediano  prominentiore,  utrinque  aculeis  duobus 
margine  instructo,  aculeo  interno  longiore.  Color  olivaceus  vel  glaucus,  vi- 
ridescens.  Long,  corporis  5  poll.  Juniores  laeves,  glabri,  subpellucidi.  A  P. 
lanceifronti  differt  crista  rostri  superiore  minus  expansa  ;  P.  ornato,  rostro  magis 
dentato,  etc. 

Hab. — In  fiuvii  et  rivulis  Sinenses  prope  urbem  "  Canton." 

466.  Palaemon  boninensis,  nov.  sp.  Carapax  laevis.  Rostrum  appendicibus 
ant.  brevius,  crista  superiore  supra  oculos  plus  minusve  convexa,  versus  apicem 
parce  concava,  dentibus  11  ad  13  armata  aequalibus  et  aequidistantibus,  dente 
sexto  supra  oculos  sito ;  crista  inferiore  tridentata.  Antennularura  flagellum 
internum  breve,  externo  dimidia  fere  brevius.  Pedes  robusti;  secundi  paris 
subcylindrici,  granulati  sed  quam  in  multis  speciebus  leviores ;  carpo  manu 
plus  dimidia  breviore ;  digitis  palma  tertia  parte  brevioribus,  granulatis,  non 
pubescentibus,  sparsim  pilosis,  intus  basi  2- vel  3-dentatis,  dentibus  interdum 
fere  obsoletis.  Pedes  postici  breves  crassi,  subtiliter  et  breviter  spinulosi ; 
dactylis  robustis  brevioribus.  Pedes  quinti  paris  mediam  appendicium  ant. 
attingentes.  Color  obscure  viridis  ;  pedum  ambulatoriorum  apices  flavi.  Long, 
corporis  4;  pedum  secundorum  3  poll. 

Hub. — Insulis  "  Bonin  ;  "  in  rivulis  montanis. 

I860.] 


42  PROCEEDINGS  OP  THE  ACADEMY  OF 

467.  Thalassocaris*  lucida.  Regulus  lucidus,  Dana;  U.  S.  Expl.  Exped., 
(Jrust.,  i.  598;  pi.  xxxix.,  f.  5. — In  Oceano  Pacifico ;  lat.  bor.  27^°,  long.,  orient. 
1384°. 

Cadldrus,|  nov.  gen.  Carapax  latiusculus,  dorso  sutura  cervicali  notatus. 
Rostrum  breve.  Oeuli  grandes.  Antennularuni  pedunculus  longus,  gracilis, 
squama  basali  nulla.  Antennarum  appendix  fere  linearis,  basi  angusta,  apice 
truncata.  Maxillipedes  secundi  paris  non  pediformes,  tertii  paris  pediformes, 
robusti,  cylindrici,  exognatho  praediti.  Pedes  exopodo  instructi ;  primi  secun- 
dique  paris  chelati ;  secundi  graciliores  loogi;  reliqui  simplices.  Abdomen 
dorso  inerme ;  segmento  sexto  praelongo,  gracillimo.  Oplophoro  differt  ab- 
domine  et  appendice  antennarum  inermibus,  segmento  penultimo  praelongo, 
etc. 

468.  Caulurus  pelagicus,  nov.  sp.  Rostrum  spiniforme  vel  dentiforme, 
oculis  plus  dimidia  brevius.  Regio  gastrica  dente  mediano  erecto  prope  basin 
rostri  armata.  Margo  carapacis  anterior  dente  praeorbitali,  spina  antennali 
parvula  et  spina  pterygostomiana  armatus.  Antennularum  pedunculus  cara- 
pace non  brevior,  articulo  antepenultimo  articulos  penultimum  et  ultimum  junc- 
tos  superante.  Antennarum  pedunculus  longissimus  filiformis,  ei  antennularum 
multo  gracilior;  appendix  carapacis  longitudine  et  sexies  longior  quam  latior, 
apice  quam  basis  latiore,  rotundato-truncato,  extus  spina  brevi  armato ;  mar- 
gine  appendicis  interno  sparsim  fimbriato  paribus  15  setarum  plumosarum 
gracilibus.  Pedes  secundi  gracillimi  prope  manum  constricti.  Manus  primi 
secundique  paris  breves.  Abdominis  segmentum  sextum  quatuor  praecedeutes 
junctos  fere  superans,  gracillimum,  subcylindricum  ;  lamellae  caudales  seg- 
mento sexto  tertia  parte  breviores.  Translucidus,  visceribus  coccineis.  Long. 
0.25  poll. 

Hab. — In  Oceano  Pacifico,  lat.  bor.,  34°,  long,  orient.  126°;   nocte  repertus. 

Leptochela,J  nov.  gen.  Carapax  laevis,  vix  cristatus,  latere  margineque 
spinis  destitutus.  Rostrum  brevissimum,  spiniforme.  Antennulae  bi-flagel- 
latae.  Mandibulae  inflexae,  late  compressae,  palpo  brevi,  ovato,  uni-articulato 
praeditae.  Maxillipedes  secundi  non  pediformes  endognatbi  art.  ultimo  spinis 
longis  armato.  Maxillipedes  tertii  exognatho  instructi.  Pedes  toti  expodo 
instructi ;  primi  secundique  paris  compressi,  chelati,  manu  gracili,  digitis  longis 
parallelis.  Pedes  postici  breves.  A.bdomen  segmenti  antepenultimi  angulo 
dorsali  postico  plus  minusve  geniculatum  vel  abruptum ;  appendicibus  ventra- 
libus  primi  paris  birameis.  Pasiphaeae  affinis,  mandibulis  vero  palpigeris, 
maxillipedibus  secundis  non  pediformibus. 

469.  Leptochela  gracilis,  nov.  sp.  Corpus  compressum.  Carapax  glaber, 
antrorsum  acute  carinatum,  carina  laevi.  Rostrum  acutum,  oculis  brevius. 
Oculi  breves,  grandiores,  globosi.  Antennulae  oblique  compressae,  corpore 
dimidia  breviores,  flagello  superiore  longiore.  Antennae  vix  antennulis  longiores, 
appendice  minore  acuto-triangulari,  gracili,  sed  pedunculos  antennularum  ali- 
quantum  superante.  Mandibularum  corona  margine  interno  dentata,  medio 
profunde  fissa.  Maxillipedes  ext.  graciles,  apicem  appendicium  ant.  attin- 
gentes,  exognatho  endognathi  art.  antepenultimum  superante.  Pedum  exo- 
podi  longiores,  primi  secundique  paris  apicem  ischii  attirgentes,  posticorum 
medium  meri.  Pedes  primi  secundique  paris  appendices  ant.  superantes ; 
carpo  palma  manus  breviore ;  manu  ad  basin  digitorum  constricta,  digitis 
palma  longioribus.  Pedes  postici  compressi,  minuiscentes,  plus  minusve  late- 
raliter  porrecti,  quam  secundi  paris  plus  dimidia  breviores;  ischio  brevissimo, 
subtus  spina  armato;  dactylo  hirsuto,  apice  rotundato  inermi.  Abdomen 
compressum  antrorsum  ecarinatum,  segmento  antepenultimo  acute    carinato, 

*  Etym.  SdAzo-o-a  mare  ;  *»/>ic,  squilla.    Regulus  nomen  Danae  praeoccupatum. 
f  Etym.  X.O.UW,  caulis,  ouAxcauda. 
j  Etym.  xtTTTog,  tener  ;  ^«a«,  chela. 

[Jan. 


NATURAL   SCIENCES   OF   PHILADELPHIA.  43 

angulo  superiore  postico  spina  armato ;  segmento  ultimo  canaliculato,  apice 
aculeis  duobus  longis  armato,  aliis  brevioribus  interjaceatibus.  Lamella  cau- 
dalis  interna  superne  canaliculata,  externa  margine  exteriore  spinulis  armata. 
Long.  1  poll.  x 

Hab. — Sinu  "  Kagosima;"  in  profundis. 

470.  Leptochela  robusta,  nov.  sp.  Corpus  robustum  minus  compressum- 
Carapax  ecarinatns,  rostro  gracillimo,  oculis  brevius.  Antennulae  carapace  vix 
longiores,  pedunculo  robusto.  Antennarum  appendix  latior,  sed  acute  trian- 
gulata.  Mandibularum  corona  margine  interno  non  fissa.  Pedes  latiores.  Ab- 
domen segmento  antepenultirao  nee  carinatum  nee  spina  armatum.  Praecedenti 
affinis,  sed  omnino  multo  robustior.     Long.  1  poll. 

Hab. — Mari  Sinensi,  prof.  20  org.     Prope  insulam  "  Loo  Cboo"  quoque. 

471.  Sicyonia  cristata,  De  Haan ;  Fauna  Japonica,  Crust.,  194;  pi.  xlv. 
f.  10. — In  sinu  "Kagosima;"  fundo  conchoso  et  arenoso,  prof.  20  org. 

472.  Sicyonia  parvula,  De  Haan ;  1.  c.  195;  pi.  xlv.  f.  6. — In  sinu  "Kago- 
sima." 

473.  Sicyonia  ocellata,  nov.  sp.  Carapax  tomentosus.  Crista  carapacis 
rostrique  convexa,  septem-dentata,  dentibus  antrorsum  magnitudine  decrescen- 
tibus.  Rostrum  angustum,  parce  deflexum,  articulum  antennularum  pedunculi 
penultimum  non  superans,  apice  tridenticulatum,  margine  inferiore  integrum. 
Antennarum  flagellum  depressum  utroque  margine  ciliatum.  Pedes  graciles  ; 
digitis  primi  secundi  tertiique  paris  palmis  longitudine  subaequalibus.  Abdo- 
men profunde  insculptum,  porcis  transversis,  rugatis;  segmentorum  epimeris 
trangularibus,  inermibus ;  segmento  ultimo  basi  lato,  depresso,  extremitatem 
versus,  in  medio  profunde  canaliculato,  apice  aculeis  tribus  instructo,  mediano 
longiore.  Color  griseus,  purpureo-varegiatus  ;  carapax  utrinque  ocello  nigro 
albo-marginato  ornatus,  in  latere  retrorsum  sito ;  abdomen  lateribus  albo- 
maculatum.     Long.  1.25  poll. 

Hab. — Portu  "Hong  Kong;"  in  fundo  conchoso  prof.  8  org.  vulgaris.  In 
mari  Sinensi  quoque,  lat.  bor.  24° ;  ad  prof.  20  org. 

474.  Penaeus  stenodactylus,  nov.  sp.  Descr.  foeminae.  Corpus  compressum, 
nudum.  Carapax  elongatus,  carinatus,  (quarta  parte  posteriore  excepta,)  laevis, 
nisi  dorso  subtiliter  granulato;  spina  hepatica  distincta,  sulcis  proximis  brevi- 
bus  et  tenuibus ;  spina  antennali  minuta,  carina  et  sulco  antennali  obsoletis  ; 
margine  antico  alibi  inermi.  Rostrum  rectum  vel  parum  resimum,  oculis  vix 
longius ;  crista  superiore  8-dentata,  dente  postico  aliis  remoto  et  paullo  ante 
medium  carapacis  sito,  dente  quarto  supra  oculos ;  margine  inferiore  edentulo. 
Oculi  crassi,  articulum  antepenultimum  antennularum  pedunculi  non  superan- 
tes,  articulo  basali  (basiophthalmito)  spina  brevi  ad  angulum  superiorem 
armato.  Antennarum  appendices  longae.  Maxillipedes  ext.  graciles,  appen- 
dices antennarum  superantes.  Pedes  compressi :  digitis  primi,  secundi  tertii- 
que paris  longis.  Pedes  quarti  late  compressi,  hirsuti,  antrorsum  porrecti 
oculos  non  superantes ;  quarti  paris  gracillimi  longissimi,  appendices  ant. 
multo  superantes,  nudi,  extremitates  versus  styliforraes,  dactylo  recto,  dimidiam 
partem  carapacis  longitudine  fere  adaequante.  Abdominis  segmenta  quartum 
quintum  sextumque  carinata ;  segmenti  penultimi  appendix  interna  cultrata, 
quam  externa  multo  augustior.     Pallide  carneus.     Long.  1.5  poll. 

Hab. — Portu  "Hong  Kong;"  fundo  limoso  prof,  sex  org. 

475.  Penaeus  podophthalmus,  nov.  sp.  Descr.  foeminae.  Corpus  elongatum, 
compressum,  superficie  ut  videtur  glabrum,  subtiliter  vero  punctatum.  Carapax 
elongatus,  leviusculus,  cristatus,  (tertia  parte  posteriore  excepta),  spina  hepatica 
minuta,  sulcis  proximis  distinctis  sed  brevibus ;  spina  antennali  brevi,  sulco 
antennali  obsoleto  ;  spina  orbitali  nulla.  Rostrum  breve,  oculis  dimidia  bre- 
vius ;   crista  dorsali  septemdentata,    dente  postico  aliis  remoto  et  ad  tertiam 

I860.] 


44  PROCEEDINGS  OP  THE  ACADEMY  OF 

anteriorein  carapacis  sito,  dente  quarto  supra  orbitam  sito ;  inarginibus  den- 
tiuru  subtiliter  serrulatis ;  raargiue  rostri  inferiore  edentulo.  Oculoruni  pedun- 
culi  valde  elongati  sed  carapace  plus  dimidia  breviores,  articulis  basi  et  coxa 
parvis,  podophthalmito  longo  gracili  ad  basin  turgido.  Antennulae  praelongae, 
carapace  multo  longiores  ;  pedunculo  carapace  tertia  parte  breviore,  articulo 
antepenultimo  ad  podophthalmiti  basin  recipiendum  superne  excavato,  pro- 
cessu  laminiformi  interno  minirao ;  flagellis  aequalibus.  Antennarum  appen- 
dices antennularum  pedunculo  breviores.  Mandibularum  palpi  pergrandes. 
Maxillipedum  externorum  exognathus  non  multiarticulatus.  Pedes  breves 
compressi;  digitis  manuum  longis.  Abdomen  compressum.  Pallide  carneus 
Long.  1.3  poll. 

Hab. — Portu  "  Hong  K3ng ;"  fundo  limoso  prof.  sex.  org. 

476.  Penaeus  canaliculars,  Oliv.  ;  Encyc.  Meth.  660.  M.  Edw. ;  Hist.  Nat. 
des  Crust,  ii.,  414.  (Vix  De  Haan.)—  In  portu  Sinensi  "  Hong  Kong,"  et  ad  insu- 
lam  "Loo  Choo." 

417.  Penaeus  semisulcatus,  De  Haan;  Fauna  Jap.,  Crust.,  191,  pi.  xlvi,  f.  1. 
— Ad  oras  Sinenses  prope  insulam  "  Hong  Kong." 

478.  Penaeus  monodon,  Fabr.  ;  Suppl.,  408.  M.  Edw. ;  Hist.  Nat.  des  Crust., 
ii.  416. — Prope  oras  Sinenses,  lat.  bor.  23°. 

479.  Penaeus  monocerus,  Fabr. ;  Suppl.,  p.  409.  M.  Edw. ;  Hist.  Nat.  des 
Crust.,  ii.  415.  De  Haan ;  1.  c,  192  ;  pi.  xlvi.  f.  2. — Ad  oras  insularum  "  Hong 
Kong"  et  "  Loo  Choo." 

480.  Penaeus  curvirostris,  nov.  sp.  Descr.  foeminae.  Corpus  superficie 
granulis  minutis  acutisque  asperum.  Carapax  fere  ad  extr.  posticam  obtuse 
carinatus  non  vero  canaliculars  ;  sulco  cervicali  antice  distincto,  profundo, 
prope  marginem  anticum  oriente,  retrorsum  attenuato  sulco  cardiaco-branchiali 
continuo,  hoc  latiusculo,  paullo  conspicuo,  porca  laevi  definite ;  spina  hepatica 
valida  extrorsum  prominente  ;  sulco  gastro-hepatico  laevi;  spina  antennali 
longa,  acuta  ;  carina  antennali  fere  acuta,  sulco  laevi,  postice  tomentoso  ;  sulco 
gastro-frontali  ei  P.  monoceri  simile,  minus  profundo ;  spina  orbitali  minuta, 
distincta  vero  et  acuta.  Rostrum  articulum  ultimum  antennularum  pedunculi 
attingens,  curvato-resimum,  apice  gracile  truncatum  vel  subbifurcatum;  crista 
superiore  octo-dentata,  dente  postico  aliis  spatiis  duobus  remoto,  dente  tertio 
supra  orbitas  sito  ;  margine  inferiore  edentulo  ciliato.  Rostri  carinae  laterales 
acutae,  in  carapace  obsolescentes :  sulci  laterales  vero  leves,  fere  obsoleti. 
Antennularum  processus  basalis  interims  gracilis,  minuiscens,  non  spatulatus ; 
flagella  pedunculo  paullo  breviora.  Maxillipedes  externi  extus  nudi.  Pedes 
tertii  paris  basi  secundis  non  angustiores,  spina  destituti.  Pedes  ultimi  gra- 
ciles,  oculis  attingentes.  Sternum  inter  bases  pedum  quartorum  quintorumque 
plus  minusve  scutatum,  inaequale,  medio  profunde  excavatum ;  antrorsum 
obtuse  triangulatum,  margine  dilatato  laminiformi,  arcuato,  paullo  prominente  ; 
uncis  lateralibus  nullis.  Abdomen  segmentis  3tio — 6to  carinatum,  breviter 
quoque  in  secundo  ;  cauda  ei  P.  monoceri  fere  simili.  Long.  3.5  poll.  P.  velulino 
affinis,  rostro  curvato,  carina  antennali  acuta  etiam  differt. 

Hab. — Portu  "  Simoda"  Japoniae. 

481.  Penaeus  velutinus,  Dana;  U.  S.  Expl.  Exped.,  Crust.,  i.  604;  pi.  xl. 
f.  4. — In  mari  et  ad  insulas  Sinenses,  in  sinibus  insulae  "  Ousima,"  et  in  por- 
tibus  "  Kagosima"  "  Simoda"  et  "  Hakodadi"  Japoniae  ;  vulgaris  in  fundis 
arenosis  prof.  5-30  org. 

Microprosthema,*  nov.  gen.  Corpus  depressum,  obesum,  superficie  varie 
sculptura  vel  spinulis  ornatum.  Carapax  minus  induratus,  dorso  sulco  cervi- 
cali valido   notatus.     Rostrum  mediocre,  gracile,  elongato-triangulatum,  non 

*Etym.  /utupo;,  parvus  ;  Trp&rQt/ui*.,  appendix. 

[Jan. 


NATURAL   SCIENCES   OP   PHILADELPHIA.  45 

laminiforme,  dorso  spinis  armatum.  Oculi  parvi.  Antennularum  peduncu- 
lus  brevissimus,  ad  basin  processu  unciformi  extus  praeditus,  lamella  interna 
nulla  ;  flagella  duo,  longa,  cylindrica.  Antennae  in  piano  antennularum  sitae  ; 
pedunculo  etiam  brevissimo,  ad  basin  processu  laminato  cocbleariformi  intus 
instructo,  appendice  minima,  cultrata  vel  sublunata,  pedunculo  extus  adjuncta 
sed  introrsum  porrecta,  margine  interno  longe  ciliata  ;  flagello  mediocris  longi- 
tudinis.  Mandibulae  per-robustae,  processu  antico  obtuso,  edentulo;  processu 
interno  globato  laevi;  palpo  ei  Stenopi  simili.  Maxillipedea  externi  breves, 
sublaminati,  extus  spinis  armati ;  exognatho  longo.  Pedes  exopodo  brevi 
instructi ;  primi  secundique  paris  gracillimi,  manu  minuta  instructi ;  tertii 
paris  grandes,  manu  maxima,  lata,  cristata ;  quarti  quintique  paris  longi,  neque 
annulati,  dactylo  minuto,  biunguiculato.  Abdomen  foeminae'  latum,  appen- 
dicibus  ventralibus  longis  gracilibus,  introrsum  porrectis,  primi  paris  uni- 
rameis. 

482.  Microprosthema  valida,  nov.  sp.  Descr.  foeminae.  Corpus  crassum, 
non  altius  quam  latius.  Carapax  omnino  spinulosus,  spinis  inaequalibus,  in 
dorso  et  regione  hepatica  majoribus,  in  lateribus  fere  longitudinaliter  seriatis; 
margine  antico  circa  basin  antennae  spinis  tribus  armato.  Rostrum  parvum, 
antennarum  pedunculi  longitudine;  crista  dorsali  rostro  duplo  longiore,  sep- 
tem-spinosa  ;  cristis  lateralibus  in  carapace  rostro  divergentibus  et3— 1-spinosis. 
Oculi  parvi,  corneis  pedunculis  angustioribus.  Antennulae  corpore  quarta 
parte  breviores ;  antennae  eo  non  breviores.  Antennarum  appendix  tertiam 
partem  carapacis  longitudine  adaequans  ;  pedunculus  appendice  paullo  brevior. 
Maxillipedes  externi  apicem  appendicium  ant.  attingentes:  iscbio  dilatato 
apice  externo  unispinoso ;  mero  extus  bispinoso.  Pedes  tertii  grandes,  mero 
carpo  aequali  et  quam  ischium  duplo  longiore,  et,  simili  carpo,  trigono,  acute 
granuloso,  marginibus  spinuloso ;  manu  carapace  non  breviore,  duplo  longiore 
quam  latiore,  superne  cristata,  crista  inermi ;  digitis  valde  compressis  non 
hiantibus  ;  pollice  intus  bidentato,  dactylo  unidentato,  dentibus  magnis.  Ab- 
domen carapace  tertia  parte  longius,  medio  (seg.  tertio)  breviter  carinatum ; 
segmentis  lmo — 3tio  transversim  costatis,  et  in  latere  tuberculo  spiniformi 
armatis  ;  epimeris  segmentorum  lmi — ■  5ti  acute  prominentibus  et  carinatis  ; 
segmentis  sexto  ultimoque  planatis  horizontalibus ;  ultimo  lato  tenui,  partim- 
bicarinato,  apice  rotundato,  margine  laterali  unispinoso.  Obscure  fusca ;  uni- 
color.     Long.  0.65;  thoracis  lat.  0.24  poll. 

Hab. — In  sinu  insulae  "  Ousima ;"  sublittoralis,  in  locis  lapillosis  algosisque. 

Genus  Sergestes,  M.  Edw.  Carapax  dorso  sutura  v.  sulco  cervicali  dis- 
tincte  notatus  et  regione  branchiali  longitudinaliter  bicostatus. 

483.  Sergestes  pacificus,  nov.  sp.  Carapax  minus  elongatus,  rostro  bre- 
vissimo conico  resimo,  et  spina  vel  dente  praeorbitali  armatus  ;  spina  hepatica 
quam  in  S.  Frisii  magis  posterior.  Oculi  breves,  articulo  antennularum  basali 
plus  tertia  parte  breviores.  Antennularum  pedunculi  carapace  parce  brevi- 
ores ;  articulo  ultimo  quam  penultimus  multo  longiore.  Pedes  eis  S.  atlantici 
fere  similes,  eis  S.  Frisii  multo  majores ;  primi  paris  quam  maxillipedes  externi 
et  eis  secundi  paris  breviores ;  quarti  paris  eis  tertii  tertia  parte  breviores ; 
quinti  dimidiam  quartorum  fere  adequantes ;  dactylis  quasi  articulatis  longe 
setosis.  Abdominis  segmentum  penultimum,  quartum  quintumque  junctos 
longitudine  fere  aequans ;  lamella  caudalis  exterior  margine  externo  dente 
minuto  infra  medium  armata.     Long.  1.25  poll. 

Hab. — Oceano  Pacifico,  lat.  bor.  27£°,  long,  orient.  138°. 

484.  Sergestes  vigilax,  nov.  sp.  Foeminae  corpus  gracile.  Carapax  elon- 
gatus, gracilis,  sulcis  costisque  distinctis  ;  spina  hepatica  prope  tertiam  anteri- 
orem  sita  minuta,  extrorsum  porrecta.  Rostrum  minutum,  compressum,  sub- 
triangulatum,  resimum,  dorso  convexum.  Oculi  praelongi,  dimidiam  fere 
carapacis  longitudine,  articulum  pedunculi  antennularum  penultimum  supe- 
rantes,  subfungiformes,  corneis  globosis,  pediculis  gracillimis.     Antennularum 

I860.] 


46  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  ACADEMY  OF 

pedunculi  articulus  basalis  minor,  ultimo  brevior.  Antennarum  appendix  ei 
&.  oculati  similis,  extremitatem  versus  angustata,  oculis  longior.  Maxillipedes 
externi  grandes,  dimidia  basali  incrassati,  reliqua  angustati,  articulo  ultimo 
praecedenti  dimidia  fere  breviore,  obtuso,  setarum  fasciculis  tribus  inferne 
instructo.  Pedes  quarti  mediocres.  Abdomen  dorso  inerme  ;  segmento  penul- 
timo  non  duplo  longiore  quam  latiore,  quartum  quintumque  junctos  longitu- 
diae  fere  adaequante;  lamella  caudali  exteriore  extus  dente  minuto  versus 
basin  armato.  Long.  0.75  poll.  S.  oculalo  differt  maxillipedibus  externis  multo 
crassioribus,  et  pedibus  quarti  paris  longioribus.  A  S.  laciniato  oculis  longi- 
oribus. 
Hab. — Oceanp  Atlantico  prope  insulas  "  Azores." 

485.  Sergestes  macrophthalmus,  nov.  sp.  Carapax  spina  bepatica  et  spinis 
gupra-orbitalibus  armatus,  interdum  et  spina  erecta  dorsali  ad  extremitatem 
posticam.  Rostrum  brevissimum,  resimum,  apice  antrorsum  flexum.  Oculi 
praelongi,  fungiformes,  carapace  tertia  parte  breviores,  apicem  pedunculi 
antennularum  fere  attingentes ;  pediculis  gracillimis.  Antennularum  pedun- 
culi art.  ultimus  quam  basalis  non  brevior.  Antennarum  appendix  recta, 
angusta,  regulariter  minuiscens,  apice  truncata,  apicem  antennularum  pedun- 
culi vix  attingens.  Maxillipedes  externi  eis  S.  vigilacis  similes.  Pedes  thora- 
cici  secundi  tertiique  paris  longissimi  filiformes,  apicibus  paullo  incrassati ; 
quarti  paris  (antrorsum  porrecti)  art.  secundum  maxillipedum  ext.  attingentes. 
Pedes  abdominales  mediocres.  Abdominis  segmentum  quintum  interdum  et 
quartum  spina  dorsali  minutissima  armatum  ;  segmentum  penultimum  latum, 
quartum  quintumque  junctos  longitudine  fere  aequans,  subtus  convexum  ;  seg- 
mentum ultimum  parvum.  Lamellae  caudalis  exterioris  margo  externus  supra 
medium  dente  minutissimo  armatus.     Long.  0.7  poll. 

Hab. — Oceano  Pacifico,  lat.  bor.  27|°,  long,  orient.  138£°  ;  etiam  lat.  bor.  35°, 
long.  occ.  155°. 

486.  Sergestes  longicaudatus,  nov.  sp.  Rostrum  minutum,  spiniforme. 
rectum,  horizontale,  dorso  unidentatum.  Oculi  longi  sed  apicem  art.  basali? 
antennularum  pedunculi  vix  attingentes,  clavati,  corneis  vix  discretis.  Anten- 
nularum pedunculi  articulus  basalis  art.  penultimum  et  antepenultimum  junctos 
longitudine  aequans.  Antennarum  appendix  apicem  ped.  antennularum  non 
attingens,  latior,  intus  margine  convexa,  ei  S.  serrulati  similis.  Maxillipedes 
ext.  gracillimi.  Pedes  graciles,  tertii  paris  praelongi,  quarti  paris  non  valde 
breviores.  Abdomen  dorso  inerme ;  segmento  penultimo  praelongo,  quartum 
quintumque  junctos  longitudine  multo  superante,  ultimo  duplo  longiore.  La- 
mellae caudalis  exterioris  margo  externus  infra  medium  dente  armatus,  infra 
denteni  concavus.     Pedes  abdominales  praelongi.     Long.  0.75  poll. 

Hab. — Oceano  Pacifico,  lat.  bor.  40°,  long.  occ.  155°. 

487.  Sergestes  ancylops,  Kroyer ;  Det.  Kongl.  Danske  Vid.  Selsk.  Skrifter. 
[5],  Nat.  og  Math.  Afd.,  4de  Bind;  p.  262;  pi.  iii.  f.  8  a-e.— In  Oceano 
Atlantico  prope  insulam  Madeirae  vulgaris. 

Sergia*  nov.  gen.  Pedes  quarti  quintique  paris  sat  longi  et  daetylo  pal- 
miformi  instructi.     Reliqua  cum  Sergeste  fere  conveniunt. 

488.  Sergia  remipes,  nov.  sp.  Foeminae  carapax  valde  elongatus,  sat  de- 
pressus ;  sulco  cervicali  distincto ;  spina  hepatica  nulla.  Rostrum  minutum 
spiniforme,  acutum,  curvatum,  dorso  dente  vel  spina  armatum.  Oculi  sub- 
fungiformes,  tertiam  .partem  carapacis  longitudine  aequantes,  apicem  art. 
penultimi  antennularum  pedunculi  attingentes.  Antennarum  appendix  linearis, 
oculos  paullo  superans.  Maxillipedes  externi  et  pedes  sex  anteriores  subserrati 
vel  rugoso-marginati  pilis  simplicibus  fasciculati.  Maxillipedes  ext.  peduncu- 
lum  antennularum  paullo  superantes.  Pedes  quarti  quintique  paris  gracile* 
cylindrici,  fere  nudi,  setis  plumosis  sparsis  solum  instructi,  dactylis  lamini- 

*  Sergia,  nom.  propr. 

[Jan. 


NATURAL   SCIENCES   OP  PHILADELPHIA.  47 

formibus  subovatis.  Pedes  quarti  quintis  paullo  longiores  sed  carapace  vix 
longiores.  Pedes  abdominales  longi,  primi  paris  carapace  longiores,  pedunculo 
ramos  fere  adaequante.  Abdomen  dorso  compressum,  segmentis  quinto  sextoque 
acutum  vel  spinigerum ;  segmento  sexto  quinto  longiore  et  spina  minuta  ad  an- 
gulum  infero-posteriorem  armato.  Lamella  caudalis  exterior  margine  externo 
spina  aculeiformi  infra  medium  armata.  Long.  0.6  poll. 
Hab.— Oceano  Pacifico,  lat.  bor.  27£°,  long,  orient.  138.1°. 


The  Mexican  Humming  Birds. 
BY     RAFAEL     MONTES     DE     OCA, 
Of  Jalapa,  Mexico. 
No.  I. 
Campylopterus  De  Lattrei  Gould. 
Mellisuga  De  Lattrei  Gray. 
De  Lattre's  Sabre  Wing,  Gould,  Monograph,  part  x. 

This  beautiful  Humming  Bird,  or  colibri,  is  generally  known  in  Mexico  by 
the  name  of  Chupa-mirto  real  azul,  or  Royal  blue  Myrtle-sucker.  It  comes 
abundantly  to  the  vicinity  of  Jalapa,  Coatepec  and  Orizaba,  in  the  months  of 
October  and  November,  and  is  mostly  found  eating  the  honey  of  a  plant  called 
Masapan.  It  is  one  of  those  birds  that  do  not  rise  early  in  the  morning  to 
hunt  their  food,  for  very  few  are  found  earlier  than  nine  o'clock  in  the  morn- 
ing, and  from  that  time  till  twelve  or  one  o'clock  appears  to  be  their  breakfast 
hours.  During  this  time  they  are  but  very  seldom  seen  to  alight,  and  for  a 
very  short  time  only  in  any  one  place,  for  they  go  constantly  from  flower  to 
flower,  sucking  the  honey,  and  from  one  place  to  another,  describing  in  their 
flight  a  part  of  a  circle,  and  sometimes  almost  touching  the  ground.  In  the 
same  manner  also  they  are  seen  to  come,  so  that  by  placing  oneself  where  there 
are  such  plants  in  blossom,  it  is  easy  to  shoot  several  specimens  in  one  morn- 
ing without  walking  very  far  or  moving  much  about.  During  the  remainder 
of  the  day,  very  few  are  to  be  seen,  and  it  is  very  probable  that  they  go  into  the 
woods,  where  they  find  certain  kinds  of  mosquitoes,  with  which  I  have  often 
found  their  craws  well  filled. 

This  bird  is  extremely  shy,  but  is  very  easily  tamed,  most  probably  on  account 
of  its  very  gluttonous  disposition  ;  for  once  caged  and.  provided  with  a  little  cup 
containing  syrup,  without  any  trouble  he  finds  it  readily  when  he  is  hungry, 
and  I  have  seen  them  feasting  in  this  manner,  half  an  hour  after  having  been 
made  prisoners.  It  is  difficult  to  keep  them  alive,  and  I  have  never  been  able 
to  preserve  them  for  a  longer  time  than  two  months,  which,  I  think,  is  more 
on  account  of  the  want  of  exercise  than  of  the  coming  of  the  winter  season  as 
is  generally  believed  here,  for  I  have  found,  though  rarely,  in  the  middle  of 
what  we  call  a  severe  winter,  the  handsomest  specimens  that  I  have  ever 
seen. 

The  aversion  that  the  males  of  this  species  bear  to  each  other  as  well  as  to 
all  of  their  kind  is  very  remarkable.  It  is  very  seldom  that  two  meet  together 
without  there  ensuing  an  aerial  battle  worthy  of  a  most  magnificent  picture. 
It  commences  with  a  sharp,  choleric  shriek,  which  makes  them  swell  out  their 
throats,  and  raising  all  the  feathers  of  their  bodies,  and  spreading  open  their 
tails,  they  begin  to  fight  with  their  wings  and  bills,  and  the  least  powerful  soon 
tumbles  to  the  ground  or  else  runs  away.  I  have  never  seen  one  of  these  bat- 
tles last  longer  than  about  ten  seconds,  and  in  the  specimens  that  I  have  had 
under  my  notice  in  cages,  nearly  always  this  fighting  has  ended  in  the  splitting 
of  the  tongue  of  one  of  the  two,  which  then  surely  dies  on  account  of  not  beintr 
able  to  eat. 

The  place  of  incubation  of  this  bird  is  very  probably  Guatemala,  where  it  i? 

I860.] 


48  PROCEEDINGS  OP  THE  ACADEMY  0E 

also  found  abundantly,  and  to  which  country  it  certainly  migrates  in  the  latter 
part  of  November.  I  have  never  found  nor  heard  that  it  goes  farther  north 
than  the  first  mentioned  places  above.     The  nest  I  have  never  found. 

This  species  of  humming  bird,  in  the  general  appearance  of  its  body,  is  of  a  deep 
metallic  shining  turquoise  blue,  of  the  most  beautiful  shade  ;  the  upper  part  of 
the  head  is  brown  tinged  with  bronze  green,  the  upper  wing  and  tail  coverts 
shining  bronze  green,  the  wing  feathers  are  purplish  black  with  the  vanes  of 
the  three  principal  ones  on  each  side  black,  very  wide  and  resembling  whale- 
bone. The  tail  is  bright  bluish  black,  with  the  three  feathers  of  each  side 
having  about  three  quarters  of  an  inch  of  a  pure  white,  and  sometimes  the 
fourth  partakes  of  a  little  of  the  white  also.  The  upper  part  of  each  leg  is 
covered  with  white  downy  feathers,  running  apparently  into  each  other  in  a 
line  of  the  same  color  below  the  under  tail  coverts  ;  the  feet  are  purplish  black  ; 
the  bill  black,  resembling  whalebone.  Total  length  of  this  specimen  is  5| 
inches,  wing  3^,  tail  2|,  bill  1^  inches. 

The  female  is  about  half  an  inch  smaller  than  the  male,  and  her  appear- 
ance is,  in  the  upper  part  of  the  body,  upper  wing  and  tail  coverts,  of  a  metal- 
lic bronze  green  ;  the  upper  part  of  the  head  is  bronze,  tinged  with  yellowish 
bronzed  green.  The  breast  is  of  a  light  iron  gray,  with  the  sides  tinged  with 
bronze  green.  The  throat  feathers  have  the  points  tinged  with  blue  of  the 
same  shade  as  the  male.  The  wings  are  purplish  black,  but  the  vanes  of  the 
side  quills  are  not  half  so  strong  as  those  of  the  male  ;  the  tail  is  very  much 
like  that  of  the  male,  with  the  difference  of  the  two  middle  feathers,  which 
are  bronzed  green.  The  under  tail  coverts  are  tinged  with  the  same  color,  with 
the  edges  of  light  iron  gray,  like  the  breast.  The  feet  and  bill  are  of  the  same 
size  and  color  as  those  of  the  male. 

The  Reports  of  the  Publication  Committee  and  the  Committee  on 
Proceedings  were  read  and  adopted. 

Pursuant  to  the  By-Laws  of  the  Academy  an  election  of  the  members 
of  the  Standing  Committees  for  1860  was  held,  with  the  following  re- 
sult : — 

1.  Ethnology,  J.  A.  Meigs,  S.  S.  Haldeman,  T.  Gr.  Morton.  2. 
Comparative  Anatomy  and  General  Zoology,  Joseph  Leidy,  J.  M. 
Corse,  J.  H.  Slack.  3.  Mammalogy,  John  LeConte,  J.  H.  Slack, 
Wm.  Camac.  4.  Ornithology,  John  Casein,  T.  B.  Wilson,  S.  W. 
Woodhouso.  5.  Herpetology  and  Ichthyology,  Robert  Bridges,  J.  Ches- 
ton  Morris,  John  L.  LeConte.  6.  Conchology,  T.  A.  Conrad,  W.  G. 
Binney,  W.  S.  W.  Ruschenberger.  7.  Entomology  and  Crustacea, 
R.  Bridges,  John  L.  LeConte,  E.  T.  Cresson.  8.  Botany,  E.  Durand, 
A.  J.  Brazier,  J.  Carson.  9.  Geology,  I.  Lea,  Chas.  E.  Smith,  J.  P. 
Lesley.  10.  Mineralogy,  Wm.  S.  Vaux,  J.  C.  Trautwine,  W.  Gr.  E. 
Agnew.  11.  Palseontology,  Joseph  Leidy,  T.  A.  Conrad,  Wm.  M. 
Gabb.  12.  Physics,  B.  H.  Rand,  Wm.  M.  Ubler,  Jas.  C  Booth. 
13.  Library,  Wm.  S.  Vaux,  Robert  Bridges,  Joseph  Leidy.  14.  Pro- 
ceedings, John  L.  LeConte,  Joseph  Leidy,  Win.  S.  Vaux,  W.  S.  W. 
Ruschenberger,  J.  C.  Fisher. 

A  communication  was  read  from  Mr.  P.  B.  Duchaillu,  giving  a  state- 
ment of  claims  made  by  him  against  the  Academy,  and  on  motion,  the 
subject  was  referred  to  a  committee  of  five,  consisting  of  Messrs. 
Ruschenberger,  Jeanes,  Vaux,  Powel  and  Stewardson. 

[Jan. 


«. 


NATURAL   SCIENCES   OP  PHILADELPHIA.  49 


February  7th. 
Mr.  Lea,  President,  in  the  Chair. 

Forty-nine  members  present. 

The  following  were  presented  for  publication  : 

"  Descriptions  of  new  species  of  American  Fluviatile  Gasteropods, 
by  J.  G.  Anthony." 

"  Supplement  to  a  Catalogue  of  the  Venomous  Serpents  in  the 
Museum  of  the  Academy  of  Natural  Sciences,  by  E.  D.  Cope." 

"  Catalogue  of  the  Calamarian  Serpents  in  the  Museum  of  the 
Academy  of  Natural  Sciences,  with  notes  and  descriptions,  by  E.  D. 
Cope." 

Mr.  Binney  called  attention  to  a  species  of  Leda,  presented  this  evening, 
which,  Dr.  Gould  states,  is  common  to  Japan  and  Massachusetts. 

A  discussion  on  geographical  distribution  then  took  place,  in  which  Dr. 
Le  Conte  mentioned  that  he  had  prepared  a  map  representing  the  provinces 
of  geographical  distribution  of  Coleoptera  in  the  territories  of  the  United 
States  ;  he  divides  the  temperate  part  of  the  continent  into  three  (or  perhaps 
four)  districts  :  1.  Atlantic,  extending  westwardly  to  the  longitude  of  the 
mouth  of  the  Platte  ;  2.  Central,  extending  from  the  mouth  of  the  Platte  to 
the  Sierra  Nevada ;  3.  Pacific,  including  the  water  shed  of  the  maritime 
Pacific  coast.  These  districts  are  each  divided  into  several  provinces,  and  with 
larger  collections  the  Central,  as  at  present  defined,  may  be  found  to  be  in 
reality  two  districts,  limited  by  the  Rocky  Mountains  ;  of  these  the  eastern 
will  be  called  the  Central,  and  the  western  the  Interior  district.  This  map 
accompanies  a  memoir  on  the  Coleoptera  of  Kansas,  Nebraska  and  New  Mexico, 
published  in  the  Smithsonian  Contributions  to  Knowledge. 

Mr.  Binney  remarked,  that  having  prepared  for  the  Smithsonian  Institution 
a  catalogue  of  the  terrestrial  and  fluviatile  Gasteropods  of  North  America,  he 
was  able  to  present  the  following  results  : 

Of  the  boreal  regions  but  little  is  known.  The  only  data  we  have  are  from 
Greenland.  Both  the  fresh  water  and  land  species  are  peculiar  to  that  country, 
excepting  the  European  Helix  hortevsis,  which  has  been  introduced  also  in 
Canada  and  New  England. 

Of  Mexico  also  but  little  is  known.  A  few  of  its  land  species  are  found  in 
Texas  ;  they  are,  however,  confined  to  that  region,  not  extending  farther  north. 
The  genera  are  more  tropical  than  in  the  rest  of  the  continent.  Fluviatile 
species  are  very  rare  in  Mexico,  judging  from  the  few  data  we  have.  The 
species  appear  different  from  those  of  the  Atlantic  region. 

On  the  west  coast  the  species  of  land  shells  are  quite  distinct  from  those  of 
the  Atlantic  region,  excepting  Bulimus  zebra ;  the  genera,  however,  are  the 
same,  though  fewer  in  number.  Among  the  fluviatile  species  are  found  eleven 
species  of  Pulmonates,  which  also  inhabit  the  Atlantic  region. 

In  the  Atlantic  region  are  two  or  three  species  of  land  shells  found  in 
Europe,  and  a  few  fluviatile  Pulmonates.  The  occurrence  of  the  Asiatic 
species  quoted  from  the  United  States  may  well  be  doubted. 

The  following  table  shows  the  facts  presented  by  Mr.  Binney.  It  is  neces- 
sarily imperfect,  owing  to  the  small  amount  of  material,  the  somewhat  con- 
fused synonymy,  &c. 

Column  1  contains  the  species  found  in  the  Pacific  region. 

Column  2,  those  of  the  Atlantic  region. 

Column  3,  those  common  to  the  Pacific  and  Atlantic  region. 

I860.]  4 


50 


PROCEEDINGS   OF   THE   ACADEMY    OF 


Column  4,  those  of  Mexico,  excepting  the  west  coast. 
Column  5,  those  common  to  Mexico  and  the  Atlantic  region. 
Column  6,  those  of  Greenland. 


Class  GASTEROPODA. 
Order  PECTINIBRANCHIATA. 


Suborder  ROSTRIFERA. 


Family. 


Subfamily.         Genus. 


AMPULLARIAD^E Ampullaria. . . 

CYCLOPHORID^I Cyclotinj! Cyclotus 

CYCLOPHORIN^.Cyclophorus. .. 

LiciNW.fi Ctenopoma.. . . 

CTCLOSTOMiN^i.Tudora 

Cistula 

Chondroperna. 
HELICINIDiE Helicina 

Schazicheilae. . 

LITTORINTME Amnicola 

TRUNCATTELLID^: Truncatella. .. 

MELANIADiE Melania 

Gyrotoma 

Leptoxis 

Io 

VIVIPARIDJE Viriparus 

Bithinia 

VALVATmS Valvata 


Order  SCUTIBRANCHIATA. 

Suborder  PSEUDOBRANCHIA. 

PROSERPINAD,E Ceres. . . . 


Order  PNEUMOBRANCH1ATA. 
Suborder  GEOPHILA. 


TESTACELLIDjE., 

ARIONIMS 

HfcLICIDJi 


VERONICELLID-E. 
ONCHIDIADiM , 


.Glandina 

.Arion 

.Tebennophorus... . 

Limax 

Aritrina 

Simpulopsis. .. 

Succinea 

Helix  

Bulimus 

Spiraxis , 

Orthalicus 

Macroceramus. 

Achatina 

Pupa 

Vertigo 

Cylindrella 

.Veronicella 

.Onchidium 


Suborder  LIMNOPHILA. 

ATJRICULIDJK Melampin^.  .  .Melamptw.. 

Acriculin^e.  .  .Alexia 

Blauneria.. 

Leuconia. . . 

Carychium. 
LIMNEAD.E Limnaea 

Pompholyx . 

Physa 

Planorbis... 

Ancylua 


0 
0 
0 
0 
0 
0 
0 
0 
0 
2 
1 
9 
0 
3 
10 
4 
0 
0 


2 
1 

0 

1 
0 
o 
4 
20 
S 
0 

1 

0 

1 

0 
0 
0 
0 

1 


1 

0 
0 
0 
0 

13 
1 

10 

11 

4 


4 
0 
0 
1 
0 
0 

1 

6 
0 

18 

4 

292 

10 

54 
0 

60 
0 
8 


6 

1* 
2 
3 
1 
0 
15 
111J 

"I 
0 
2 

1 
3 
12 
4 
4 
1 


8 

1 

1 

1 

1 

45 

0 

30 

31 

10 


117     770    I  11    177 


5 

1 
2 

0 
1 
1 
2 
22 
3 
0 
1 
4 
0 
0 
0 
1 
0 

1 


16 
0 
0 
0 

1 

3 

2 

31 

26 

17 

3 

0 

5 

0 

0 

15 

0 

0 


Total 


0 
0 
0 

It 
1 

0 

1 

2|| 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

1 

0 
0 

I) 

0 


17     13   1048 


9 

1 

2 

1 

1 

1 

3 

26 

3 

20 

5 

305 

10 

57 

10 

66 

1 

9 


22 

2 

2 

4 

3 

3 

22 

167 

48 

17 

4 

1 

9 

13 

4 

19 

1 

1 


9 
1 

1 
1 
1 

61 
1 
41 
44 
14 


•  Imported. 

%  Two  species  imported. 


t  Found  also  In  the  Atlantie  region,  and  imported. 
I  One  species  imported. 


[Feb. 


NATURAL   SCIENCES   OF   PHILADELPHIA.  51 


February  Wth. 
Mr.  Lea,  President,  in  the  Chair. 

Forty-nine  members  present. 

A  paper  was  presented  for  publication,  entitled  : 

"  Descriptions  of  new  species  of  Cyrena  and  Corbicula  in  the  Cab- 
inet of  the  Academy  of  Natural  Sciences  of  Philadelphia,  by  Temple 
Prime. 

Mr.  Lea  remarked  that  ■when  Mr.  Binney,  at  the  last  meeting,  called  the  at- 
tention of  the  members  to  a  reversed  Paludina  on  the  table,  the  discussion  tak- 
ing a  wide  range,  he  (Mr.  Lea)  stated  that  an  abnormal  reversed  character 
sometimes  occurred  in  the  genus  Unio,  and  he  then  mentioned  that  hehad  spe- 
cimens of  various  species  where  this  condition  was  very  remarkable.  He  also 
then  stated  that  among  Helices,  in  a  semi-domesticated  position — in  gardens, 
hedge-rows,  &c,  in  England  and  on  the  continent — it  was  not  a  very  rare  cir- 
cumstance to  find  heterostrophe  individuals;  he  had  quite  a  number;  but  that 
among  the  immense  number  of  our  own  species  which  had  passed  under  his 
eyes,  he  had  found  only  a  single  specimen  which  was  heterostrophe,  viz.  :  a 
Helix  hirsuta,  Say.  Mr.  Lea  went  on  to  say  that  he  had  prepared  himself  to  ex- 
hibit, to-night,  his  specimens  alluded  to,  and  to  which  he  now  called  the  atten- 
tion of  the  members.  He  was  glad  to  see  by  the  December  number  of  the  Pro- 
ceedings of  the  Boston  Soc.  Nat.  Hist,  received  by  post  to-day,  that  Prof.  Agas- 
siz  had  made  a  communication  to  the  Society  on  "reversed  bivalve  shells,"  ex- 
hibiting a  specimen  of  the  Unio  ligamentinus,  Lamarck,  observing  that  "  it  was 
quite  rare  and  generally  not  easily  observed."  Mr.  Lea  exhibited  twenty-one 
specimens  of  various  species  which  were  all  abnormal  as  regarded  their  lateral 
teeth,  some  having  a  single  one  in  both  valves,  others  being  simply  reversed  as  to 
the  double  and  single  cardinal  and  lateral  teeth ;  others  having  double  lateral 
teeth  in  both  valves,  and  others  again  having  a  treble  lateral  tooth  in  the  left 
valve,  and  a  double  one  in  the  right  valve.  The  first  reversed  Unio  he  had  seen 
was  a  specimen  of  complanalus  from  the  mill-dam  at  Bristol,  Penna.,  about  25 
years  since ;  afterward  he  had  found  one  in  the  Schuylkill,  and  subsequently 
found  them  occasionally  among  thousands  of  specimens  sent  by  friends  from 
various  parts  of  the  United  States.  From  Dr.  Lewis,  of  Mohawk,  he  had  re- 
ceived some  very  fine  specimens. 

The  following  table  will  exhibit  the  various  abnormal  forms  of  Uniones  in 
Mr.  Lea's  collection : 

Single  lateral  tooth  in  each  valve. 

Unio  complanalus,  Lea,  (Mya  complanata,  Solan.)  Schuylkill  River,  Pa. 
"    occidens,  Lea,  Wisconsin. 
"    purpuratus,  Lam.,  Claiborne,  Ala. 
"    ventricosus,  Bar.,  St.  Lawrence,  Montreal. 

Single  lateral  tooth  in  the  left,  and  double  in  the  right  valve. 

Unio  complanatus,  Lea,  2  specimens,  Bristol,  Pa.,  and  Mohawk,  N.  Y. 
"    alatus,  Say,  Ohio  River. 
"    Hopetonensis,  Lea,  Darien,  Geo. 
"    nasutus,  Say,  Arkansas. 
<(    radialus,  Lam.,  Petersburg,  Vir. 

Double  lateral  tooth  in  both  valves. 

Unio  complanatus,  Lea,  6  specimens,  Mohawk,  N.  Y. 
"  "  "     Genessee,  N.  Y. 

«  "  "     Schuylkill,  Pa. 

"    corrugalus,  Lam.,  Pondichery,  India. 

I860.] 


52  PROCEEDINGS  OP  THE  ACADEMY  OF 

Treble  lateral  tooth  in  the  left,  and  double  in  the  right  valve. 
Unio  corrugatus.  Lam.,  Bengal. 

Treble  lateral  tooth  in  the  left,  and  partly  treble  in  the  right  valve. 
JJnio  gibbosus,  Barnes,  Fox  River,  Wisconsin. 
"     corrugatus,  Lam.,  India. 

Mr.  Lea  stated  that  in  his  first  paper  published  in  the  Trans.  Am.  Phil.  Soc. 
in  1827,  he  paid  attention  to  the  difference  of  the  teeth,  and  in  1829  he  publish- 
ed a  description  of  that  remarkable  Unio  from  the  Schuylkill,  described  under 
the  name  of  heterodon,  from  the  very  peculiar  and  aberrant  form  of  the  double 
lateral  tooth  being  placed  in  the  right  valve,  and  the  single  in  the  left  one. 
This  was  the  first  form  of  the  kind  which  had  ever  come  under  his  notice.  A 
few  years  subsequently  he  found  the  first  specimen  of  an  abnormal  character, 
conforming  exactly  to  the  normal  condition  of  the  heterodon,  and  this  was  in  the 
Bristol  specimen.  Since  that  period  he  observed  closely  the  abnormal  forms  of 
the  species,  and  the  result  is  given  in  the  previous  table.  But  it  must  be  im- 
pressed on  the  zoologist's  mind,  that  the  form  of  teeth  which  is  normal  in  one 
species,  may  be  abnormal  in  another,  because,  while  there  is  impressed  on 
every  species  a  law  as  regards  its  form, — and  the  general  one  of  this  species  of 
Unio  is  to  have  the  lateral  tooth  double  in  the  left,  and  single  in  the  right 
valve,  and  the  cardinal  either  the  same  or  double  in  both, — yet  aberrant  forms 
from  this  are  quite  numerous,  as  will  be  found  in  the  following  table  of 
species.  He  wished  the  attention  of  the  members  to  the  fact  that  what 
was  abnormal  in  some  individuals  of  a  species,  would  be  perfectly  normal 
in  others ;  thus,  in  complanatus,  when  the  lateral  teeth  are  found  double  in  the 
right,  and  single  in  the  left,  they  are  reversed,  and  therefore  abnormal  ;  but  in 
the  heterodon  this  condition  of  the  teeth  is  normal,  and  so  it  will  be  with  other 
conditions  of  other  species,  even  so  far  removed  from  the  typical  Unio  as  in  the 
ezimius,  Lea,  from  Siam,  which  has  a  treble  lateral  tooth  in  the  left,  and  a  dou- 
ble one  in  the  right  valve  as  its  normal  form,  for  this  is  imitated  by  the  speci- 
men of  corrugatus  exhibited,  which  has  the  treble  tooth  in  the  left  valve,  and 
double  one  in  the  right,  which  in  this  case  is  remarkable,  its  normal  condition 
being  that  of  the  typical  Unio. 

In  the  following  table  will  be  found  most  of  the  species  which,  while  they 
are  perfectly  normal,  are  still  aberrant  from  the  typical  Unio,  all  of  them  but 
two  having  been  described  by  Mr.  Lea. 

Cardinal  tooth  single  in  both  valves. 

Unio  Bengalensis,  Lea,  Bengal. 

Cardinal  tooth  double  in  the  right,  and  single  in  the  left  valve. 

Unio  Corrianus,  Lea,  Bengal. 

"  lamcllatus,  Lea,  Bengal. 

"  bilineatus,  Lea,  Bengal. 

"  contradens,  Lea,  Java? 

"  gravidus,  Lea,  Siam. 

"  tumidulus,  Lea,  Siam. 

"  humilis,  Lea,  Siam. 

"  Sagittarius,  Lea,  Siam. 

"  substriatus,  Lea,  Siam. 

"  Dunkerianus,  Lea,  Brazil. 

"  Cambodianus,  Lea,  Siam. 

"  eonsobrinus,  Lea,  China. 

"  Layardii,  Lea,  Ceylon. 

"  plicatulus,  Lea,  Borneo. 

"  vittatus,  Lea,  Australia. 

"  Wilsonii,  Lea,  Australia. 

"  Mauriiianus,  Lea,  Indian  Ocean. 

[Feb. 


NATURAL   SCIENCES   OF   PHILADELPHIA.  53 

Unio  bulloides,  Lea,  Rio  Plata,  S.  Am. 
"     atratus,  (Niaa,  Swain.)  Chili. 
"     Araucanus,  Philippi,  Chili. 
"    piceus,  Lea,  Uruguay,  S.  Am. 

Cardinal  and  lateral  teeth  double  in  both  valves. 
Unto  phaselus,  Lea,  Siam. 
"     scobinatus,  Lea,  Siam. 

Lateral  tooth  double  in  the  right  valve  only. 
Unto  heterodon,  Lea,  Penn. 

Lateral  tooth  double  in  both  valves. 
Unio  nucleus,  Lea,  Siam. 

Lateral  tooth  treble  in  the  left,  and  double  in  the  right  valve. 
Unio  eximius,  Siam. 

Cardinal  tooth  treble  in  the  right  valve. 
Unio  funebralis,  Lea,  Uruguay  River,  S.  Am. 

Cardinal  tooth  treble  in  both  valves,  and  lateral  tooth  treble  in  the  right,  and  double 

in  the  left  valve. 
Unio  trifidus,  Lea,  Buenos  Ayres,  S.  Am. 

It  is  not  pretended  that  the  last  table  is  entirely  complete.  The  object  is  ac- 
complished to  shew  that  the  teeth  of  different  species  vary  normally,  and  that 
individuals  of  the  species  vary  abnormally. 

As  regards  the  genus  Triquetra,  Klein,  (ffyria,  Lamark,)  which  has  cardinal 
and  lateral  teeth  in  both  valves,  so  far  as  observed  the  lateral  tooth  in  the 
left  valve  is  double,  and  in  the  right  single. 

The  cardinal  tooth  in  both  valves  is  usually  lamellar  and  multiplied,  and 
articulate  closely.  In  some  cases  it  is  much  longer  than  in  others  of  the 
same  species.  In  one  specimen  of  T.  subviridis,  Klein,  in  Mr.  Lea's  cabinet,  the 
the  cardinal  tooth  is  almost  the  same  length  of  the  lateral  tooth ;  and  in  two 
specimens  both  teeth  have  transverse  striae  like  Prisodon,  Schum.  (Castalia, 
Lam.)  which  of  course  is  an  aberrant  form.  The  Triquetra  contorta,  Lea,  is  an 
aberrant  species,  the  cardinal  teeth  in  both  valves  being  obtusely  conical  and 
double  in  both  valves.  I  have  never  met  with  any  abnormal  form  of  teeth  in 
any  of  the  species  of  Triquetra,  but  so  few  specimens  get  into  the  cabinets  that 
if  they  do  exist  none  have  yet  been  detected. 

The  genus  Prisodon,  the  teeth  of  which  are  so  nearly  the  same  as  those  of 
Unio  as  to  induce  M.  Deshayes  to  put  it  in  that  genus,  are  almost  identical 
with  some  of  the  species,  except  in  character  of  transverse  parallel  striae ; 
and  even  this  characteristic  of  the  genus  is  absent  in  some  of  Mr.  Lea's 
specimens  of  truncatus,  Schum.,  (ambigua,  Lam.)  If,  however,  the  lobes  of 
the  mantle  are  united  behind  so  as  to  form  two  tubes,  there  would  be  no  pro- 
priety in  placing  it  with  the  Uniones,  as  the  mantle  is  never  united  in  that  part 
in  them. 

Prof.  R.  E.  Rogers  made  some  remarks  on  the  debitumenization  of  coal, 
and  also  communicated  tbe  following  facts  having  reference  to  the  propaga- 
tion of  concussion  from  rock-blasting  to  strata  at  a  distance,  as  exemplified 
in  the  effect  upon  the  water  of  wells. 

A  well,  sixty  feet  in  depth,  with  the  water  rising  within  ten  feet  of  the  sur- 
face, had,  previous'  to  the  occurrence,  been  yielding  a  large  supply  of  water 
to  an  extensive  factory,  when,  immediately  upon  the  discharge  of  a  heavy 
blast  in  a  stone  quarry  about  four  hundred  yards  distant,  the  water  began  to 
fall,  and  soon  altogether  disappeared. 

I860.] 


5-4  PROCEEDINGS   OF   THE   ACADEMY   OP 

Another  well,  remote  from  the  last  mentioned  one,  had  been  yielding  a  good 
supply  of  water  for  more  than  a  year.  A  blast  of  ordinary  violence  was  dis- 
charged in  an  excavation  for  stone,  three  hundred  yards  distant  from  it,  where- 
upon the  water  quickly  and  entirely  disappeared.  The  proprietor  directed  a 
boring  to  be  made  in  the  bottom  of  the  well  six  feet  in  depth  and  a  blast  to 
be  set  off  in  it.  , 

The  result  was  as  curious  as  the  one  which  preceded  it.  The  water  at  once 
reappeared,  and  the  supply  has  since  been  steady  and  in  great  abundance. 

Dr.  Leidy  observed  that  the  remarks  of  Prof.  Rogers,  had  reminded  him  of 
the  so-called  Hillsboro  coal  or  Albertite,  of  Albert  Co.,  New  Brunswick.  This 
substance  Dr.  L.  regards  as  a  variety  of  Asphaltum  and  not  as  coal.  The 
latter  consists  of  the  fossil  remains  of  plants.  The  Albertite  is  a  product  re- 
sulting from  the  distillation  of  bitumenous  coals  or  shales.  Coal  always  pre- 
sents in  microscopic  section  the  remains  of  vegetable  structure  ;  Albertite  is 
perfectly  amorphous.  Coals  are  stratified  or  interstratified  with  other  sub- 
stances ;  the  Albertite  presents  many  evidences  of  being  an  injected  material 
into  fissures  of  the  surrounding  shales. 

The  number  of  the  Proceedings  for  January  was  laid  upon  the 
table. 


February  21sf. 
Mr.  Lea,  President,  in  the  Chair. 

Thirty-five  members  present. 

A  paper  was  presented  for  publication  entitled : 

"  The  Mexican  Humming  Birds,  No.  2,  by  Rafael  Montes  de  Oca." 

Mr.  Slack  remarked  that  the  two  teeth  of  the  Mosasaurus  missouriensis,  pre- 
sented by  him  this  evening,  had  been  procured  for  him  from  the  marl  pits  of 
Mr.  Coward,  about  two  miles  west  of  Freehold,  N.  J.,  through  the  exertions  of 
Mr.  Hopper,  of  Freehold,  N.  J.,  a  gentleman  to  whom  the  Academy  is  largely 
indebted  for  cretaceous  fossils.  This  is  the  eleventh  specimen  of  the  Mosa- 
saurus missouriensis  identified  by  Mr.  Slack,  found  within  a  radius  of  ten  miles 
from  Monmouth  Court  House. 

Dr.  Leidy  announced  that  the  valuable  collection  of  fossils  of  Mr. 
Eli  Bowen  had  been  purchased  by  subscription  and  presented  to  the 
Academy. 


February  2Sth. 
Mr.  Lea,  President,  in  the  Chair. 

Forty-four  members  present. 

The  Report  of  the  Biological  Department  for  the  present  month  was 
read. 

On  report  of  a  committee  of  the  Biological  Department,  the  paper 
entitled,  "  Method  of  painting  moist  anatomical  preparations,  by  H. 
D.  Schmidt,  M.  D.,"  was  recommended  for  publication  in  the  Pro- 
ceedings of  the  Department. 

And  the  following  were  ordered  to  be  printed  in  the  Proceedings : 

[Feb. 


NATURAL   SCIENCES   OF  PHILADELPHIA.  55 

Illustrations  of  some  Fossils  described  in  the  Proceedings  of  the  Academy  of 

Natural  Sciences. 

BY   T.    A.    CONRAD   AND   WM.    M.    GABB. 

PI.  1,  fig.  1,  a,  b,  c,  Myalina  deltoidea  Gabb,  Proc.  Acad.  1859,  p.  297. 

PI.  1,  fig.  2,  Posidonia  Mo  ore  i  Gabb,  Proc.  Acad.  1859,  p.  297. 

PI.  1,  fig.  3,  Myacites  pensylvanicus  Conrad,  Proc.  Acad.  1857, 
p.  166. 

The  first  two,  Myalina  deltoidea  and  Posidonia  Moorei  are  carbon- 
iferous ;  Myacites  pensylvanicus  is  triassio,  from  Phoenix ville,  Penn- 
sylvania. 


Descriptions  of  New  Species  of  American  Fluviatile  Gasteropods. 
BY   J.    G.    ANTHONY. 

Melania  angustispira,  Anthony. — Shell  thick,  elongate,  very  slender ;  color 
reddish-brown,  with  a  narrow  pale  line  at  the  suture;  whorls  9-10,  lower  ones 
subconvex,  smooth,  upper  ones  flattened  and  carinate  near  their  bases  :  sutures 
slight;  aperture  narrow-ovate,  within  pale  purple;  columella  regularly  curved: 
sinu3  not  remarkable. 

Hab. — Tennessee. 

My  Cab. ;  Cab.  Hugh  Cuming,  London  ;  A.  N.  S.  Philada. ;  State  Collection, 
Albany,  N.  Y. ;  Smithsonian  Collection,  Washington,  D.  C. 

Obs. — May  be  compared  with  M.  ezilis,  Hald.,  than  which  it  is  more  slender, 
more  attenuate,  and  of  more  solid  texture ;  its  color  is  also  entirely  different, 
being  more  like  M.  Warderiana,  Lea,  but  wanting  the  peculiar  bulbous  form  of 
that  species.  The  carinations  do  not  extend  to  the  three  lower  whorls  ;  upon 
these  they  are  entirely  wanting.     It  is  a  peculiarly  slender  and  graceful  species. 

M.  decorata,  Anthony. — Shell  short,  thick,  ovate ;  whorls  about  five,  but 
truncate  so  as  to  show  only  two  or  three  remaining  ;  whorls  prominently  ribbed 
and  intersected  by  revolving  strise,  forming  nodules  where  they  cross  each 
other;  dark  bands  also  revolve  around  the  whorls,  giving  them  a  highly  deco- 
rative appearance ;  columella  often  thickened  by  a  callous  deposit ;  sinus 
small. 

Hab. — Oostanulla  River,  Georgia. 

My  Cab.;  Cab  Hugh  Cuming,  London;  A.  N.  S.  Philada.;  State  Collection, 
Albany,  N.  Y. ;  Smithsonian  Collection,  Washington,  D.  C. 

Obs. — I  collected  some  two  hundred  specimens  of  this  species  in  Oostanulla 
River,  Ga.,  in  1853,  and  then  supposed  they  would  prove  to  be  merely  the 
young  of  M.  ccelatura,  Con.  Closer  examination  and  comparison,  however, 
has  convinced  me  that  they  are  not  identical.  Many  of  the  specimens  are 
decidedly  mature,  and  differ  from  "  ccelatura"  by  the  greater  regularity  of  their 
folds,  which  are  also  interrupted  by  a  revolving  raised  line  near  the  sutures, 
and  by  their  dark  bands  and  less  elongate  form  ;  cannot  well  be  compared  with 
any  other. 

M.  adusta,  Anthony. — Shell  conical,  smooth,  shining;  color  dark  brown, 
with  a  pale  line  near  the  sutures ;  whorls  7-8,  flat ;  body  whorl  rather  large, 
subangulated  and  with  somewhat  coarse  lines  of  growth ;  sutures  distinct,  but 
not  remarkable ;  aperture  ovate,  dark  purple  within ;  outer  lip  curved,  colu- 
mella deeply  rounded,  a  broad  sinus  at  base. 

Hab. — Tennessee. 

My  Cabinet;  Cab.  H.  Cuming,  London;  Cab.  A.  N.  S.  Philada.;  State  Col- 
lection, Albany,  N.  Y. ;  Smithsonian  Collection,  Washington,  D.  C. 

I860.] 


56  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  ACADEMY  OF 

Obs. — A  neat,  pretty  species,  of  rather  plain  appearance.  Compared  with  M. 
gracilior,  nob.,  it  is  broader,  shorter,  and  of  darker  color ;  the  broad  deep  cinc- 
ture on  the  body-whorl  and  beautiful  red  bands  in  the  interior,  so  conspicuous 
in  M.  gracilior,  are  also  wanting.  From  "  atbleta"  it  differs  by  its  shorter,  more 
acute  form,  and  by  the  absence  of  folds.     It  is  less  slender  than  M.  viridula. 

M.  bicincta,  Anthony. — Shell  conical,  elevated,  spire  very  acute ;  whorls  7, 
upper  ones  bicarinate,  and  body  whorl  encircled  by  three  or  four  carinae,  the 
upper  two  of  which  are  prominent,  while  the  lower  two  are  often  striae  merely  ; 
color  dark  olive  brown,  very  shining,  and  relieved  by  a  faint  or  yellow  narrow 
band  near  the  suture;  sutures  distinct;  aperture  ovate,  and  brown  within; 
columella  deeply  indented. 

Hab. — Tennessee. 

My  Cabinet ;  Cab.  Hugh  Cnming,  London  ;  A.  N.  S.  Philada. ;  State  Collection, 
Albany,  N.  Y.  ;  Smithsonian  Collection,  Washington,  D.  C. 

Obs. — A  beautifully  distinct  and  well  marked  species  of  that  group  which  M. 
bella,  Conrad,  may  be  considered  most  fitly  to  represent.  May  be  distinguished 
from  M.  bella  by  its  broader  and  more  acute  form,  more  distinct  carination  and 
absence  of  the  beaded  line  so  characteristic  of  that  species.  Lines  of  growth 
conspicuous  and  crowded.  Differs  from  M.  bicostata,  nob.,  by  its  less  robust 
form,  darker  color,  and  by  the  form  of  its  spire,  which  diminishes  more  rapidly 
towards  the  apex. 

M.  abscida,  Anthony. — Shell  ovate,  smooth,  olivaceous,  thick ;  spire  obtuse, 
composed  of  five  low  whorls  nearly  flat ;  body  whorl  large,  occupying  nearly 
the  entire  length  of  the  shell ;  aperture  not  broad  but  long,  subrhombic,  more 
than  half  the  length  of  the  shell;  columella  deeply  rounded  and  indented, 
outer  lip  much  curved  and  produced  ;  sinus  broad  and  conspicuous. 

Hab. — Alabama.     My  Cabinet. 

Obs. — A  ponderous  species,  whose  chief  characteristic  is  its  square  form  and 
short  truncate  spire,  resembling  in  that  respect  M.  planospira,  nob.  It  differs 
from  that  species,  however,  by  its  more  elongate  form,  narrow,  rhombic  aper- 
ture, and  by  having  several  revolving  striae  at  base.  It  is  a  solid  shell  of  com- 
pact texture,  and  seems  to  be  rare,  as  only  two  specimens  have  come  under  my 
notice. 

M.  bicostata,  Anthony. —  Shell  conical,  light  horn  color,  rather  thick;  spire 
elevated,  acute;  whorls  11-12,  strongly  carinate  near  the  apex,  and  decidedly 
80  on  each  succeeding  whorl,  not  excepting  even  the  body-whorl  in  most  cases, 
though  sometimes  obsolete  there;  carinae  often  in  pairs,  near  to,  and  parallel 
with  each  other;  sutures  deeply  impressed,  often  with  a  decided  furrow  at  that 
point,  caused  by  the  carinae.  Aperture  broadly  elliptical,  or  subrhombic ; 
within  dirty  white  or  obscurely  banded  ;  columella  deeply  rounded,  with  a  well- 
marked  sinus  at  base. 

Hab. — Tennessee,  near  Athens. 

My  Cabinet;  Cab.  Hugh  Cuming,  London;  Cab.  A.  N.  S.  Philada.;  State 
Collection,  Albany,  N.  Y. ;  Smithsonian  Collection,  Washington,  D.  C. 

Obs. — Appears  to  be  a  very  abundant  and  rather  variable  species.  Several 
hundred  individuals  have  come  under  my  notice.  It  cannot  well  be  confounded 
with  any  other  species,  though  of  a  form  by  no  means  uncommon.  The  sharp 
double  carina  will  at  once  generally  determine  it.  Occurs  abundantly  near 
Athens,  in  small  streams. 

M.  fdnebralis,  Anthony. — Shell  conic,  smooth,  solid,  of  a  dark  chesnut 
color;  spire  elevated  and  generally  abruptly  truncate;  whorls  from  3  to  5  only 
remaining,  slightly  eonvex  ;  aperture  ovate,  within  bluish;  columella  white, 
tinged  occasionally  with  purple;  sinus  small. 

Hab. — Tennessee. 

My  Cabinet;  Cab.  Hugh  Cuming,  London;  A.  N.  S.  Philada.;  State  Coll., 
Albany,  N.  Y. ;  Smithsonian  Collection. 

[Feb. 


NATURAL   SCIENCES   OF   PHILADELPHIA.  57 

Obs A  very  neat,  pretty  species,  with  no  very  decided  character  to  distin- 
guish it  from  allied  species.  May  be  compared  with  M.  brevispira,  nob.,  but  is 
far  more  solid  in  its  texture,  of  a  darker  color,  and  its  surface  is  more  polished 
and  shining ;  much  less  slender  too  than  brevispira,  and  that  species  is  never  so 
abruptly  decollate.     It  appears  to  be  an  abundant  species. 

M.  glauca,  Anthony. — Shell  conical,  folded,  of  a  green  color  on  the  lower 
whorls,  often  modified  by  a  brown  tinge  on  the  upper  ones ;  whorls  10,  slightly 
convex,  with  prominent  longitudinal  ribs,  obsolete  on  the  body- whorl;  sutures 
well  defined,  but  not  deeply  marked  ;  aperture  ovate,  livid  within  and  with 
occasionally  a  faint  rosy  tinge  there;  columella  angulated  at  the  middle;  sinus 
well  defined. 

Hab. — Tennessee.     My  Cabinet. 

Obs. — A  stout  species,  with  prominent,  curved  ribs  on  all  the  upper  whorls, 
those  on  the  body-whorl  being  less  clearly  defined  or  else  absolutely  wanting. 
Color  a  beautiful  apple-green,  relieved  by  a  broad  yellow  band  near  the  suture  ; 
and  this  color  often  passes  into  a  yellowish  brown  on  the  upper  whorls.  Near 
the  apex  the  folds  are  often  traversed  by  four  or  five  prominent  striae,  which 
pass  over  without  being  interrupted  by  the  longitudinal  ribs.  May  be  com- 
pared with  M.  viridula,  nob.,  as  to  color,  but  is  less  slender,  and  the  ribs  at 
once  distinguish  it. 

M.  infrafasciata,  Anthony. — Shell  conical,  smooth,  solid,  of  a  pale  brown 
color,  form  moderately  slender  and  elevated;  whorls  8-9,  decollate,  slightly 
concave;  sutures  distinct;  lines  of  growth  curved  and  very  distinct ;  body- 
whorl  decidedly  concave,  with  a  well-marked  ridge  revolving  near  the  summit 
of  the  aperture,  so  as  to  make  a  tolerably  sharp  angle  near  the  middle  of  the 
body-whorl ;  two  or  three  coarse  striae  revolve  parallel  with  it ;  below  this  is  a 
dark  brown  band,  continued  around  the  base  of  the  shell ;  aperture  rhombic- 
ovate,  livid  and  banded  within  ;  columella  strongly  incurved,  with  a  callous 
deposit  its  whole  leDgth  and  well-defined  sinus  at  base. 

Eab. — Tennessee. 

My  Cab.;  Cab.  H.  Cuming;  A.  N.  S.  Philada. ;  State  Coll.,  Albany,  N.  Y. ; 
Smithsonian  Collection. 

Obs. — Compared  with  M.  gradata,  nob.,  it  is  more  elongate,  more  solid,  and 
has  not  the  carina  and  regularly  graded  whorls  so  characteristic  of  that  species. 
Less  conical  than  M.  canaliculata  Say,  and  less  broad.  Like  M.  annulifera, 
Con.,  in  form,  but  has  not  the  revolving  costae  of  that  species. 

M.  padcicosta,  Anthony. — Shell  conical,  nearly  smooth,  of  a  dark  greenish 
horn  color ;  spire  obtusely  elevated ;  whorls  nearly  flat,  with  a  few  distinct 
longitudinal  ribs  on  the  upper  ones ;  body- whorl  entirely  smooth  ;  sutures  well 
marked;  aperture  ovate,  within  livid  or  purple;  columella  rounded;  sinus 
small. 

Hab. — Tennessee. 

My  Cab.;  Cab.  H.  Cuming,  London;  A.  N.  S.  Philada.;  State  Coll.,  Albany, 
N.  Y. ;  Smithsonian  Collection. 

Obs. — Belongs  to  a  group  of  which  nitens  may  be  considered  the  type. 
From  that  species  it  differs,  however,  by  its  more  robust  form  and  stronger 
ribs.  There  is  also  a  marked  peculiarity  in  this  species  not  often  observed  in 
the  genus;  the  spire  being  acute  at  the  apex,  increases  regularly  for  the  first 
four  or  five  turns,  and  then  suddenly  expanding,  becomes  as  it  were  distorted 
in  appearance.  The  ribs  are  distant  from  each  other  and  very  strongly 
expressed,  differing  in  this  respect  from  M.  alhleta,  which  it  otherwise  resembles. 
It  is  a  beautiful  and  appears  to  be  an  abundant  species. 

M.  occulta,  Anthony. — Shell  conic,  smooth,  rather  thin  ;  color  lemon-yellow, 
inclining  to  brown,  with  a  darker  brown  band  on  each  whorl,  increasing  to  two 
on  the  body-whorl ;  whorls  7-8,  rather  convex ;  suture  deeply  impressed  ;  aper- 
ture ovate,  within  dusky  white,  with  the  outer  bands  seen  faintly  through  its 

I860.] 


58  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  ACADEMY  OF 

substance ;  columella  beautifully  rounded  ;  outer  lip  produced,  a  small  sinus  at 
base. 

Hab. — Wisconsin. 

My  Cab. ;  Cab.  H.  Cuming,  London;  A.  N.  S.  Philada. ;  State  Coll.,  Albany, 
N.  Y. ;  Smithsonian  Collection. 

Obs. — A  very  beautiful  and  lively  species.  Bears  some  resemblance  to  M. 
pulchella,  nob.,  but  is  less  elongate,  more  delicately  colored,  and  of  a  less  solid 
texture ;  the  bands  are  often  obsolete,  and  never  so  distinctly  expressed  as  in 
pulchella ;  its  spire  is  also  more  acute  and  the  whorls  more  rounded.  Com- 
pared with  M.  brevispira,  nob.,  which  in  form  it  resembles,  it  is  more  attenuate, 
has  a  greater  number  of  whorls,  and  its  bands  also  distinguish  it.  Its  delicate 
yellow  color  also  is  not  a  common  character  in  the  genus,  and  forms  a  promi- 
nent mark  for  determination. 

M.  opaca,  Anthony. — Shell  ovate,  thick,  smooth,  of  a  dark  brown  color ;  spire 
short,  composed  of  about  six  convex  whorls;  body-whorl  large,  subangulated 
in  the  centre ;  sutures  indicated  by  a  narrow  lighter  line,  and  very  distinct ; 
aperture  ovate,  livid  within ;  columella  indented  and  tinged  with  purple  ;  outer 
lip  a  little  curved ;  sinus  not  remarkable. 

Hab. — Alabama.     My  Cabinet. 

Obs. — A  dusky  inconspicuous  shell  of  no  great  beauty.  Only  two  specimens 
have  ever  come  under  my  notice,  but  I  am  persuaded,  nevertheless,  that  they 
are  distinct — cannot  well  be  compared  with  any  other  species.  More  smooth 
than  M.  athleta,  nob.,  and  devoid  of  ribs,  which  that  species  has.  Its  dark, 
dirty,  brown  color  down  to  about  the  middle  of  the  body-whorl  and  pale  olive- 
green  underneath,  together  with  its  purple  columella,  may  sufficiently  distin- 
guish it. 

M.  pulchereima,  Anthony. — Shell  conical,  carinate,  elevated,  acute ;  whorls 
6-8,  flat,  upper  ones  obscurely  ribbed  longitudinally  ;  body  whorl  sharply  angu- 
lated,  with  a  dark  brown  band  directly  upon  the  carina,  and  2  or  3  below  it, 
one  of  which  is  very  near  the  carina.  Upper  whorls  with  2  bands  each,  widely 
separated;  sutures  distinct,  rendered  more  so  by  the  neighboring  carina;  aper- 
ture ovate,  within  3  or  4  banded ;  columella  rounded  and  indented,  sinus  small. 

Hab. — North  Carolina. 

My  Cabinet,  Cabinet  H.  Cuming,  London ;  Acad.  Nat.  Sci.  Phila. ;  State 
Collection  Albany,  New  York  ;  Smithsonian  Collection. 

Obs. — A  small  but  remarkably  beautiful  species ;  its  bright  yellow  ground  and 
conspicuous  dark  lines  give,  by  contrast,  a  lively  and  pleasant  character  to  the 
shell.  Compared  with  M.  nigrocincta,  nob.,  it  is  a  larger  species,  its  colors 
are  more  decided,  and  its  carina  are  also  a  prominent  mark  of  difference.  M. 
clara  nob.  is  a  larger  and  more  globose  species,  its  bands  are  broader  and  it  has 
no  carina.  It  seems  to  be  an  abundant  species,  varying  occasionally  in  some 
of  its  characters,  but  always  easily  recognized.  More  than  100  specimens  are 
before  me. 

M.  tenebrocincta,  Anthony. — Shell  conic-ovate,  smooth,  rather  thick ;  spire 
rather  obtusely  elevated;  whorls  6-7,  nearly  flat,  but  with  an  obtuse  carina  be- 
low the  middle  of  each,  and  one  more  decided  between  that  and  the  suture ; 
suture  well  marked  and  with  a  pale  band  near  it ; — lines  of  growth  decided  ; 
aperture  linear-ovate,  within  dusky  and  having  2  dark  bands  there, — sinus  very 
decided. 

Hab. — Tennessee. 

My  Cabinet,  Cabinet  H.  Cuming,  London;  Acad.  Nat.  Sci.  Phila.;  State 
Collection,  Albany,  New  York  ;  Smithsonian  Collection. 

Obs. — Compared  with  M.  valida  nob.  it  is  smaller,  less  robust,  more  slender,  and 
may  also  be  distinguished  from  that  plain  species  by  its  more  lirely  exterior — the 
dark  brown  band  or  bands,  contrast  finely  with  the  general  color  of  the  shell, 
and  with  a  light  band  near  the  sutures. 

[Feb. 


NATURAL   SCIENCES   OF  PHILADELPHIA.  59 

M.  valida,  Anthony. — Shell  ovate-conic,  smooth,  olivaceous,  thick  ;  spire 
obtusely  elevated,  decollate;  whorls  flat,  only  about  6  remaining;  sutures  dis- 
tinct; lines  of  growth  very  strong,  amounting  to  varices  on  the  body  whorl; 
aperture  ovate,  bluish  white  withia ;  columella  strongly  curved,  or  indented 
about  the  middle,  white;  sinus  well  developed  at  base;  body  whorl  obscurely, 
concentrically  striate,  the  striae  forming  faint  nodules  where  they  intersect  the 
varices. 

Hab. — Tennessee. 

My  Cabinet ;  Cab.  of  H.  Cuming,  London ;  A.  N.  S.  Phila. ;  State  Coll.  Alb. 
N.  Y.  ;  Smithsonian  Collection. 

Obs. — This  species  may  be  compared  with  M.  tenebrocincta  herein  described — 
from  that  species  it  may  be  distinguished  by  its  more  robust  form,  uniform  dark 
olivaceous  color  and  the  absence  of  the  dark  bands  so  conspicuous  in  that 
species.  It  has  a  very  solid,  compact  form,  and  this  with  its  regular,  uniform 
size  up  to  the  point  of  decollation,  may  serve  to  distinguish  it  from  all  others. 

M.  gravida,  Anthony. — Shell  ovate,  smooth,  thick;  spire  obtusely  elevated; 
whorls  7-8,  nearly  flat ;  sutures  well  defined  ;  lines  of  growth  fine,  but  very  dis- 
tinct ;  body  whorl  large,  subangulated ;  aperture  oval,  livid  inside  ;  columella 
deeply  indented,  covered  with  a  white  callus ;  outer  lip  curved  forward,  and 
with  the  columella  forming  a  small  sinus  at  base. 

Hab. — Alabama.     My  Cabinet. 

Obs. — A  stout,  heavy  shell,  in  form  and  color  resembling  in  some  degree 
M.  solida,  Lea,  but  is  more  ovate  than  that  species.  Color  light  brown, 
smooth  but  not  very  shining — lines  of  growth  very  distinct  and  curved.  A  few 
indistinct  strice  occur  at  the  base  of  the  shell — the  lower  part  of  the  columella 
is  often  tinged  with  a  golden  hue. 

M.  grossa,  Anthony. — Shell  ovate,  folded,  thick  ;  spire  obtusely  elevated,  com- 
posed of  about  8  convex  whorls  rapidly  attenuating  to  an  acute  apex  ;  whorls 
folded,  except  the  last  two  ;  body  whorl  tumid,  smooth  ;  color  of  epidermis  light 
greenish  olive;  aperture  elliptical,  whitish  inside ;  columella  rounded;  outer 
lip  much  curved,  with  a  well  marked  sinus  at  base. 

Hab. — Tennessee.     My  Cabinet. 

Obs. — A  shore  thick  species  whose  chief  characteristics  are  its  bulbous  form, 
and  short  but  prominent  ribs  on  the  upper  whorls.  All  the  whorls  but  the  last 
are  remarkably  narrow  and  crowded— lines  of  growth  prominent — 4  or  5  striae 
revolve  s-round  the  base  or  the  shell.  Resembles  M.  glandula,  nob.,  in  form,  but  its 
different  color  and  texture,  with  its  prominent  ribs,  will  at  once  distinguish  it. 

M.  ponderosa,  Anthony. — Shell  conic,  broad,  smooth,  olivaceous,  thick  ;  spire 
considerably  but  not  acutely  elevated;  whorls  7-8,  subconvex;  lines  of  growth 
curved  and  strong;  sutures  distinct;  aperture  rhombic,  rather  small,  whitish 
within  ;  columella  indented,  outer  lips  much  curved  forwards  forming  a  broad 
well  marked  sinus  at  base. 

Hab. — Tennessee.     My  Cabinet. 

Obs. — One  of  the  most  ponderous  of  the  genus.  In  form  it  resembles  JW. 
canaliculata,  Say,  but  has  not  the  channel  of  that  species,  and  differs  also  in  the 
aperture.  The  body  whorl  is  strongly  keeled  about  the  middle  and  has  another 
and  less  clearly  defined  carina  about  midway  between  the  first  and  the  suture 
above.  The  lines  of  growth  are  very  strong  and  occasionally  varicose.  A 
strong  deposit  of  white  callus  is  found  upon  the  columella,  which  is  much 
thickened  near  the  base. 

M.  TvEniolata,  A^nthony. — Shell  conic-ovate,  striate,  thick;  spire  elevated 
but  not  acute,  composed  of  6-7,  nearly  flat  whorls  ;  sutures  not  distinct ;  aper- 
ture sub-rhombic,  small,  banded  within  ;  columella  indented,  callous  at  its  lower 
portion,  and  with  a  small  but  distinct  sinus  at  base. 

Hab. — Alabama.     My  Cabinet. 

Obs. — A  fine,  showy,  robust  species,  of  a  dark  yellow  color,  enlivened  by 
I860.] 


60  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  ACADEMY  OF 

several  dark  brown  bands,  generally  2  on  each  whorl ;  body  whorl  angulated  : 
with  one  band  directly  upon  the  sharp  angle,  another  in  close  proximity,  and 
a  third  quite  distant  and  near  the  base  of  the  shell.  Band  obsolete  on  the  first 
two  or  three  whorls.     Surface  coarsely  striate  and  obscurely  ribbed. 

Melania  glans,  Anthony,  being  preocupied,  I  propose  to  change  the  name 
to  M.  glandula. 

M.  assimilis,  Anthony. — Shell  small,  short,  conic,  not  thick;  spire  acute, 
composed  of  about  7  flat  whorls  ;  sutures  very  distinct,  of  a  light  horn  color; 
aperture  small,  ovate,  dusky  within  ;  columella  indented  ;  body  whorl  angu- 
lated  ;  sinus  not  broad,  but  well  formed. 

Hab. — Tennessee.      My  cabinet. 

Obs. — A  small  delicate  species ;  compared  with  M.  pallidula,  nob.,  it  is  more 
slender  and  elevated,  has  a  greater  number  of  whorls,  and  is  devoid  of  bands. 
From  M.  angulata,  nob.,  it  differs  in  being  more  slender,  more  carinate,  and 
haring  a  more  elevated  spire. 

M.  cubicoides,  Anthony. — Shell  ovate,  smooth,  thick;  whorls  6 — 1,  flat,  the 
upper  ones  rapidly  enlarging  to  the  body  whorl,  which  is  broad,  and  acutely 
angulated ;  sutures  distinct,  rendered  more  so  by  a  sharp  carination  on  the 
lower  part  of  each  whorl;  aperture  broadly  ovate,  within  whitish ;  columella 
deeply  indented  ;  sinus  small. 

Hab. — Wabash  River,  Indiana.     My  Cabinet. 

Obs. — One  of  the  short,  thick  species,  in  form  not  unlike  M.  cuspidala,  nob., 
but  differing  by  its  sharp  carinated  body  whorl  and  imbricated  spire  ;  the  body 
whorl  is  also  strongly  striate  and  obscurely  ribbed;  these  longitudinal  ribs  are 
very  faint,  but  sufficiently  distinct,  at  the  sharp  carina  near  the  summit  of  the 
aperture  to  modify  its  outline  into  a  waving  subnodulous  line. 

M.  hybrida  Anthony. — Shell  conical,  elevated,  nearly  smooth,  horn  colored; 
whorls  8 — 9,  upper  ones  carinated  deeply,  lower  ones  entirely  smooth ;  color 
reddish  brown,  or  dark  horn  color  ;  sutures  distinctly  impressed  ;  aperture 
small,  ovate,  tinged  with  rose  color  or  violet  within  ;  columella  rounded  but 
not  deeply  indented  ;  sinus  small. 

Sab. — Tennessee. 

My  Cabinet ;  Cab.  H.  Cuming,  A.  N.  S.  Philada. ;  State  Coll.,  Albany,  N.  Y. ; 
Smithsonian  Collection,  Washington,  D.  C. 

Obs. — A  neat,  pretty  species,  with  no  very  strong  distinctive  characters  ; 
from  intertezta,  nobis,  which  it  somewhat  resembles ;  it  may  be  distinguished 
by  its  less  acute  form,  less  numerous  whorls,  and  by  its  want  of  reticulated  sur- 
face so  peculiar  to  that  species.  Bears  some  resemblance,  to  M.  bella,  Con., 
but  differs  in  form  of  outline  and  aperture,  and  has  no  beaded  line  ;  is  also 
more  elevated  than  M.  bella. 

M.  versipellis,  Anthony.— Shell  small,  ovate,  folded,  rather  thin  ;  spire  not 
elevated,  but  acute,  composed  of  about  7  flat  whorls  ;  whorls  of  the  spire  all 
more  or  less  folded,  penult  and  body  whorl  smooth  :  body  whorl  bulbous,  sub- 
angulated,  concentrically  striate ;  color  olivaceous,  ornamented  with  dark 
brown  bands,  of  which  four  are  on  the  body  whorl  and  one  only  on  the  spiral 
ones,  located  upon  or  near  the  shoulder  of  each  volution :  aperture  elliptical, 
about  half  the  length  of  the  shell,  banded  within. 

Hab. — Tennessee.     My  Cabinet ;  Cab.  H.  Cuming. 

Obs.— A  small  and  somewhat  variable  species  as  to  coloration,  though  very 
constant  in  other  characters;  it  is  sometimes  very  dark  both  as  to  bands  and 
general  color,  and  often  very  light  with  bands  scarcely  distinguishable  and 
many  varieties  between  ;  it  seems  not  to  be  a  very  common  species. 

M.  cognata,  Anthony. — Shell  ovate,  short,  smooth,  moderately  thick  ;  spire 
obtusely  elevated,  consisting  of  5—6  convex  whorls  ;  color  brownish-yellow 
with  three  dark  brown  bands  about  the  middle  of  the  body  whorl,  and  one 
very  obscure  one  at  the  suture  ;  suture  deeply  impressed  ;  aperture   broad- 

[Feb. 


NATURAL    SCIENCES    OP   PHILADELPHIA.  61 

ovate,  not  large,  exhibiting  the  bands  inside;  columella  deeply  rounded,  in- 
dented and  callous;  sinus  none. 

Hab. — Tennessee.     My  Cab. ;  Cab.  H.  Cuming;  A.  N.  S.,  Philada. 

Obs. — A  short,  pretty  species,  with  no  very  marked  characters,  though  easily 
recognised  as  distinct  on  examination ;  in  form  and  coloring  somewhat  like 
M.  co?npac(a,  nobis,  but  far  less  solid  and  heavy  than  that  species  ;  the  spire  is 
more  elevated  and  acute  and  the  surface  smoother.  It  most  nearly  resembles, 
perhap3,  M.  coronilla,  nobis,  but  is  less  elevated  and  has  not  the  peculiar 
crowning  ribs  of  that  species,  which  is  sufficient  at  once  to  distinguish  it.  It  is 
also  more  robust. 

M.  corneola,  Anthony. — Shell  small,  conical,  rather  thin  ;  spire  short  and  not 
very  acute,  composed  of  five  or  six  subconvex  whorls  ;  whorls  all  more  or  less 
folded  and  with  revolving  raised  striae  which  give  them  a  subnodulous  appear- 
ance ;  the  body  whorl  has  four  or  five  faint  bands  which  appear  also  within 
the  aperture ;  aperture  small,  ovate,  sinus  small. 

Hab. — Alabama.     My  Cabinet. 

Obs. — This  is  a  small  and  not  very  remarkable  species,  nor  can  it  well  be 
compared  with  any  other.  One  is  at  first  view  forcibly  reminded  of  Columbella 
avara,  Say,  which  it  resembles  both  in  size  and  general  appearance.  The 
bands  alluded  to  are  often  interrupted  and  never  very  fully  expressed ;  body 
whorl  subangulated  below  the  middle  ;  does  not  seem  to  be  a  very  abundant 
species.     Only  six  individuals  are  before  me. 

M.  grata,  Anthony. — Shell  conic,  elevated,  smooth,  thick;  whorls  9,  flat, 
terminating  in  an  acute  apex,  the  first  three  or  four  whorls  being  carinated ; 
color  light  greenish-yellow,  ornamented  by  a  single  dark  band  on  the  spiral 
whorls,  and  four  similar  bands  on  the  body  whorl,  giving  the  shell  a  truly 
lively  and  beautiful  appearance  ;  sutures  very  distinct ;  aperture  ovate,  banded 
within  ;  columella  deeply  indented  and  curved  at  base,  where  there  is  a  small 
but  rather  broad  sinus. 

Hab. — Alabama.     My  Cabinet. 

Obs. — The  colors  in  this  species  are  finely  contrasted,  and  the  general  ap- 
pearance is  very  lively  and  pleasing:  the  bands  on  the  body  whorl  are  not 
uniformly  distributed,  the  upper  and  lower  ones  being  widely  separated,  while 
the  central  ones  are  very  close  together  and  less  distinct.  Altogether  it  is  one 
of  our  most  beautiful  species. 

M.  germana,  Anthony. — Shell  carinate  on  the  body  whorl  ;  form  rhombic  ; 
substance  rather  thin  ;  varying  in  color  from  ash  grey  to  dark  brown  ;  whorls 
six,  upper  ones  smooth ;  suture  very  distinct ;  aperture  rhombic,  within 
brownish,  with  a  white  area  near  the  outer  edge  ;  columella  rounded  or  angu- 
larly indented,  slightly  callous  ;  sinus  small. 

Hab. — Cahawba  River,  Alabama.     My  Cabinet. 

Obs. — This  is  another  of  the  short,  rhombic  species,  which  are  represented 
most  fitly  by  M.  rhombica,  nob.,  and  includes  M.  angulata,  nob.,  M.  cubicoides, 
nob.,  M.  crislata,  nob.,  and  many  others.  From  M.  rhombica,  it  differs  in  being 
shorter  and  less  slender,  and  by  wanting  the  regular  concentric  striae  so  con- 
spicuous on  the  upper  half  of  that  species  ;  it  is  also  less  slender  than  M.  angu- 
lata, nob.,  and  more  solid.  From  all  other  species  it  may  readily  be  distin- 
guished. 

M.  grisea,  Anthony. — Shell  ovate,  smooth,  thick,  of  a  dull  grey  color ; 
whorls  7,  convex;  sutures  very  distinct;  body  whorl  obscurely  ribbed,  and 
having  two  or  three  inconspicuous  bands  revolving  around  it ;  aperture  large, 
ovate,  banded  within  ;  columella  deeply  indented,  with  a  white  callus,  unusu- 
ally thickened  at  the  summit  of  aperture  ;  sinus  broad  but  not  distinct. 

Hab. — Tennessee  River,  North  Alabama.     My  Cabinet. 

Obs. — A  single  specimen  only  of  this  species  has  come  under  my  notice,  but 
I  cannot  consider  it  referable  to  any  described  species.     The  bands  are  very 

I860.] 


62  PROCEEDINGS  OP  THE  ACADEMY  OF 

obscure,  scarcely  perceptible,  and  those  within  the  aperture  are  arrested  before 
reaching  the  edge  of  the  lip.  The  ribs  which  are  inconspicuous  on  the  spire 
become  more  decided  on  the  body  whorl,  and  sometimes  appear  as  varices 
there ;  the  spire  is  very  obtusely  elevated. 

M.  iostoma,  Anthony. — Shell  ovate-conic,  smooth  ;  spire  obtusely  elevated  ; 
whoils  about  six,  subconvex ;  body  whorl  exhibiting  uncommonly  strong  lines 
of  growth,  curved  and  varicose  ;  color  greenish  olive,  shining  ;  sutures  dis- 
tinct ;  body  whorl  strongly  but  not  sharply  angulated  on  the  middle ;  aperture 
broad-ovate,  within  light  purple,  which  becomes  very  deep  on  the  columella, 
which  is  regularly  rounded  :  outer  lip  somewhat  produced,  and  having  a  well 
developed  sinus  at  base. 

Hab. — Tennessee. 

My  Cabinet;  Cab.  Hugh  Cuming,  London;  A.  N.  S.,  Philada. ;  Smithsonian 
Collection. 

Obs. — This  species  approaches  nearest  in  form  and  color  to  M.  fflans,  nob., 
now  changed  to  glandula,  from  which  it  diiFers  in  being  less  globular,  of  a 
lighter  color  generally,  and  by  the  angulated  body  whorl.  Compared  with  M. 
pinguis,  Lea,  it  is  less  obese,  more  elongate,  and  has  not  the  rapidly  attenuat- 
ing spire  of  that  species.     From  all  others  it  is  readily  distinguished. 

M.  intkrtexta,  Anthony. — Shell  conical,  acute,  and  highly  elevated  ;  whorls 
about  ten,  each  strongly  ribbed  longitudinally  and  furnished  also  with  revolv- 
ing stria;,  which  becoming  more  elevated  near  the  suture,  arrest  the  ribs  at  that, 
point ;  sutures  decidedly  impressed  ;  aperture  pyriform,  not  large,  whitish 
within  ;  columella  slightly  rounded,  not  indented  ;  sinus  distinct,  but  small. 

Hab. — Tennessee. 

My  Cab.;  Cab.  H.  Cuming;  A.  N.  S.,  Philada.;  State  Coll.,  Alb.,  N.  Y. ; 
Smithsonian  Collection. 

Obs. — A  very  abundant  species.  About  two  hundred  specimens  are  now  be- 
fore me,  and  present  characters  remarkably  uniform.  May  be  compared  with 
M.  bella,  Conrad,  but  differs  by  its  more  elongate  and  sharply  elevated  form  ;  its 
ribs  are  more  decided,  and  it  has  not  the  bead-like  prominences,  so  common  in 
M.  bella,  and  kindred  species.  From  M.  arachnoidea,  nob.,  it  may  be  distin- 
guished by  its  less  elongate  but  more  acute  form,  difference  of  aperture  and 
less  number  of  whorls;  the  striae  revolve  around  the  whorls  and  over  the  folds 
without  being  arrested  by  them,  giving  the  surface  a  woven  appearance  :  hence 
its  name. 

M.  rigida,  Anthony. — Shell  conic,  elevate,  carinate,  rather  thin  ;  whorls  8 — 9, 
carinate  and  banded  ;  sutures  distinctly  marked ;  aperture  small,  elliptical, 
whitish  within  ;  columella  indented  ;  sinus  small  but  very  distinct. 

Hab. — Tennessee. 

My  Cabinet ;  Cab.  H.  Cuming ;  A.  N.  S.,  Philada. ;  State  Coll.,  Alb.,  N.  Y.  ; 
Smithsonian  Collection,  Washington,  D.  C. 

Obs. — This  is  one  of  those  sharply  keeled  Melanice  of  which  31.  bella,  Con.,  M. 
carino-costata  and  31.  oblita,  Lea,  may  be  considered  good  examples.  The 
whorls  of  the  spire  have  each  two  carinas,  with  generally  a  dark  band  between 
them,  though  this  is  sometimes  wanting  ;  the  body  whorl  has  four  or  five  of 
these,  carinre  and  generally  two  bands,  one  of  which  revolves  within  the  aper- 
ture.    To  the  touch  this  species  has  a  peculiarly  rough  feel. 

M.  gracillima,  Anthony. — Shell  conic,  thin,  brownish  ;  spire  very  slender, 
elevated,  composed  of  eight  convex  whorls,  the  upper  ones  folded  and  striate, 
the  lower  ones  smooth,  the  striae  being  replaced  by  indistinct,  slender,  brown 
lines ;  sutures  very  deeply  impressed,  a  sharp  carina  on  the  lower  portion  of 
each  whorl,  rendering  them  quite  distinct ;  aperture  small,  ovate,  banded  in- 
side ;  columella  indented  ;  sinus  small. 

Hab. — South  Carolina. 

My  Cabinet. 

[Feb. 


NATURAL   SCIENCES    OF   PHILADELPHIA.  63 

Obs. — A  peculiarly  slender,  graceful  species,  in  form  somewhat  like  31.  strigosa, 
Lea,  but  more  folded  and  more  slender.  The  striae  on  the  upper  whorls  are 
very  distinct  where  they  intersect  the  folds,  and  give  the  shell  a  tuberculous 
appearance  ;  the  folds  are  arrested  by  the  carina,  which  is  elevated.  The  brown 
lines  on  the  body  whorl  are  often  slightly  elevated,  but  nevertheless,  indistinct, 
and  are  about  four  in  number.  A  faint  line  or  band  of  a  yellow  color  revolves 
around  the  upper  portion  of  the  two  lower  whorls. 

Gyrotoma. 

As  some  confusion  exists  regarding  the  name  of  this  genus,  the  following 
notes  are  given  : — 

The  genus  Melatoma  was  established  by  Swainson,  and  first  given  to  the 
world  in  1840,  in  his  "Treatise  on  Shells  and  Shell  Fishes,"  published  in 
London,  founded,  as  he  says,  (p.  202,)  "  upon  a  remarkable  Ohio  shell  sent 
him  many  years  before  by  his  old  friend  Prof.  Rafinesque."  "It  has,"  he 
remarks,  "  the  general  form  of  a  Pleurotoma  and  of  a  Melafusus,  with  a  well- 
defined  sinus  or  cleft  near  the  top  of  the  outer  lip,  while  the  inner,  though 
thin,  is  somewhat  thickened  above."  The  other  characters  named  by  him  are 
such  as  are  generally  considered  rather  specific  than  generic,  and  the  pleuro- 
toma-like  cut  in  the  outer  lip  as  applied  to  a  fluviatile  univalve  is  altogether 
sufficient  to  indicate  the  new  genus.  The  specimen  alluded  to  by  Swainson, 
and  from  which  his  generic  description  was  drawn,  was  an  imperfect  one,  and 
the  species  has  not  since  been  identified  by  American  naturalists.  This  is  less 
to  be  wondered  at  when  we  consider  how  very  local  the  genus  has  always  been, 
and  how  few  specimens  have  found  their  way  into  our  collections.  The  waters 
of  Alabama  have  as  yet  monopolized  this  interesting  genus,  and  it  is  probable 
that  even  there  it  is  confined  almost,  if  not  quite,  exclusively  to  the  Coosa  and 
its  tributaries. 

On  p.  342  Swainson  gives  the  following  generic  description,  adding  a  figure  : 

"  Fusiform,  longitudinally  ribbed ;  a  deep  sinus  at  the  top  of  the  outer  lip ; 
base  contracted,  channel  wide." 

Mr.  Swainson's  figure  is  quite  unsatisfactory.  His  genus  Melatoma  is  referred 
doubtfully  to  Clionella  by  H.  and  A.  Adams,  and  has  not  prevailed  for  this 
genus  in  America  or  Europe.  I  have  therefore  decided  not  to  make  use  of  it 
in  this  case. 

Subsequently  this  genus  has  been  noticed  by  various  authors,  and  other 
names  have  been  applied  to  it.  In  1841  or  1842,  Dr.  J.  W.  Mighels  sent  me 
specimens  of  one  species  under  the  name  of  Apella  scissura;  but  his  generic 
name  was  never  published,  and  his  species,  if  not  identical  with  any  which  Mr. 
Lea  afterwards  described,  seems  to  have  been  overlooked  and  forgotten. 

On  the  14th  of  December,  1842,  Mr.  Lea  read  a  paper  before  the  American 
Philosophical  Society,  in  which  he  describes  Melania  excisa  and  Anculosa  incisa. 
In  his  remarks  upon  these  species  he  alludes  to  the  pleurotomose  cut  in  the 
superior  part  of  the  upper  lip,  and  at  the  same  time  suggests  the  possibility  of 
its  being  necessary,  in  consequence  of  that  character,  to  construct  a  new  genus, 
which  he  proposed  to  call  "  Schizostoma."  Mr.  Lea  finding  his  name  "  Schizos- 
toma"  preoccupied  in  Palaeontology,  changed  it  to  "  Schizochilus."  (March  5, 
1852,  Obs.  v.  p.  51.)  In  a  paper  read  May  2d,  1845,  Mr.  Lea,  in  a  foot-note  to 
page  93,  first  indicates  the  generic  characters  of  Schizostoma  as  follows : — 
"Testa  vel  conica  vel  fusiformis ;  labrum  superne  fissura;  apertura  ovata; 
columella  lsevis,  incurva;"  and  describes  six  additional  species. 

In  the  above  concise  definition  of  the  genus  it  will  at  once  be  noted  that  the 
fissure  at  the  upper  part  of  the  outer  lip  is  after  all  the  essential  character ;  and 
Mr.  Lea  himself  seems  to  be  aware  of  this,  since  of  the  six  species  then  described 
he  states  the  aperture  to  be  elliptical  in  five  cases  and  rhomboidal  in  the  other, 
although  his  generic  character  is  "aperture  ovate;"  indeed  in  the  species 
described  by  him  but  a  single  one  has  the  aperture  ovate,  and  that  one  is 
described  as  an  Anculosa. 

I860.] 


64  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  ACADEMY  OF 

It  may  be  doubted  whether  Mr.  Lea's  first  name  will  not  eventually  prevail, 
since,  before  he  published  Schizostoma,  Bronn's  genus  of  the  same  name 
(Lethea  Geogn.  i.  95,  1835-1837),  had  been  called  a  synonym  of  Bifrontia 
(Omalaxis)  of  Deshayes.  {Vide  Desh.  in  Lam.  ix.  p.  104.)  Indeed,  H.  and  A. 
Adams  (Gen.  Rec.  Moll.  i.  305)  do  not  appear  correct  in  giving  preference  to 
Gyrotoma  over  Schizostoma,  Lea,  on  account  of  Schizostoma,  Bronn,  since  (on 
p.  244)  the  latter  name  is  placed  in  the  synonymy  of  Omalaxis. 

Another  generic  name  Schizostoma  is  quoted  in  Hermannsen's  Index.  I  have 
not  obtained  access  to  the  work  containing  this  description,  but  its  date  is  said 
to  be  anterior  to  Mr.  Lea's  description. 

Mr.  Lea's  second  name,  Schizochilus,  had  previously  been  used  in  Coleoptera 
but  withdrawn  before  Mr.  Lea's  description  was  published. 

Mr.  Shuttleworth,  in  July,  1845,  (Mittheilungen  der  Naturforschenden  Ge- 
sellschaft  in  Bern,  p.  88,)  gives  another  description  of  the  genus  under  the 
name  of  Gyrotoma,  founded  on  two  species  from  the  Coosa  River,  description? 
of  which  are  also  given. 

The  generic  name  of  Mr.  Shuttleworth  has  been  adopted  in  H.  and  A.  Adams' 
Genera  of  Recent  Mollusca  (i.  p.  305,  Feb.,  1854.) 

Dr.  Gray  also  (Guide  to  Mollusca,  i.  p.  103,  1857)  adopts  Shuttleworth's 
name. 

Such  being  the  confused  state  of  the  synonymy  of  the  genus,  we  have  decided 
to  adopt,  at  least  temporarily,  the  earliest  name  concerning  which  no  doubt 
exists. 

Only  about  ten  species  of  this  genus  have  as  yet  been  published,  eight  of 
which  are  by  Mr.  Lea  in  1842  and  1845,  since  which  time  few  specimens  have 
been  collected,  and  but  two  new  species  added.  I  now  propose  to  add  descrip- 
tions of  nine  new  species  to  the  number  already  known,  in  one  of  which,  "  G. 
salebrosa,"  we  note  a  character  not  hitherto  observed,  except  in  what  was  per- 
haps the  original  type  of  the  genus,  viz.,  a  nodulous  coronation  upon  or  near 
the  suture,  which  nodules  by  lateral  compression  assume  the  form  of  folds  or 
plaits,  thus  approximating  the  longitudinal  ribs  of  Gyrotoma  costata,  Swainson. 
Gyrotoma  bulbosa,  nob.,  herein  described,  also  exhibits  this  character,  though 
far  less  decidedly;  and  as  specimens  become  more  common,  we  may  hope  to 
re-discover  the  original  type  so  long  unknown. 

Gyrotoma  kecta,  Anthony. — Shell  smooth,  cylindrical,  yellowish,  thick  ; 
spire  short,  originally  furnished  with  about  5  low  whorls,  of  which  3  are  nearly 
lost  by  truncation  ;  fissure  moderately  broad,  not  quite  direct  and  not  re- 
markably deep  ;  sutures  lightly  impressed  ;  aperture  narrow  ovate,  occupying 
about  3-5ths  of  the  length  of  the  shell;  within  dusky  and  obscurely  banded  ; 
columella  callous,  thickened  abruptly  at  the  fissure. 

Length  of  shell  11-16  in.  Length  of  aperture  7-16.  Breadth  of  shell  §  in. 
Breadth  of  aperture  3-16. 

Hab. — Coosa  River,  Alabama.     My  Cabinet. 

06s. — This  is  the  most  cylindrical  species  I  have  ever  seen  in  this  genus. 
In  its  general  form  and  coloring  it  most  nearly  resembles  G.  demissa,  nob.,  but 
is  longer,  more  elevated,  smoother,  and  is  ornamented  with  bands,  which  on 
that  species  are  entirely  wanting  ;  these  bands  on  the  body  whorl  are  three  in 
number,  of  which  the  middle  one  is  the  narrowest  and  least  distinct ;  they  are 
widely  distant  from  each  other  ;  the  cord-like  cincture  is  very  prominent  in 
this  species  and  the  fissure  is  farther  removed  from  the  suture  than  is  usual . 
It  is  altogether  a  beautiful  and  graceful  species. 

Gyrotoma  demissa,  Anthony. — Shell  short,  robust,  thick,  truncate,  of  a 
dark  horn  color ;  spire  flat  by  truncation,  exhibiting  traces  of  about  four 
whorls ;  body  whorl  cylindrical ;  .fissure  broad,  waved,  and  rather  deep  : 
aperture  elliptical,  within  whitish  ;  columella  thickened  along  its  whole  ex- 
tent, but  most  so  at  the  fissure. 

Length  of  shell  10-16  in.  Length  of  aperture  7-16.  Breadth  of  shell  7-16. 
Breadth  of  aperture  4-16.    My  Cabinet. 

[Feb, 


NATURAL   SCIENCES    OP   PHILADELPHIA.  65 

06s. — A  fine  cylindrical  species,  whose  chief  characteristics  are  its  very 
smooth,  polished  surface,  plain  russet  color,  and  flat,  truncate  spire  ;  the 
lines  of  growth  are  unusually  strong  in  this  species,  and  the  darker  lines  in- 
dicating the  terminus  of  previous  mouths  are  very  distinct  and  numerous, 
evidencing  frequent  and  many  pauses  in  its  growth  ;  the  columella  is  much 
bent  near  its  base,  and  a  narrow  but  distinct  sinus  is  formed  at  about  the  mid- 
dle space  between  the  outer  lip  and  columella.  A  single  specimen  only  is  be- 
fore me,  but  seems  so  very  distinct  from  all  others  that  I  have  no  hesitation  in 
considering  it  new. 

Gykotoma  quadrata,  Anthony. — Shell  short,  smooth,  fusiform,  rather  thick, 
olivaceous;  spire  short,  composed  of  about  4  very  low  whorls,  the  upper  two 
being  partially  obliterated  by  erosion  ;  fissure  rather  broad,  waved,  but  not 
remarkably  deep ;  sutures  distinct ;  whorls  distinctly  but  not  squarely 
shouldered ;  aperture  elliptical,  occupying  more  than  half  the  length  of  the 
shell ;  within  3  banded  ;  columella  with  a  light  callous  deposit. 

Length  of  shell  9-16  in.  Length  of  aperture  6-16  in.  Breadth  of  shell  7-16 
in.     Breadth  of  aperture  3-16  in. 

Hab. — Coosa  River,  Alabama.     My  Cabinet ;  Cab.  H.  Cuming,  London. 

Obs. — The  most  remarkable  characteristic  at  first  view  of  this  species  is  its 
short,  square  form  ;  its  color  is  dark,  and  the  bands  which  are  very  broad  are 
not  very  distinct;  hence  its  general  aspect  is  not  so  pleasing  to  the  eye  as  many 
others  ;  the  fissure  is  broadly  separated  from  the  body  of  the  shell,  outer  lip 
very  sharp  and  sinuous,  forming,  with  the  columella,  a  small  not  very  distinct 
sinus  at  base.  In  form  it  approaches  most  nearly  perhaps  to  G.  salebrosa,  nob., 
but  is  more  delicate  in  texture,  thinner,  and  has  no  armature  as  in  that 
species. 

Gykotoma  bulbosa,  Anthony. — Shell  striate,  ovate,  moderately  thick,  dark 
olive  ;  spire  obtusely  elevated,  subtruncate,  4  whorls  only  remaining  ;  whorls 
of  the  spire  subconvex ;  sutures  very  distinct,  rendered  more  so  by  the 
shouldering  of  the  whorls  ;  body  whorl  inflated,  subangulated  a  little  below 
the  suture,  from  which  angle  it  shelves  towards  it,  and  having  2  or  3  dark, 
broad  bands  revolving  round  it ;  lines  of  growth  curved  and  very  distinct,  al- 
most like  crowded  ribs  ;  fissure  perfectly  strait,  very  narrow  and  not  deep  ; 
aperture  rather  long,  of  a  dusky  color  within  and  ornamented  by  3  broad  and 
distinct  bands  there  ;  columella  smooth,  except  at  the  lower  part,  where  it  is 
slightly  thickened. 

Length  of  shell  9-16  in.  Length  of  aperture_5-16  in.  Breadth  of  shell  |in. 
Breadth  of  aperture  3-16  in. 

Hab. — Coosa  River,  Alabama.     My  Cabinet. 

06s. — A  short  ovate  species  resembling  in  some  respects  G.  ovalis,  nob., 
herein  described  ;  it  is  less  elevated  than  that  species,  more  ventricose,  and  its 
surface  is  rougher ;  indeed,  there  seems  to  be  indications  of  obscure  folds  on 
the  body  whorl  of  this  species  near  the  suture,  which  in  very  old  specimens 
may  be  more  fully  expressed,  and  thus  bring  it  into  close  affinity  with  M.  sale- 
brosa, nob.  These  folds,  which  were  noted  by  Swainson  as  a  generic  character 
in  his  original  type,  and  which  are  wanting  in  all  the  species  since  published, 
and  now  re-discovered,  are  exceedingly  interesting  in  that  connexion. 

Gyrotoma  ovalis,  Anthony. — Shell  smooth,  oval,  olivaceous,  moderately 
thick  ;  spire  obtusely  elevated,  composed  of  about  5 — 6  convex  whorls,  of 
which  2  are  generally  lost  by  truncation  ;  sutures  deeply  impressed ;  aperture 
broadly  elliptical,  banded  within ;  fissure  direct,  exceedingly  narrow  and 
very  deep,  extending  nearly  one  half  around  the  shell ;  columella  slightly 
curved  by  a  callus. 

Length  of  shell  10-16  in.  Length  of  aperture  7-16  in.  Breadth  of  shell 
7-16  in.     Breadth  of  aperture  4-16  in. 

Hab. — Coosa  River,  Alabama.     My  Cabinet. 

06s. — A  fine  symmetrical  species  remarkable  for  its  regularly  oval  form  and 

I860.] 

5 


06  PROCEEDINGS    OF   THE   ACADEMY   OF 

unusually  deep,  linear  fissure  ;  the  whorls  are  somewhat  shouldered,  though 
not  so  much  so  as  in  many  of  the  species  ;  the  spiral  whorls  are  furnished 
with  two  broad  bands,  one  near  tbe  top  of  each  and  the  other  widely  separate 
and  near  the  succeeding  whorl,  being  often  half  concealed  by  it ;  there  are  3 
bands  on  the  body  whorl  equidistant  from  each  other ;  compared  with  G.  bul- 
bosa,  nob.,  which  it  most  nearly  resembles,  it  is  longer,  more  linear,  and  has 
not  the  rapidly  attenuating  spire  of  that  species  nor  its  roughly  striate  sur- 
face. 

Gyrotoma  ampla,  Anthony. — Shell  smooth,  ovate,  rather  thick,  olivaceous; 
spire  not  elevated,  but  acute  ;  whorls  6 — 7,  subconvex  ;  sutures  well  defined  ; 
fissure  broad,  rather  deep  and  waved;  aperture  moderate,  elliptical,  flesh 
colored  and  banded  within ;  columella  smooth,  or  slightly  thickened  only  at 
the  fissure  ;  body  whorl  striate,  and  banded  ;  whorls  of  the  spire  not  banded, 
but  having  a  thickened  cord-like  line  near  the  suture. 

Length  11-14  in.  Breadth  7-16  in.  Length  of  aperture  7-17  in.  Breadth 
of  aperture  4-16  in. 

Hab. — Coosa  River,  Alabama.     My  Cabinet. 

Obs. — A  fine  symmetrical  species  of  this  interesting  genus  which  hitherto 
has  not  been  very  productive  in  species.  Compared  with  Schizostoma  funicu- 
latam,  Lea,  which  it  most  nearly  resembles,  it  is  smoother,  thinner,  more 
acute,  and  has  not  the  double  cord-like  lines  of  that  species.  Most  if  not  all 
the  species  of  Gyrotoma  have  the  fissure  gradually  filled  up  behind  as  it  is 
pushed  forward  in  the  process  of  growth,  by  a  cord-like  line  more  or  less  pro- 
minent, often  so  much  so  as  to  produce  quite  a  shoulder  at  the  suture,  and 
this  species  is  so  marked,  but  it  has  no  cord-like  line  in  the  middle  of  the 
body  whorl  as  described  in  funiculatum. 

Gyrotoma  salebrosa,  Anthony. — Shell  fusiform,  robust,  thick,  nodulous,  of 
a  dusky  olive  color  ;  spire  truncated,  leaving  scarcely  more  than  the  body 
whorl,  but  indicating  by  traces  on  the  truncation  the  loss  of  three  or  four 
others  ;  fissure  moderately  open,  waved,  not  deep  ;  body  whorl,  roughly  nodu- 
lous at  the  upper  part  and  ornamented  by  three  dark  bands  below  ;  aperture 
ample,  ovate,  dusky  within  and  bounded  with  three  broad  bands  ;  columella 
deeply  rounded,  covered  with  a  thick  deposit  of  callus,  white  at  its  lower  por- 
tion, but  tinged  with  dark  brown  at  the  fissures. 

Length  of  shell  f  in.  Breadth  of  shell  h-  Length  of  aperture  9^-16. 
Breadth  of  aperture  5-16. 

Hab. — Coosa  River,  Alabama.     My  Cabinet. 

Obs. — This  species  presents  the  unusual  characteristic  of  a  nodulous  surface, 
which  character  has  not  been  observed  in  any  species  hitherto  described  by 
any  American  author.  These  nodules  are  very  conspicuous  and  much  com- 
pressed laterally,  so  as  to  present  very  much  the  appearance  of  coarsely  folded 
ribs,  thus  furnishing  a  close  approximation  to  the  original  type  from  which 
Swainson  formed  the  genus  ;  on  this  account  it  becomes  exceedingly  interest- 
ing, as  indicating  great  variety  in  the  specific  forms  of  this  genus,  giving 
assurance  that  among  the  many  varied  forms  yet  to  be  discovered  we  may  at 
last  find  the  identical  species  sent  by  Rafinesque  to  Swainson.  These  com- 
pressed nodules  will  at  once  distinguish  it  from  all  other  species. 

Gyrotoma  carinifera,  Anthony. — Shell  conic,  thick,  dark  brown  ;  spire 
obtusely  elevated,  truncate,  though  not  abruptly  so,  six  whorls  remain,  one 
or  two  having  apparently  been  lost  by  truncation  ;  carinations  elevated,  sub- 
acute and  found  on  all  the  whorls,  two  on  each  of  the  spiral  ones  and  three  to 
four  on  the  body  whorl ;  fissure  direct,  broad,  and  moderately  deep,  extending 
about  l-5th  around  the  shell ;  sutures  irregular,  much  modified  by  the  carinae, 
and  often  concealed  in  part  by  them ;  aperture  ovate  and  banded  within ; 
columella  much  rounded,  callous  at  the  lower  part  only  ;  outer  lip  irregularly 
waved,  its  outline  modified  by  the  carina?  on  the  body  whorl.     No  sinus. 

[Feb. 


NATURAL   SCIENCES    OF   PHILADELPHIA.  67 

Length  of  shell  f  in.  Breadth  of  shell  £  in.  Length  of  aperture  5^-16  in" 
Breadth  of  aperture  £  in. 

Hab. — Coosa  River,  Alabama.     My  Cabinet. 

Obs. — This  species  cannot  well  be  confounded  with  any  other  yet  described. 
In  general  form  and  in  its  armature  one  is  very  forcibly  reminded  of  Melania 
annuli/era,  Con.,  from  which  it  differs,  however,  not  only  generically,  but  by 
its  more  ovate  base  ;  the  carinas  are  lighter  in  color  than  the  general  body  of 
the  shell,  and  are  slightly  irregular  or  sub-nodulous  in  outline  ;  it  is  a  stout, 
heavy  species,  and  has  a  smaller  aperture  proportionally  than  is  common  in 
the  genus  ;  the  bands  within  the  aperture  are  five  in  number,  very  dark,  and 
the  three  central  ones  are  disposed  to  be  confluent ;  a  dark  broad  band  revolves 
around  the  base  of  the  shell.  Compared  with  Schizoztoma  pagoda,  Lea,  it 
differs  in  color,  in  its  more  elongate  form,  and  by  tne  character  of  its  carina?, 
which  are  more  uniform,  the  main  variation  being  that  they  are  more  diffused 
on  the  whorl,  whereas,  in  Mr.  Lea's  species  they  are  particularly  conspicuous 
near  the  apex. 

Gykotoma  robdsta,  Anthony. — Shell  fusiform,  robust,  thick,  of  a  dark  olive 
color ;  spire  obtuse,  consisting  of  one  perfect  whorl  remaining,  with  marks  of 
two  or  three  more,  lost  by  truncation  ;  body  whorl  broad,  ornamented  by  three 
obscure,  dark,  wide  bands ;  fissure  rather  broad,  curved,  not  deep,  closed 
behind  by  a  cordlike  cincture,  very  prominent,  beneath  which  and  close  to  it 
is  a  narrow  depression  or  furrow ;  aperture  narrow,  ovate,  banded  inside ; 
columella  well  rounded  and  covered  by  callus  ;  lines  of  growth  very  distinct 
and  much  curved,  rendering  the  shell  rough  by  their  prominence. 

Length  of  shell  J  in.  Breadth  of  shell  9-16.  Length  of  aperture  10-16. 
Breadth  of  aperture  5-6. 

Hab. — Coosa  River,  Alabama.     My  Cabinet. 

Obs. — This  is  a  large,  robust  species,  somewhat  resembling  Melania  ampla, 
nob.  in  form,  and  not  unlike  it  in  coloring  ;  it  is  about  the  largest  species  I 
have  seen  in  this  genus,  and  certainly  not  the  least  beautiful ;  compared  with 
G.  salebrosa,  nob.,  herein  described,  it  is  larger,  smoother,  more  inflated,  and 
has  not  the  rib-like  prominences  so  characteristic  of  that  species  ;  the  lower 
part  of  the  columella  is  somewhat  flattened  and  thickened,  and  another  thick- 
ening takes  place  at  the  aperture,  leaving  a  thinner  space  between  the  two 
points. 

Anculosa  oknata,  Anthony. — Shell  conic,  rather  thick,  smooth ;  spire  ele- 
vated, composed  of  about  five  convex  whorls ;  suture  distinct ;  color  dark 
yellow,  polished,  with  dark  brown  bands  revolving  around  the  shell ;  three 
bands  visible  on  the  body  whorl  and  only  one  upon  the  volutions  of  the  spire  ; 
aperture  ovate,  livid  and  banded  within ;  columella  furnished  with  a  callus, 
often  tinted  with  rose  color ;  sinus  very  small. 

Hab. — North  Carolina.  My  Cabinet ;  Cab.  Hugh  Cuming,  London ;  A.  N.  S., 
Phila.;  State  Coll.,  Alb.,  N.  Y.;  Smithsonian  Collection. 

06s. — A  fine  species,  so  much  elevated  as  readily  to  be  taken  for  a  Melania  ; 
the  dark  bands  on  a  yellow  ground  give  it  a  lively  appearance ;  about  one 
hundred  specimens  are  before  me,  and  present  very  little  variation ;  the  dark 
bands  within  the  aperture  are  very  conspicuous,  one  being  near  the  upper 
angle,  two  others  near  each  other,  but  widely  separated  from  the  first,  and  a 
fourth  near  the  base  of  the  shell ;  the  middle  bands  are  often  confluent,  and 
all  of  them  are  arrested  by  a  broad  area  before  they  reach  the  outer  edge. 

Anculosa  ligata,  Anthony. — Shell  ovate,  smooth,  of  a  dark  green  color, 
rather  thick  ;  spire  obtusely  elevated,  composed  of  about  four  whorls  ;  suture 
very  distinct ;  upper  whorls  flattened,  body  whorl  constricted  at  the  middle, 
banded ;  aperture  ovate,  banded  within ;  columella  deeply  indented,  callous  ; 
no  sinus  at  base. 

I860.] 


68  PROCEEDINGS   OF   THE   ACADEMY   OF 

Hub.— Alabama.  My  Cabinet;  Cab.  Hugb  Cuming;  A.  N.  S.,  Philad.; 
State  Coll.,  Albany,  N.  Y.;  Smithsonian  Collection. 

Obs. — This  species,  of  which  I  have  some  twenty  or  thirty  individuals  before 
me,  seems  remarkably  constant  in  character  for  an  Anculosa,  and  not  readily 
mistaken  for  any  other ;  its  color,  which  is  a  dirty  dark  green,  is  but  poorly 
relieved  by  the  faint  bands  on  the  whorl ;  nevertheless,  it  is  an  interesting 
species,  and  one  which  will  always  attract  attention;  its  most  prominent 
character  is  the  constriction  on  the  body  whorl,  which  gives  the  appearance  of 
a  cord  having  been  drawn  tightly  around  it  while  in  a  yielding  state. 

Anculosa  corpulenta,  Anthony. — Shell  ovate  or  broad  ovate,  smooth, 
thick ;  spire  rather  elevated ;  composed  of  4-6  subconvex  whorls ;  suture 
decidedly  impressed  ;  aperture  very  broad,  ovate,  ample,  banded  inside  ;  col- 
umella well  rounded,  slightly  covered  with  white  callus,  and  with  a  slight  in- 
dication of  sinus  at  base. 

Bab. — North  Carolina.  My  Cabinet ;  Cab.  Hugh  Cuming,  London  ;  A.  N.  S., 
Philada.;  State  Coll.  Albany,  N.  Y.;  Smithsonian  Collec,  Washington,  D.  C. 

Obs. — Cannot  well  be  confounded  with  any  of  its  congeners  ;  it  is  unusually 
elevated  for  an  Anculosa,  resembling  more  a  Paludina  in  that  respect ;  the 
whorls  are  regularly  but  not  abruptly  shouldered,  and  are  often  excavated 
with  a  narrow  channel  at  the  middle ;  striae  and  even  indistinct  carinae  are 
often  visible,  but  are  not  a  constant  character ;  the  bands  within  the  aperture 
are  not  always  well  defined  and  are  sometimes  wanting  altogether ;  when 
present  they  are  generally  five  in  number,  and  are  arrested  by  a  narrow  white 
space  at  the  outer  lip ;  body  whorl  often  subangulated. 

Occurs  in  Dan  river,  North  Carolina,  in  company  with  Anculosa  canalifera, 
nob.,  and  appears  to  be  very  common.  Several  hundred  specimens  of  various 
ages  are  now  before  me. 

Anculosa  canalifera,  Anthony. — Shell  ovate,  costate,  of  a  brown  color,  thin  ; 
spire  acutely  elevated,  composed  of  5 — 6  sharply  carinate  whorls  ;  suture  not 
very  distinct ;  aperture  about  half  the  length  of  the  shell,  ovate,  banded  in- 
side ;  columella  deeply  indented ;  sinus  none. 

Hab. — North  Carolina,  in  Dan  river. 

My  Cabinet;  Cab.  Hugh  Cuming,  London;  A.  N.  S.,  Phila.;  State  Coll., 
Albany,  N.  Y.;  Smithsonian  Coll.,  Washington,  D.  C. 

Obs. — One  of  our  most  curious  and  beautiful  species,  which  no  one  can  easily 
mistake  ;  the  whole  shell  is  crossed  with  sharp,  elevated  costae  running  around 
the  whorls  and  corresponding  deep  grooves  between  them  ;  about  five  costae  on 
the  body  whorl ;  a  less  number  on  the  spire  volutions  ;  these  ribs  appear  as 
dark  bands  in  the  interior  of  the  aperture,  and  there  is  a  broad  non-elevated 
band  at  the  base  of  the  shell ;  differs  from  Anc.  costata,  nob.,  by  the  size  and 
prominence  of  its  ribs  and  by  its  elevated  spire. 

Anculosa  viridula,  Anthony. — Shell  ovate,  of  a  uniform  dark  green  color, 
rather  thin ;  spire  much  elevated,  composed  of  4 — 5  convex  whorls  ;  sutures 
very  distinct ;  aperture  ovate,  large,  about  half  the  length  of  the  shell,  livid 
inside  ;  columella  well  rounded ;  has  a  broad  but  not  well  defined  sinus. 

Hab. — Tennessee.  My  Cabinet ;  Cab.  Hugh  Cuming,  London ;  A.  N.  S., 
Philada.;  Smithsonian  Coll.,  Washington,  D.  C. 

Obs. — In  form  and  coloring  this  species  resembles  Paludina  decisa,  Say,  when 
that  is  about  half  grown,  and  but  for  its  operculum  one  would  hardly  deem  it 
an  Anculosa;  it  is  a  plain,  unadorned  species,  not  liable  to  be  confounded  with 
any  other ;  its  body  whorl  is  large  and  subangulated ;  lines  of  growth  well 
defined  and  close  ;  it  has  a  slight  disposition  to  shouldering  at  the  suture  ;  it 
is  not  an  abundant  species  so  far  as  at  present  known. 

Anculosa  patula,  Anthony.— Shell  ovate,  of  an  uniform  dark  horn  color, 
rather  thin ;  whorls  4 — 5,  convex  ;  sutures  very  distinct ;  aperture  semicircu- 

[Feb. 


NATURAL   SCIENCES  OF  PHILADELPHIA.  69 

lar,  within  whitish  ;  columella  only  slightly  rounded,  somewhat  flattened  by 
a  callous  deposit,  more  or  less  tinged  with  dirty  red. 

Hab. — Tennessee.  My  Cab.  ;  Cab  .Hugh  Cuming,  London  ;  A.  N.  S.,  Phila- 
delphia ;  State  collection,  Albany,  N.  Y.  ;  Smithsonian  collection. 

Obs, — Resembles  none  other  of  the  genus  ;  its  color,  which  is  of  a  dull  dark 
brown,  and  its  semicircular  mouth,  remarkable  for  its  length  and  bre  idth,  are 
prominent  marks  of  distinction  ;  the  body  whorl  is  very  much  inflated  and 
angulated  or  subangulated  ;  the  interior  aperture  is  often  blotched  with  ir- 
regular, dirty  brown  spots  ;  spire  elevated  and  acute,  rapidly  diminishing  to 
the  apex ;  the  lines  of  growth  are  strong,  and  on  some  specimens  a  single 
prominent  varix  may  be  noticed.  % 

Anculosa  elegans,  Anthony. — Shell  subglobose,  smooth,  thick ;  spire  de- 
pressed, consisting  of  3 — 4  flat  whorls  ;  color  fine  glossy  dark  yellow,  orna- 
mented with  darker  bands,  of  which  five  are  on  the  body  whorl  ;  aperture 
obliquely  ovate  and  banded  within  ;  columella  deeply  curved,  with  a  heavy 
callous  deposit ;  sinus  very  small. 

Hab. — Alabama.     My  Cabinet. 

Obs. — A  highly  ornamental  species,  which  cannot  be  compared  with  any 
other  ;  its  bands  on  a  yellow  ground  render  it  very  lively  ;  it  is  heavier  and 
smoother  than  A.  ampla,  nobis,  not  so  broad  in  the  aperture  and  far  more 
beautiful ;  neither  is  it  so  much  shouldered  as  that  species. 

Anculosa  zebra,  Anthony. — Shell  subglobose,  smooth,  moderately  thick  ; 
spire  obtusely  elevated,  but  slightly  decorticated,  and  composed  of  four  convex 
whorls  ;  sutures  distinctly  impressed  ;  aperture  broad,  ovate,  within  bluish, 
with  the  epidermal  colors  seen  faintly  through  ;  columella  rounded,  covered 
with  callus,  which  is  thickened  at  the  upper  part. 

Hab. — Alabama.     My  Cabinet. 

Obs. — This  species  presents  an  appearance  not  often  seen  in  the  genus,  by 
its  mottled,  variegated  epidermis  ;  the  general  ground  color  is  gamboge  yel- 
low, but  it  is  varied  by  blotches  of  very  dark  brown  or  reddish,  often  running 
into  diagonal  lines,  which  gives  the  shell  a  very  lively  and  pleasant  look. 
Only  one  other  species  is  described  as  being  similarly  marked,  viz.,  A.flam- 
raata,  Lea  ;  that  species  I  have  never  seen,  but  the  description  does  not  war- 
rant me  in  considering  the  two  identical. 

In  old  specimens  the  spire  is  often  produced  and  somewhat  nodulous,  while 
the  longitudinal  bands  become  broken  into  irregular  lines,  so  interrupted  as 
to  become  scarcely  more  than  quadrangular  spots  ;  it  is  one  of  our  most  beau- 
tiful species.     About  a  dozen  specimens  are  before  me. 

Io  turrita,  Anthony. — -Shell  conic,  elevated,  horn  colored,  spinous  ;  spines 
rather  short  and  heavy,  about  seven  on  each  whorl ;  whorls  nine  ;  aperture 
pyriform,  about  one-third  the  length  of  the  shell,  and  irregularly  banded 
within  ;  columella  rounded,  slightly  twisted  and  forming  a  short,  narrow 
canal  at  base. 

Length  of  shell  2%  in.  Breadth  of  shell  |  in.  Length  of  aperture  §  in. 
Breadth  of  aperture  7-16  inch. 

Hab. — Tennessee. 

Obs. — This  is  the  most  slender  and  elongate  species  of  this  genus  which  has 
come  under  my  notice,  and  although  a  single  specimen  only  has  as  yet  been 
discovered,  its  claims  to  rank  as  a  species  will  hardly  be  questioned ;  its  long, 
slender  form,  stout,  closely  set  spines,  and  small  aperture  will  at  once  dis- 
tinguish it  from  its  congeners ;  two  faint  bands  traverse  each  whorl,  one  of 
which  lies  precisely  in  the  plane  of  the  spines  ;  lines  of  growth  very  distinct, 
nearly  varicose. 

Io  brevis,  Anthony. — Shell  conic,  ovate,  horn  colored,  spinous  ;  spines 
short,  thick,  five  on  each  whorl ;  whorls  about  seven  ;  aperture  elliptical  or 
pyriform,  one-half  the  length  of  the  shell ;  collumella  rounded  and  sinuous 

I860.] 


70  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  ACADEMY  OP 

near  the  base,  forming  with  the  outer  lip  a  broad,  well  defined  canal  at  the 
base. 

Length  of  shell  2  in.  Breadth  of  shell  1|  in.  Length  of  aperture  1  in. 
Breadth  of  aperture  £  inch. 

Hab. — Tennessee.  My  Cab.;  Cab.  Hugh  Cuming,  London;  A.  N.  S.,  Phila- 
delphia ;  State  collection,  Abanv,  N.  Y. ;  Smithsonian  collection,  Washing- 
ton, D.  C. 

06s. — Another  of  the  short,  heavy  forms  in  this  genus,  so  unlike  the  normal 
type  of  Io  spinosa  ;  we  think  no  one  need  confound  it  with  any  other  species  ; 
its  short,  heavy,  flattened  spines  jutting  out  like  so  many  miniature  spear 
heads  and  its  peculiarly  twisted  columella  will  readily  characterize  it.  The 
columella  is  also  covered  with  a  dense  callous  deposit,  increased  in  thickness 
at  its  upper  part,  and  often  blotched  with  dark  red  at  that  point ;  irregular, 
ill  defined,  but  broad  bands  are  seen  in  the  interior,  often  faintly  visible  on 
the  epidermis.  Appears  to  be  a  rather  common  species  in  some  localities,  of 
which  I  possess  some  hundreds  of  specimens. 

Io  inermis,  Anthony. — Shell  couical,  smooth,  thick  ;  moderately  elevated, 
composed  of  7 — 8  flattened  whorls  ;  suture  very  distinct  ;  upper  whorls  slight- 
ly coronated  by  an  obscure  row  of  low  spines  nearly  concealed  by  the  pre- 
ceding whorl ;  shell  otherwise  perfectly  smooth  or  only  occasionally  or  ob- 
scurely nodulous  on  the  body  whorl ;  lines  of  growth  very  strong  and  much 
curved  ;  aperture  pyriform,  curved  to  the  left,  banded  within  ;  columella 
twisted,  callous,  thickened  above  ;  sinus  long  and  curved. 

Length  of  shell  2  1-16  in.  Breadth  of  shell  1  in.  Length  of  aperture  1  inch. 
Breadth  of  aperture  ^  inch. 

Hab. — Tennessee.  My  Cab. ;  Cab.  Hugh  Cuming,  London  ;  A.  N.  S.,  Phila- 
delphia ;  State  collection,  Albany,  N.  Y.  ;  Smithsonian  collec,  Washington, 
D.  C. 

06s. — Remarkable  mainly  for  its  plain,  unadorned  exterior  and  smooth 
epidermis;  its  color  is  also  lighter  than  "  spinosa  "  or  "  fiuviatilis  ".  No 
spines  are  visible  on  the  body  whorl  of  this  species  generally,  but  I  have  a  few 
specimens  which  may  perhaps  belong  to  it,  and  which  have  a  few  obscure 
spines  near  the  aperture ;  these  are,  however,  little  more  than  knobs.  Some 
hundreds  of  this  species  have  come  under  my  notice. 

Io  spirostoma,  Anthony. — Shell  conical,  broadly  ovate,  horn  colored, 
spinous  :  spines  short,  thick,  seven  to  eight  on  each  whorl ;  whorls  about 
nine  ;  aperture  ovate,  about  half  the  length  of  the  shell ;  columella  and 
outer  lip  much  and  regularly  twisted,  and  forming  a  well  defined  sinus  at 
base. 

Length  of  shell  If  in.  Breadth  of  shell  \\  in.  Length  of  aperture  15-16  in. 
Breadth  of  aperture  |  inch. 

Hab. — Tennessee.     My  Cab.  and  Cab.  Hugh  Cuming,  London. 

06s. — This  is  truly  a  most  remarkable  species  of  this  highly  interesting 
genus  of  Mollusks ;  its  difference  from  the  ordinary  type  of  Io  spinosa  is  too 
marked  to  admit  of  its  being  confounded  with  that,  or  indeed  any  other 
species  ;  its  stout,  ovate  form,  short,  heavy  spines,  and,  above  all,  the  peculiar 
and  graceful  curvature  of  its  outer  lip,  are  prominent  characteristics  and  readily 
distinguish  it.  Among  several  thousand  specimens  of  Io  in  my  possession, 
but  three  adult  individuals  of  this  species  have  been  noticed,  although  I  have 
a  dozen  or  more  which  seem  to  be  immature  forms  of  it ;  it  may  therefore  be 
considered  as  not  only  one  of  the  most  aberrant  and  beautiful  forms  of  Io, 
but  also  one  of  the  rarest. 

Paludina  lima,  Anthony. — Shell  ovate,  rather  thin,  dark  green  ;  spire  ob- 
tusely elevated  and  composed  of  six  convex  whorls,  which  are  strongly  striate 
or  suboarinate  ;  sutures  very  distinct,  and  the  upper  part  of  each  whorl  being 
flattened  renders  it  more  conspicuous  ;  aperture  broad-ovate,  about  half  the 

[Feb. 


NATURAL   SCIENCES    OF   PHILADELPHIA.  71 

length  of  the  shell,  livid  within  ;  c  >lumella  slightly  rounded  and  callous 
deposit  small ;  umbilicus  none. 

Length  \\  inches.  Breadth  J  inch. 

Hab. — South  Carolina.  My  Cab.;  Cab.  H.  Cuming,  London;  A.  N.  S.. 
Philada.  ;  Smithsonian  collection,  Washington,  D.  C. 

Obs. — In  general  form  not  unlike  our  We stern  P.  Integra,  Say,  from  which 
it  differs,  however,  by  its  revolving,  raised  strise  and  by  its  carina,  which  are 
also  well  developed  ;  the  lines  <>f  growth  are  very  strong,  and  decussating  with 
the  stria  give  the  surface  a  beautifully  rough  appearance,  which  suggests  its 
specific  name.  It  is  really  one  of  our  handsomest  species,  and  so  unlike  all 
others  that  no  American  species  can  readily  be  mistaken  for  it.  In  most  speci- 
mens the  body  whorl  is  very  strongly  carinate  about  the  middle,  and  the  outer 
lip  is  considerably  produced  as  in  P.  subsolida,  nob. 

Paludina  decapitata,  Anthony. — Shell  globular,  thin,  of  a  light  green  color  ; 
spire  truncate,  but  never  elevated  under  any  circumstances,  composed  of 
about  four  very  flat  whorls  ;  aperture  broad,  ovate,  one-half  the  length  of  the 
shell,  within  dusky  white  ;  columella  regularly  but  not  deeply  rounded,  with  a 
slight  deposit  of  callous,  and  having  a  very  small  linear  umbilicus  at  base. 

Hab. — Tennessee.     My  Cabinet. 

Obs. — A  single  specimen  only  is  before  me,  and  therefore  I  claim  it  as  a  new 
species  with  some  hesitation  ;  it  seems  to  me,  however,  too  unlike  any  of  the 
ordinary  forms  in  this  genus  to  warrant  its  being  included  with  any  of  them  ; 
it  is  the  most  globose  of  any  species  hitherto  published,  if  we  except  the  small, 
round  forms  which  were  long  since  removed,  and  very  properly  too,  to  Amni- 
cola  ;  the  spire  is  entirely  wanting,  but  traces  of  the  sutures  show  the  number 
of  whorls  ;  and  its  present  appearance  forbids  the  idea  of  its  ever  having  had 
an  elevated  spire. 

Paludina  humerosa,  Anthony. — Shell  ovate,  thick,  bright  green,  imper- 
forate ;  spire  rather  obtusely  elevated,  composed,  of  about  5 — 6  convex  whorls  : 
upper  whorls  smooth,  body  whorl  and  preceding  one  strongly  striate  and 
granulate  or  subgranulate  ;  sutures  very  distinct  ;  aperture  ovate,  nearly  one- 
half  the  length  of  the  shell,  livid  within. 

Length  about  half  an  inch. 

Hab. — Alabama.     My  Cabinet. 

Obs. — A  single  specimen  only  is  before  me,  but  it  is  sufficiently  distinct ;  its 
granulated  surface  and  the  broad  shouldering  of  the  whorls  are  it-1  chief  char- 
acteristics ;  compared  with  P.  genicula,  Con.,  it  is  more  slender,  darker  in  color, 
and  its  granulated  surface  is  of  itself  a  sufficient  distinction. 

Paludina  exilis,  Anthony. — Shell  turrited,  smooth,  rather  thick ;  color 
light  apple  green  ;  spire  elevated,  composed  of  about  seven  volutions  ;  suture 
well  marked  ;  aperture  small,  broad-ovate,  livid  within  ;  body  whorl  distinctly 
angulated,  subumbilicate,  and  with  very  distinct  lines  of  growth  ;  columella 
well  rounded  and  curved  with  a  callous  deposit,  connecting  perfectly  with  the 
outer  lip  thus  forming  a  continuous  rim. 

Length  1\  inches.     Breadth  f  inch. 

Hab. — Mississippi.  My  Cab.  ;  Cab.  H.' Cuming,  London;  A.  N.  S.,  Phila- 
delphia ;  State   collection,  Albany,  N.  Y.  ;   Smithsonian  collection. 

Obs. — One  of  the  most  slender  of  our  American  species  ;  Paludina  subsolida, 
nob.,  is  more  ponderous,  more  globose,  and  has  a  larger  aperture  ;  no  other 
species  approaches  it  in  general  appearance  ;  the  whorls  of  this  species  taper 
more  rapidly  to  an  acute  apex  than  in  most  of  the  species  ;  compared  with  P. 
Integra,  Say,  it  is  more  slender,  more  solid,  and  the  aperture  is  much  smaller. 

Paludina  subsolida,  Anthony. — Shell  ovate,  imperforate,  very  thick ;  co'or 
light  green,  verging  to  brown  in  old  specimens  ;  spire  much  elevated,  com- 
posed of  6 — 7  inflated  whorls ;  sutures  very  distinct  ;  aperture  broad-ovate, 

I860.] 


72  PROCEEDINGS    OF   THE   ACADEMY    OF 

about  one-third  of  the  length  of  the  shell,  within  white  ;  lip  curved  forward 
and  forming  a  very  conspicuous,  subacute  tip  near  its  base ;  columella  well 
rounded,  a  thick  callous  deposit  covering  the  umbilicus. 

Length  2  inches  ;  breadth  lj  inches. 

Hub. — Illinois.     My  Cab.  ;  Cab.  Hugh  Cuming,  London. 

Obs. — This  is  the  most  ponderous  species  in  the  genus,  far  exceeding  P. 
ponderosa,  Say,  in  that  respect ;  compared  with  that  species  it  is  not  only 
much  more  solid  and  heavy,  but  its  spire  is  proportionally  more  elongate, 
whorls  more  convex,  while  the  body  whorl  is  less  ventricose,  and  the  aperture 
is  uncommonly  small  for  a  Paludina  of  its  size  ;  the  body  whorl  is  disposed  to 
be  angulated  near  its  middle  ;  all  the  whorls  are  more  or  less  shouldered  and 
the  lines  of  growth  are  very  conspicuous  ;  the  body  whorl  is  obscurely  striate 
concentrically,  and  its  surface  then- by  modified  so  as  to  present*  a  faintly  sculp- 
tured appearance,  and  the  striae  being  somewhat  finely  undulated  the  appear- 
ance under  a  microscope  is  very  pleasing. 


Supplement  to  "  A  Catalogue  of  the  Venomous  Serpents  in  the  Museum  of  the 

Academy,"  etc. 

BY    E.    D.    COPE. 

Species  19.  Teleuraspis  Castelnaui  Cope.  Another  specimen,  obtained 
in  a  collection  made  between  Fort  Riley  and  Pike's  Peak,  Kansas,  with  Scelo- 
porus  undulatus,  Ablabes  occipitalis,  Bascanion  flaviventris, 
etc.  As  the  same  collection,  however,  contained  a  specimen  of  Liophis 
r  e  g  i  n  as ,  the  occurrence  of  the  South  American  serpent  in  question  was 
doubtless  the  result  of  accident  or  mistake. 

P.  345.  After  Elaps  altirostris  insert 

64.  E.  Hemprichii  Jan,  Rev.  et  Mag.  de  Zoologie,  1858,  p.  524. 
One  spec.  Surinam.  Dr.  Colhoun. 

Our  specimen  differs  from  those  described  by  Prof.  Jan  with  respect  to  the 
number  of  gastrosteges  included  in  the  black  rings.  In  those  the  central  ring 
covers  but  one  plate  ;  in  ours,  four,  the  lateral  ones  six  or  seven.  The  great 
breadth  of  these  rings  compared  with  the  light  spaces,  distinguishes  it  at  once 
from  any  other  species  which  we  have  seen.  The  muzzle  is  short,  and  the 
nostrils  widely  separated.  Total  length  11  inches.  Gastrosteges  181,  anal  1, 
urosteges  27. 

P.  346,  species  51.  A  more  careful  examination  of  the  two  specimens  here 
assigned,  with  a  mark  of  doubt,  to  Elaps  Marcgravii,  has  convinced  us 
that  neither  of  them  belong  to  that  species,  and  that  they  are  in  fact  distinct 
from  each  other.  The  smaller  we  believe  to  be  undescribed.  After  fili- 
form i  s  Gthr.  it  is  the  most  slender  South  American  Elaps.  Upon  comparing 
it  with  a  young  E.  lemniscatus,  which  has  a  head  of  the  same  size,  the 
proportions  of  the  body  and  tail  are  nearly  similar,  but  the  number  of  sets  of 
rings  is  rather  less.  The  head  is  not  so  broad  posteriorly,  and  the  occipital 
plates  are  a  little  more  elongate.  The  principal  difference,  however,  lies  in  the 
distribution  of  colors  on  the  head.  This  is  entirely  black  above  and  below  as 
far  as  three  scales  behind  the  occipitals,  except  a  yellow  band  behind  the  post- 
oculars.  This  covers  the  sixth  upper  labial,  one  temj>oral  above  it,  anterior 
third  of  the  occipitals,  hinder  edge  of  superciliaries,  and  greater  part  of  the 
vertical.  Superior  labials  seven,  third  and  fourth  coming  into  the  orbit. 
Distance  from  the  black  of  the  head  to  first  ring,  eleven  scales.  Eight  sets  of 
rings,  the  middle  not  twice  as  wide  as  the  external  ring,  which  is  as  broad  as 
the  yellow  interval.  Gastrosteges  197  ;  anal  1 ;  urosteges  19  pair.  Length  11 
in.  9  1. 

We  propose  calling  this  species  Elaps  melanogenys. 

One  specimen,  presented  by  Dr.  Wilson  ;  locality  unknown. 

[Feb. 


NATURAL   SCIENCES   OP  PHILADELPHIA.  73 

E.  Gravenhorstii  Jan,  loc.  cit.  p.  524,  resembles  this  species,  but  has 
a  black  half-collar  only,  and  a  longer  tail.  The  preocular  is  very  small,  sepa- 
rated from  the  nasal  by  the  contiguous  post-frontal  and  superior  labial.  In 
our  species  the  preocular  is  unusually  large,  and  in  contact  with  the  nasal. 

Species  53.  The  three  specimens  here  referred  to  frontalis  D.  §•  B.  belong 
to  a  species  nearly  allied  to  lemniscatus,  apparently  undescribed.  The 
most  prominent  differences  are,  the  exact  equality  of  the  black  rings  in  width, 
the  shorter  intervals  between  the  triads,  and  the  position  of  the  first  ring 
which  touches  the  occipital  and  last  labial  shields.  In  lemniscatus,  its 
vars.  frontalis  and  baliocoryphus,  in  Marcgravii  and  deco- 
ra t  u  s ,  the  first  black  ring  is  several  scales  behind  the  angle  of  the  mouth, 
the  intermediate  space  being  red ;  also  the  central  ring  of  each  three  is  wider 
than  the  external.  Distance  between  the  middle  and  outer  of  the  three  rings 
in  our  specimens  of  lemniscatus  two  and  three  scales ;  inisozonus 
(as  we  now  call  this  serpent)  four.  In  the  former  the  anterior  part  of  the 
occipitals  is  crossed  by  a  black  band  ;  in  the  latter  they  are  entirely  white, 
(red  ?),  except  a  little  black  at  the  posterior  ends. 

E.  isozonus  nob. — Sets  of  rings  twelve.  No.  1,  gastrosteges  201 ;  anal  1, 
entire  ;  urosteges  28,  first  9  entire.  No.  2,  218  ;  anal  1,  divided  ;  urosteges  26. 
No.  3,  213  gastrosteges  ;  anal  1,  divided ;  urosteges,  29,  two  entire.  We  do 
not  know  the  part  of  South  America  inhabited  by  this  serpent. 

Species  54.  The  specimen  here  described  as  Elaps  baliocoryphus  is, 
as  we  now  believe,  a  variety  of  the  lemniscatits.  It  resembles  the  figure 
of  the  var.  frontalis  D.  $•  B.  ("Marcgravii"  Pr.  Max.)  in  Abbild. 
Naturgeschichte  Brasiliens,  differing  in  having  an  additional  red  (white)  band 
across  the  fronts  of  the  occipitals.  Whether  Marcgravii  D.  $•  B.  be  a 
variety  of  lemniscatus,  as  believed  by  Dr.  Giinther,  or  not,  the  latter  is 
certainly  liable  to  great  variation  in  the  distribution  of  colors  on  the  head. 

In  place  of  E.  baliocoryphus,  insert 

54.  E.  filiformis   Giinther,  Proc.  Z.  S.1859,  p.  86. 

The  head  of  our  specimen  is  so  badly  mutilated  that  the  characters  could 
not  be  made  out  without  difficulty.  We  are,  however,  much  gratified  to  be 
able  to  record  our  probable  possession  of  the  interesting  species  described  as 
above.  It  may  be  known  from  other  American  Elapses  by  its  excessively 
elongate  form  and  the  possession  of  but  one  postocular.  In  a  few  particulars 
it  differs  from  Dr.  Giinther's  description.  The  nasal  plates  are  two :  two  tem- 
porals bound  the  upper  border  of  the  sixth  labial  shield,  the  anterior  of  which 
reaches  the  postocular.  There  is  no  light-colored  band  across  the  post-frontals. 
Triads  of  rings  nineteen,  disposed  as  in  the  description. 

Preocular  acute  anteriorly,  just  touching  the  nasals  ;  hence  the  post-frontals 
are  bent  down,  and  almost  reach  the  labials.     Third,  fourth  and  fifth  superior 
labials  narrow  and  high,  eye  resting  on  the  suture  of  the  last  two.     Gastros- 
teges 308  ;  anal  1,  divided ;  urosteges  42.     Length  21  in.  9  1. 
One  sp.  ?  Dr.  Wilson. 

To  assist  further  in  the  identification  of  the  species  of  Elaps  having  the  rings 
arranged  by  threes,  we  have  prepared  the  following  table.  Those  marked  with 
an  asterisk  are  not  in  the  Museum  of  the  Academy. 

A.  Postoculars  two. 
Head  compressed,  lanceolate. 
Labials  not  reaching  the  occipitals.  altirostkis  Cope. 

Head  depressed. 
Sixth  superior  labial  reaching  the  occipital.  *decoratus  Jan. 

Sixth  superior  labial  not  reaching  the  occipital. 

f  Posterior  part  of  occipitals  included  in  a  black  collar  or  half-collar, 
a.  Neck  surrounded  by  a  narrow  yellow  ring. 

I860.] 


74 


PROCEEDINGS    OP   THE    ACADEMY   OF 


Cephalic  plates  black ;    an   imperfect   postocular 

cross-band. 
Red,  bordered  with  black, 
b.  Neck  covered  by  the  black  collar. 
Postfrontals  touching  the  labials. 
Post-frontals  not  touching  the  labials  ; 
Geneial  shields  entirely  black. 
Red  or  yellow ; 

Scales  between  middle  and  outer  black  ring 

red. 
Black  with  large  white  spots. 
ff  Occipital  shields  not  traversed  by  a  black  collar  or  half-collar, 

a.  Rings  absent  on  the  belly,  divided  and  alternating 

above.  axternans  D 

b.  Rings  entire ; 


*elegans  Jan. 

SlJRINAMENSIS  CUV. 
*GrRAVENHORSTII  Jan. 
MELANOGENYS  Cope. 


isozonps  Cope. 
DissoLEtjcr/s  Cope. 


&B. 


The  middle  one  of  each  three  more  than  twice  as 
wide  as  the  outer.  *Dpmerilii  Jan. 

Not  more  than  twice  as  wide  as  the  outer, 
But  twice  as  wide  as  the  red  spaces  between  the 


triads. 
Not  twice  as  wide. 
First  black  ring  just  touching  occipitals 
Some  distance  behind  them  ; 
Before  the  eyes  uniform  black. 
A  red  band. 

B.  Postoculars  one. 
Body  very  slender. 

Species  57.  Platurus  fas  ciatus  Daud.,  add 
One  sp.  Raiatea. 

Species  63.  Pelamis  bicolor  Daud.,  add 
One  sp.  Pacific  coast  of  Panama. 


Hemprichii  Jan. 

isozosus  Cope. 

*Marcgravii  D.  &  B. 
lemniscatus  Schn. 

filiformis  Gthr. 


Dr.  J.  Wilson,  U.  S.  N. 
Dr.  J.  Wilson,  U.  S.  N. 


We  correct  the  following  typographical  errors  in  the  Catalogue : — 
Page  332,  line  20,  for  "those  "  read  these. 

333,    "     35  :  for  "  Proteroglyphis  "  read  Proteroglyphes. 

338,    "     12:  for  "Dr.  Coleman  Pemberton"  read  Dr.  J.  P.  Coleman. 

338,    "     19  :  for  "  plants  "  read  flanks. 

341,  Pelias  b  e  r  u  s  :  for  "  var.  n  i  g  e  r  Bell, ' '  read  var.  p  r  e  s  t  e  r  Linn. 

342,  line  11  :  for  "  Brachychranion,"  read  Brachycranion. 

343,  "     19:  for  "H.  pallidiceps  Gray"  read  H.  pallidiceps, 
Gthr. 

343,  "     33:  for  "Sepedon  Cuvier"  read  Sepedon  Merrem. 

344,  Bungarus  fas  ciatus:  for  "Three  sp.':  read  Five  sp. 

345,  line  37:  for  "E.  Bertholdi,"  read  E.   Bibroni. 
347    "        5  :  for  "  Hydrophia,"  read  Hydrophis. 


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it 


Catalogue  of  Colubridse  in  the  Museum  of  the  Academy  of  Natural  Sciences  of 

Pailadelphia.    I.  Calamarinae. 

BY  E.  D.   COPE. 

4.    CoLUBRIDiE. 

Essential  char. — Superior  maxillary  bone  horizontal,  articulating  with  the 
anterior  frontal  by  a  lateral  process ;  its  anterior  prolongation  bearing  teeth 
neither  perforated  nor  channelled  for  the  reception  of  a  venom  duct.  The 
posterior  prolongation  uniting  to  the  ectopterygoid  by  a  horizontal,  oblique 

[Feb. 


NATURAL   SCIENCES   OF   PHILADELPHIA.  75 

articulation.  Superior  processes  of  the  caudal  vertebrae  not  elongated  ;  hypa- 
pophyses  bifid. 

Char,  not  universal. — Top  of  head  plated.  Belly  protected  by  broad  plates. 
Tail  cylindrical.     Penis  simple.* 

The  Chersydrus  granulatus  has  a  compressed  tail  somewhat  resem- 
bling that  of  the  sea  snake's,  and  adapted  to  habits  similar  in  many  respects. 
Yet  even  in  external  form  it  bears  a  greater  resemblance  to  that  of  some  of 
the  Boas,  having  a  prehensile  character.  A  comparison  of  the  caudal  verte- 
brae of  this  serpent  and  the  Hydrophis  pelamidoides  shows  the  follow- 
ing differences  :  In  the  latter  the  neural  spines  are  slender  and  greatly 
elongated,  and  the  pleurapophysesf  slender,  elongated,  and  but  little  di- 
verging. The  "appendages"  of  the  latter,  which  in  all  serpents  appear  in 
the  last  dorsal  and  first  caudal  vertebrae,  and  are  doubtless  the  homologues  of 
the  re-verted  processes  on  the  ribs  of  birds,  partake  of  the  same  nature. 
The  hypapophyses  are  similar  to  those  of  the  dorsal  vertebras,  being  undi- 
vided, with  the  exception  of  those  upon  the  first  two  vertebrae,  whose  pleura- 
pophyses  are  destitute  of  the  appendage.     These  are  slightly  bifid. 

In  the  Chersydrus  the  structure  is  entirely  that  of  the  Colubers.  The  neural 
spines  are  short  and  compressed ;  the  pleurapophyses  short  and  diverging ; 
and  the  hypapophyses  bifid,  and  their  lateral  moieties  separated.  Thus  in 
addition  the  difference  in  the  armature  of  the  mouth,  the  structure  of  the  tail 
separates  this  genus  from  the  sea  snakes.  Its  position  appears  to  us  to  be 
between  the  Homalopsinse  and  Boidae, — connected  to  the  latter  by  Xenoder- 
mu  s  Reinwt.,  as  indicated  by  Dumeril  and  Bibron. 

CALAMARIN^E. 

Calamaeia  Boie.     Type  C.  L  i  n  n  a  e  i . 
Isis,  1827,  p.  519. 

65.  C.  Gervaisii  D.  §■  B.,  vii.  p.  63. 

Four  sp.  Philippine  Is.  Mr.  Cuming. 

One  (young).  "  " 

Aspiduea  Wagler.     Type  A.  brachyorrhos. 
Naturlich.  Syst.  der  Amphib.  p.  191. 

66.  A.  brachyorrhos,  Gthr.  Cat.  Brit.  Mus.  14.  Scytale  brachyorrhos 
Boie.  Isis,  1827,  517.  A.  scytale,  D.  &  B.,'vii.  178  ("Wagler"  D.  &  B. 
et  Gthr.). 

One  sp.  Ceylon.  Mr.  Cuming. 

67.  A.  trachyprocta  nobis. 

Form  stout,  not  elongate.  Tail  short,  thick,  one-eighth  of  total  length. 
Scales  in  fifteen  rows,  broad,  not  imbricate,  smooth.  The  scales  in  the  four  or 
five  rows  each  side  of  the  anus,  for  a  distance  of  from  four  or  five  scales  in 
front  to  nine  or  ten  behind  the  anus,  are  marked  each  with  a  small  recurved 
tubercle  near  the  anterior  border.  Anal  shield  entire.  Superior  labials  six,  last 
largest ;  the  eye  resting  on  the  fourth.  Inferior  labials  five.  Posterior  pair  of 
geneial  shields  separated  by  a  central  complementary  plate.  Head  shields  simi- 
lar to  those  of  A.  brachyorrhos,  except  that  the  occipitals  are  more 
rounded  posteriorly,  and  the  lower  postoculars  larger.  Gastrosteges  135,  1 
entire  anal,  21  entire  urosteges,  and  a  small  central  postanal  plate.  Total 
length  8  in.  21.    Tail  1  in. 

Coloration. — Upper  surface  of  head  and  body  deep  brown,  becoming  lighter 
on  the  third  and  fourth  longitudinal  rows  of  scales,  and  contracted  on  the  tail 
to  a  narrow  median  vitta.     A  blackish  brown  band  passing  through  the  eye, 


*CoronelIa  can  a  is  one  exception,  fide  Schlegel. 

f  These  were  inadvertently  alluded  to,  Proceedings,  1859,  p.  333,  as  "haemal  spines." 

I860.] 


76  PROCEEDINGS  OP  THE  ACADEMY  OP 

and  along  the  adjacent  edges  of  the  scales  of  the  second  and  third  rows, 
indistinct  on  the  sides,  but  distinct  on  the  tail.  Superior  labials  and  throat 
yellowish  ;  belly  grayish,  largely  varied  with  black,  which  forms  an  irregular 
longitudinal  band. 

This  is  a  more  robust  serpent  than  the  well-known  brachyorrhos,  and 
has  a  shorter  and  thicker  tail.  While  this  has  21  urosteges,  our  specimen  of 
the  other  has  32.  The  latter  has  the  scales  in  17  rows  (15  Gimther),  and 
they  are  more  elongate  and  imbricate  ;  it  has  not  the  supplementary  geneial 
plate,  and  above  all,  the  peculiar  tuberculation  of  the  ischiadic  region.  This 
exists  elsewhere  only — as  far  as  we  know — in  the  Trachischium  r  u  g  o  s  u  m 
Gthr.,  of  the  Himmelayas,  also  a  Calamarian,  and  is  donbtless  an  assistance 
to  the  animals  in  burrowing  in  the  earth,  and  among  unyielding  objects. 

Another  difference  between  this  serpent  and  the  brachyorrhos  is  seen 
in  the  less  elongated  form  of  the  head  of  the  former,  the  rather  shorter  labials, 
and  much  shorter  geneials.  The  eye,  too,  is  a  trifle  longer,  and  more  anterior. 
The  coloration  is  quite  different  ;  we  only  note  here,  the  absence  of  the  large 
neck  spots  in  trachyprocta. 
One  sp.  Ceylon.  Mr.  Cuming. 

Haldea  Baird  &  Girard.     Type  H.  striatula. 
Catal.    Rept.   Smiths.  Inst.  Serp.   p.   122,    1853.      Conocephalus  Dumeril. 
Prodrome  de  la  Classification  des  Reptiles  Ophidiens,  pp.  43  et  46,  1852,  and 
Gunther  Cat.  Brit.  Mus.  p.  17.     Not  of  Thunberg,  1812,  (Orthoptera.) 

68.  H.  striatula  B.  %•  D.  Conocephalus  striatulus  D.  &  B.,  Erp.  Gen. 
et  Gthr.  1.  c. 

Two  sp.  S.  Carolina.  Dr.  Edwd.  Hallowell. 

One  sp.  N.  Carolina.  ? 

One  sp.  Richmond,  Va.  Smithsonian  Inst. 

One  sp.  N.  America.  ? 

Tropidoclonion  nobis.     Type  T.  lineatum. 

Microps  Hallowell  Proc.  Acad.  Nat.  Sci.  viii.  1856.  Not  of  Megerle,  1823, 
(Coleoptera  Oedemeritse.) 

This  genus  is  allied  to  I  sch  nogna  th  us  D.  #■  B.  S  tr  e  ptophor  us 
and  Elapoidis  agree  with  it  in  having  divided  urosteges,  carinate  scales 
and  two  internasals,  but  differ  thus,  Streptophorus,  two  post-,  no  preocular ; 
Elapoidis,  one  post-,  two  preoculars  ;  Tropidoclonion,  two  post-,  one  preocular. 

69.  T.  lineatum  nob.     Microps  lineatus  Hallow.  1.  c. 

Two  sp.  Kansas.  Dr.  Hammond. 

Streptophorus  D.  &  B.     Type  S.  S eb ae. 
Erp.  Gen.  vii.  514. 

70.  S.  Seb£e  D.  $■  B.  Elapoides  fasciatus  Hallow.  Journ.  Acad.  iii.  35, 
pi.  4. 

One  sp.  Honduras.  Dr.  Woodhouse. 

Two  sp.  ?  Gard.  of  Plants. 

71.  S.  atratus  nobis.  Coluber  atratus  Hallow.  Proc.  Acad.  Nat.  Sci.  ii. 
p.  245,  1845.     Streptophorus  Drozii  D.  &  B.  vii.  518,  1854,  Gunther  1.  c. 

We  are  glad  to  be  able  to  restore  the  name  given  by  Dr.  Hallowell  to  this 
species  many  years  before  that  of  the  Erpetologie  Generale.  The  specimen 
described  by  him  is  rather  paler  than  the  others— justifying  the  expression, 
"  lead  colored."  The  "  six  "  superior  labials  is  an  anomaly,  other  specimens 
having  seven.  None  of  the  specimens  have  the  dark  color  on  the  chin  and 
throat  mentioned  by  Dumeril— but  this  is  not  probably  an  important  character, 
as  Gunther  does  not  allude  to  it. 

Four  sp.  Venezuela,  within  200  miles  of  Caraccas.  Dr.  Ashmead. 

[Feb. 


NATURAL  SCIENCES  OF  PHILADELPHIA.  77 

72.  S.  bifasciatus  D.  fr  B.  vii.  520. — In  this  species  the  carina?  are 
very  strong,  and  present  on  every  row  of  scales.  It  is  of  a  slender,  elongate 
form  as  mentioned  by  its  describers,  resembling  the  species  of  Ablabes  in  its 
proportions.  For  this  reason  we  question  the  propriety  of  removing  this 
genus  from  the  neighborhood  of  Ischnognathus,  where  Dumeril  places  it,  and 
it  is  only  the  Calamarian  form  ofS.  atratus  that  induces  us  to  consent  to 
the  position  assigned  by  GLinther.  Our  specimens  of  species  being  fresh,  we 
will  note :  that  the  superior  surface  is  not  properly  black,  but  deep  slate  ;  and 
that  the  collar  and  inferior  labial  plates  are  light  yellow.  The  black  upon  the 
gastrosteges  covers  an  extent  rather  wider  than  each  white  lateral  band. 
Three  specimens,  Jalapa,  Mexico,  Sr.  Rapfhael  M.  De  Oca. 
One           "                                          "  Mr.  Pease. 

Tantilla  Bd.  &  Grd.     Type  T.  coronata. 

Catalogue  Serp.,  p.  131. 

This  genus  appears  to  be  quite  distinct  from  Rhabdosoma  D.  §•  B.,  be- 
ing characterized  by  a  more  slender  body,  longer  tail,  divided  anal,  and  a 
loreal  plate,  either  united  to  the  postfrontals  or  wanting.  The  latter  two 
peculiarities  also  distinguish  it  from  Rhabdion  D.  Sf  B.  Posterior  maxil- 
lary teeth  equal  to  the  anterior,  smooth.  Perhaps  Rhabdosoma  elaps 
Gthr.  1.  c.  241,  belongs  here  ;  its  anal  scute  is,  however,  entire. 

73.  T.  Hall  owe  11  i  nob.  Tantilla  gracilis  Hallow.,  Proc.  Acad.  Nat. 
Sci.  viii.  p.  246. 

This  species  is  accurately  described  as  cited,  and  the  differences  between  it 
and  T.  gracilis  pointed  out.  These,  we  think,  are  of  specific  value,  and 
accordingly  name  it  after  Dr.  Hallowell,  as  a  slight  recognition  of  his  many 
valuable  contributions  to  herpetology. 

The  form  of  this  species  is  more  like  that  of  Haldea  s  t  r  i  a  t  u  1  a  B.  §*  G., 
than  Carphophiops  amoena.  The  locality,  "Indianola, "  assigned  by 
Dr.  Hallowell,  is  probably  a  mistake,  being  copied  from  Baird  &  Girard's 
Catalogue.     We  have  one  specimen  brought  from  Kansas  by  Dr.  Hammond. 

74.  T.  reticulata  nob. — Vertical  plate  broad,  slightly  angular  in  front, 
projecting  posteriorly  for  half  its  length  between  the  occipitals.  Occipitals 
and  both  pair  of  frontals  rather  broad.  Rostral  broad,  visible  from  above. 
Nostril  in  the  posterior  part  of  prenasal ;  postnasal  in  contact  with  first  and 
second  superior  labials,  preocular,  post-  and  prefrontals.  Two  postoculars, 
upper  one  in  contact  posteriorly  with  the  occipital,  the  lower  touching  one 
temporal.  A  second  temporal  equal  to  the  first,  and  a  third  very  small  one 
behind  it.  Superior  labials,  seven  last  largest,  third  and  fourth  entering  the 
orbit  both  low.  Four  geneials,  anterior  in  contact  with  inferior  rostral. 
Scales  in  fifteen  rows,  last  one  slightly  larger.  Gastrosteges  148,  postab- 
dominal  1  divided,  urosteges  67  pair.     Total  length  10  in.  3  1.  ;  tail  3  in. 

Color  above  chestnut  brown,  much  darker  posteriorly,  extending  upon  the 
tips  of  the  gastrosteges.  Anteriorly  the  scales  are  edged  with  darker,  pre- 
senting a  reticulated  appearance.  Central  dorsal  row  of  scales  lighter,  form- 
ing a  pale  vitta,  disappearing  on  the  tail.  Third  and  fourth  rows  on  each  side 
also  lighter,  forming  indistinct  bands.  A  collar  of  the  same  pale  yellow  brown 
crosses  the  ends  of  the  occipitals.  Cephalic  plates  clouded  and  edged  with 
darker  ;  a  deep  brown  mark  extending  from  the  occipitals  to  the  mouth  across 
the  yellowish  labials.  Beneath  pale  yellow,  deepening  posteriorly. 
One  specimen,  Cocuyas  de  Veraguas,  New  Grenada,  R.  W.  Mitchell. 

This  species  seems  to  be  much  like  the  T.  c  o  r  o  n  a  t  u  m  B.  $•  G.,  but  has 
a  much  longer  tail,  and  broader  head-shields  ;  the  upper  post-ocular,  not  the 
lower,  is  in  contact  with  the  temporal  in  the  latter.  See  Pacif.  R.  R.  Report, 
x.  Reptiles,  pi.  38,  fig.  96. 

I860.] 


78  PROCEEDINGS   OP   THE   ACADEMY  OP 

Rhabdosoma  D.  &  B.     Type  R.  s  e  m  i  d  o  M  a  t  u  m. 
Erpet.  Gen.  vii.  90. 

75.  R.   semidoliatum  Z).  ^-5. 

Two  specimens,  Mexico,  ? 

Six         "  Jalapa,  Mexico,  Sr.  R.  M.  De  Oca. 

One        "         (young)  "  "  Mr.  Pease. 

This  species  appears  to  be  very  common  in  central  Mexico.  The  spaces 
between  the  black  spots  on  the  dorsal  region,  described  by  authors  as  white, 
are  in  life  of  a  beautiful  vermillion  color. 

76.  R.  fuliginosum  nobis.  Coluber  fuliginosus  Hallowell,  Proc.  Acad. 
Nat.  Sci.  ii.  p.  243,  1845.  ?  Isoscelis  et  Rhabdosoma  maculatum  Giinther,  Cat. 
Brit.  Mus.  204,  241,  1858. 

Six  superior  maxillary  teeth  on  each  side  in  a  continuous  series,  the  ante- 
rior longer  than  the  posterior,  but  not  longer  than  the  middle  two.  Seven  in- 
ferior maxillaries  on  each  side  regularly  increasing  in  length  anteriorly.  This 
peculiar  dentition  induced  us  to  consider  this  serpent  a  Lycodont,  but  sub- 
sequent examination  and  comparison  with  Dr.  Giinther's  description  of  his 
Rhabdosoma  maculatum  has  persuaded  us  that  the  two  species  are 
very  similar,  possibly  identical.  The  most  material  difference  is,  that  the 
ma cu latum  has  seven  superior  labial  plates,  the  fuliginosum  six.  Of 
those  of  the  latter,  the  third  is  elongated,  and  with  the  fourth  entering  the  or- 
bit. Geneials  one  pair;  vertical  broader  in  front  than  its  greatest  length. 
Postoculars  two,  temporals  three  ;  loreal  long  and  narrow.  Color  reddish 
brown,  a  darker  shade  crossing  each  occipital  obliquely  and  uniting  behind 
them  into  a  dorsal  hand,  which  is  soon  broken  into  spots.  These  are  obsolete 
on  the  middle  and  hinder  part  of  the  body.  No  lateral  series  of  spots.  Belly 
immaculate.  See  Hallowell  1.  c. 
One  specimen,  Near  Caraccas,  Dr.  S.  A.  Ashmead. 

77.  R.  torquatum  D.  Sf  B.  vii.  p.  101.  " Brachyorrhos  torquatus  H. 
Boie,  Erpet.  de  Java." 

Superior  labials  eight,  fourth  and  fifth  coming  into  the  orbit.  One  postocu- 
lar ;  one  pair  of  geneials.  The  color  of  our  specimen  is  a  very  deep  brown,  so 
dark  that  the  transverse  series  of  black  spots  can  only  be  seen  in  certain 
lights.  The  opalescent  play  of  colors  is  unusually  beautiful  on  this  account. 
Beneath  dark  brown,  posteriorly  finely  punctulated  with  darker. 
One  specimen,  Surinam,  Dr.  Hering. 

78.  R.  c  r  a  s  s  i  c  a  u  d  a  t  u  m  D.  $•  B.  vii.  103. 

Seventeen  longitudinal  rows  of  scales  ;  two  postoculars  ;  seven  superior  la- 
bials, third  and  fourth  entering  the  orbit.  In  these  important  particulars  our 
specimen  is  similar  to  those  of  Dumeril,  but  the  coloration  is  totally  distinct. 
Though  much  bleached  by  the  alcohol,  the  animal  was,  probably,  pale  brown, 
each  scale  tipped  with  darker,  with  a  dorsal  vitta  of  the  same  extending  from 
the  occipitals  to  the  end  of  the  tail.  Beneath  yellow,  immaculate. 
One  specimen,  Surinam,  Dr.  Hering. 

Cakphophiops  Gervais.     Type  C.  amoena. 

Diet.  Nat.  Hist.  Univers.  (dir.  par  M.  C.  D'Orbigny,)  iii.  p.  191,  1843.  Car- 
phophis  Dumeril,  Prodrome  de  la  class,  des  Rept.  Ophidiens,  pp.  43  et  46,  1852. 
Erp  Gen.  vii.  p.  131,  1854.  Giinther  1.  c.  17,  1858.  Not  of  Gervais  1.  c.  191, 
1843.      Celuta  B.  &  G.,  Cat.  Serp.  129,  1853. 

This  genus  is  characterized  by  Gervais  as  cited,  who  refers  to  Dumeril  and 
Bibron  ;  but  we  cannot  find  it  published  by  the  latter  prior  to  1852.  Carpho- 
phis  Gerv.  has  the  characters  of  Calamaria  Boie,  and  hence  cannot  be  applied 
to  the  Coluber  a  m  o  e  n  u  s  Say. 

[Feb. 


NATURAL    SCIENCES   OF   PHILADELPHIA.  79 

79.  C.  amoena  nobis.  Coluber  amaenus  Say,  Jour.  Acad.  Nat.  Sci.  iv. 
237.  Calamaria  amoena  Schl.  Ess.  Phys.  Serp.  31.  Brachyorrhos  amoenus 
Holbr.  Am.  Herp.  iii.  115.  Carphophiops  vermiformis  Gervais,  Diet.  Univ. 
d'Hist.  Nat.  iii.  191.    Carphophis  amoena  Dum,  &  Bibr.  vii.  131.     Celuta  amoe- 


na  B.  &  G. 

I.e. 

129. 

Four  specimens 

i 

Pennsylvania, 

9 

Two     ^   " 

a 

Drs.  Holbrook  and  Hallowell. 

It                u 

Beesley's  Point, 

N.  J., 

Mr.  Samuel  Ashmead. 

One         " 

Cape  May  Co.,  fl 

•    v  •  j 

Mr.  Tiffany. 

(1                   u 

Virginia, 

Jno.  Cassin,  Esq. 

Two         " 

S.  Carolina, 

Smithsonian  Institution. 

One         " 

(young) 

Dr.  Harlan. 

Virginia  Bd.  &  Grd.     ' 

rype  V. 

,  Valeria e. 

Catal.  Rept.  p.  127. 

This  genus  is  characterized  by  the  elongated  form  of  the  shields  of  the  head, 
and  the  distinctness  of  the  latter  from  the  body.  There  are  two  small  nasal 
plates,  as  in  Rhabdosoma. 

80.  V.  V  a  1  e  r  i  a  e  Bd.  &  Grd.  1.  c. 

One  specimen,  ?  ? 

Homalosoma  Wagl.     Type  H.  1  u  t  r  i  x. 
Nat.  Syst.  Amph.  190,  1830. 

81.  H.  lutr  ix  D.  fr  B.  vii.  p.  110. 

Two  specimens,  Cape  of  Good  Hope,  Garden  of  Plants. 

Oligodon  Boie.     Type  0.  subquadratum. 
Isis  1827,  p.  519. 

82.  O.  sublineatum  Z).&B.  vii.  p.  57. 

One  specimen,  Ceylon,  Mr.  Cuming. 

Genera  11.     Species  18.     Specimens  54. 

The  stoutness  of  the  body  and  tail,  and  the  shortness  of  the  latter,  the  in- 
distinctness of  the  head,  and  the  general  firmness  and  rigidity,  are  characters 
by  which  the  greater  number  of  the  species  of  this  sub-family  may  at  once  be 
recognized.  But  as  in  some  genera,  certain  of  these  peculiarities  vanish,  thus 
approximating  them  to  other  groups,  we  have  followed  M.  Dumeril  in  employ- 
ing the  dentition,  which  is  here  quite  characteristic.  Elsewhere,  however,  it 
evidently  fails  to  characterize  natural  groups,  as  urged  by  Dr.  Giinther  in  his 
invaluable  catalogue  of  the  Colubrine  snakes  in  the  British  Museum.  We 
have,  therefore,  omitted  the  genera  Rhinostoma,  Phimophis*  and  Homalo- 
cranion,  which  have  the  posterior  superior  maxillaries  grooved,  and  are  perhaps 
more  nearly  allied  to  Scytale.  A  single  specimen  of  Scytale  coronatum, 
of  a  variety  near  that  called  S.  Neuwiedii  in  the  Erpetologie  Generale  was 
described  by  us,  Proc.  of  this  Acad.,  1859,  p.  294,  as  Olisthenes  euphaeus. 
Our  conviction  of  its  generic  distinctness  was  grounded  upon  the  peculiar  form 
of  the  rostral  plate,  which  while  offering  strong  characters  among  some  ser- 
pents, here  varies  with  the  individual. 

*  Phimophis  G  u  e  r  i  n  i ,  the  only  species.  It  is  Rhinosimus  G  u  e  r  i  n  i  of  Dumeril  and 
Bibron,  but  the  generic  name  was  applied  to  certain  species  of  Curculionidae,  by  Latreille, 
more  than  fifty  years  previously. 

I860.] 


80  PROCEEDINGS  OP  THE  ACADEMY  OP 


Descriptions   of  new  species  of  Cyrena  and  Corbicula  in    the  Cabinet  of  the 
Academy  of  Natural  Sciences  of  Philadelphia. 

BY   TEMPLE   PRIME. 

1.  Cyrena  ponderosa  Prime.  C.  testa  subtrigona,  inaequilaterali,  trans- 
versini  irregulariter  striata,  epidermide  brunnea  vestita,  valvis  crassis,  solidis  ; 
intus  candidissirna  ;  nmbonibus  parvis,  obliquis,  erosis  ;  dentibus  cardinalibus 
tribus  ;  dente  laterali  postico  compresso,  antico  breviore,  acuto. 

Shell  somewhat  triangular,  inequilateral,  lines  of  growth  irregular,  epidermis 
brown,  valves  heavy ;  interior  white ;  umbones  small  oblique,  eroded  ;  three 
cardinal  teeth ;  posterior  lateral  tooth  compressed,  anterior  one  short  and 
prominent. 

Long.  1  4-5  ;  lat.  1  3-5  ;  diam.  1  2-5  poll. 

Hab. — Philippine  Islands. 

This  shell  is  remarkable  by  its  weight  in  proportion  to  its  size.  It  may  be 
compared  to  the  Cyrena  Bengalensis  Lamarck,  from  which  it  differs,  how- 
ever, in  being  heavier,  having  less  prominent  beaks,  and  by  being  slightly 
more  inflated  ;  its  epidermis  is  darker  and  more  heavily  sulcated. 

2.  Cyrena  Corbiculaeformis  Prime.  C.  testa  trigona,  sub-inflata,  in- 
aequilaterali, intus  violacea,  epidermide  brunnea  vestita,  umbonibus  tumidis  ; 
dentibus  cardinalibus  tribus,  inaequalibus  ;  lateralibus  praelougis. 

Shell  triangular,  somewhat  inflated,  inequilateral,  beaks  prominent,  pos- 
terior margin  angular,  three  cardinal  teeth,  the  two  posterior  ones  of  nearly 
the  same  size,  anterior  one  less  developed  ;  lateral  teeth  elongated,  not  promi- 
nent ;  interior  of  the  valves  bluish-white  ;  epidermis  glassy,  lines  dark  brown. 

Long.  1  3-10  ;  lat.  1  2-10  ;  diam.  0  7-10  poll. 

Hab. — Cochin  in  Malabar. 

This  species  is  different  from  any  Cyrena  known  to  me,  but  bears  much  re- 
semblance in  its  general  forrn  to  certain  species  of  Corbicula. 

3.  Corbicula  r  o  t  u  n  d  a  Prime.  C.  testa  parva,  orbiculata,  subaequilaterali, 
tumidula,  subtrigona,  solidiuscula,  epidermide  flavescente  vestita  ;  regulariter 
striata ;  umbonibus  tumidis  ;  intus  alba ;  dentibus  cardinalibus  inaequalibus  ; 
lateralibus  elongatis,  angustis,  subaequalibus,  arcuatis,  tenuissime  striatis. 

Shell  small,  somewhat  inflated,  nearly  equilateral,  interior  white,  epidermis 
yellow,  lines  of  growth  delicate  and  very  regular  ;  umbones  prominent ;  car- 
dinal teeth  unequal  in  size  ;  lateral  teeth  elongated,  carved,  finely  denticulated. 

Long.  0  7-10  ;  lat.  0  6-10  ;  diam.  0  6-10  ;  poll. 

Hab. — Surinam  River,  Guyana. 

Compared  to  the  Corbicula  Paranensis  Adams,  this  species  differs  in  being 
more  inflated,  in  having  larger  beaks  and  by  its  more  regular  lines  of  growth, 
which  give  it  somewhat  the  appearance  of  an  Eastern  species. 


The  Humming  Birds  of  Mexico. 

BY  RAFAEL   MONTES   DE   OCA. 

Of  Jalapa,  Mexico. 

No.   2. 

Cyanomyia  cyanocephala  Gould. 
Ornismyia  cyanocephala  Lesson. 
Trochilus  quadricolor  Vieillot? 
The  Black  billed  Azure-crown,  Gould,  Monograph,  part  xi. 

This  Humming  Bird  is  commonly  knowu  by  the  name  of  Chupa-mirto,  comun 
depecho  bianco,  or  common  white-breasted  Myrtle-sucker.     It  is  found  very 

[Feb. 


NATURAL    SCIENCES   OF   PHILADELPHIA.  81 

abundantly,  and  at  all  seasons  of  the  year,  in  the  vicinity  of  Jalapa,  Coatepec, 
Orizaba,  and  many  other  places  in  Mexico  ;  but  Mr.  Gould,  in  his  Monograph  of 
Humming  Birds,  states,  that  it  is  ako  found  in  Guatemala,  and  seems  disposed 
to  assign  that  country  as  its  propeflocality.  It  is  quite  possible  it  nests  there 
also,  but  the  fact  that  it  remains  in  Mexico  all  the  year  round,  and  as  I  have  often 
found  its  nest  in  the  months  of  April  and  May,  I  believe  it  is  most  properly  to 
be  considered  a  bird  of  the  country  last  mentioned. 

This  pretty  little  bird  is  very  familiar  and  unsuspicious,  and  allows  a  person 
to  approach  it  very  near  in  the  woods,  and  is  a  constant  visitor  to  the  gardens 
in  the  towns  and  cities.  Like  the  fine  species  mentioned  in  my  first  paper,  it 
frequents  the  Mazapan  flowers,  around  which  it  may  be  seen  at  all  hours  of  the 
day. 

The  nest  of  this  species  is  lined  on  the  inside  with  the  tule  silky  floss,  which  is 
the  case  with  nearly  all  the  Humming  Birds  in  this  part  of  Mexico.  On  the 
outside  it  is  covered  with  moss  from  the  rocks,  in  such  handsome  and  ingenious 
manner  that  would  be  very  difficult  for  man  to  imitate.  T^ere  are  generally 
two  eggs,  but  on  one  occasion  I  found  three  in  one  nest.  The  eggs  are  white, 
oblong,  rather  elongated,  and  large  in  proportion  to  the  size  of  the  bird. 

The  upper  part  of  the  head  in  this  species  is  of  a  most  brilliant  metallic  azure 
color,  the  upper  parts  of  the  body  and  wing  coverts  are  brown,  shaded  with 
bronze  green;  the  tail  and  its  coverts  are  of  the  same,  but  not  so  bright;  the 
wings  are  as  long  as  the  tail,  and  of  an  umber  purplish  color,  the  throat  is 
satin-like  white,  with  the  sides  of  a  bluish  green,  or  rather  feathers  of  both 
colors  mixed  together,  very  lustrous  ;  the  under  part  of  the  body  and  the  feathers 
of  the  leg  are  dull  white;  the  under  surface  of  the  wings  is  bronzed  brownish 
gray  ;  the  under  tail  coverts  are  of  the  same,  but  less  brilliant,  and  with  the 
edges  of  each  feather  lighter,  the  feet,  nails  and  upper  mandible  are  black,  the 
mandible  is  about  one  third  black  at  its  point,  and  flesh  color  at  its  base. 

Total  length,  i\  inches,  wing  2£,  tail  \\,  bill  f  inches.  The  female  is  of  the 
same  size  as  the  male,  and  the  only  difference  between  the  two  sexes  is  that  the 
blue  of  the  head  and  the  white  of  the  breast  are  of  not  so  decided  colors  in  the 
female,  although  this  difference  only  occurs  at  certain  seasons  of  the  year. 
The  cranium  of  the  male  can  be  distinguished  also  from  that  of  the  female, 
being  rather  larger. 


The  Committee  to  which  was  referred  a  communication  from  Mr. 
P.  B.  Du  Chaillu,  asserting  that  the  Academy  is  his  debtor  for  a 
part  of  the  costs  of  a  certain  exploration  in  Africa  made  by  him, 
reported  in  substance  that  Mr.  Du  Chaillu  has  no  claim  whatever  on 
this  institution. 

Dr.  Carson  said : 

Mr.  President, — I  rise  to  perform  the  painful  duty  of  announcing  the  death 
of  our  associate,  Dr.  Edward  Hallowell,  which  took  place  on  the  21st  instant, 
from  consumption  ;  and  I  feel  that  in  connection  with  this  announcement,  it 
is  especially  proper  from  me  should  come  the  remarks  which  will  serve  to  do 
honor  to  his  memory  as  a  member  of  the  Academy  of  Natural  Sciences.  He 
was  not  only  an  intimate  friend,  but  one  of  long  standing,  having  almost  uni- 
formly been  educated  together,  at  first  in  the  Collegiate  Department  of  the 
University  of  Pennsylvania,  then  as  students  of  Medicine  in  the  office  of  the 
late  Dr.  Hewson,  and  in  the  Medical  Department  of  the  University. 

In  early  life  Dr.  Hallowell  was  remarkable  for  his  studious  habits,  and  pro- 
ficiency in  the  branches  of  his  Collegiate  Course.  He  always  had  a  prominent 
position,  and  graduated  with  the  highest  honors  of  his  class.  To  the  Science 
of  Medicine,  which  he  subsequently  pursued  with  ardor,  and  in  which  for 

I860.]  6 


82  PROCEEDINGS    OF    THE   ACADEMY   OF 

many  years  he  labored  zealously  as  a  practitioner,  he  made  important  contri- 
butions, in  the  department  of  pathology.  His  paper  upon  the  subject  of  Cholera 
Infantum  is  an  admirable  and  original  ^dition  to  the  knowledge  of  that 
disease,  by  which  medical  literature  was  enriched,  and  American  medical 
authorship  advanced  in  estimation  abroad.  It  is  looked  upon  as  authoritative, 
with  respect  to  the  true  pathology  of  the  affection. 

As  a  member  of  the  Academy  he  labored  industriously,  and  from  the  time 
of  his  election  was  devoted  to  the  interests  of  the  Institution.  His  depart- 
ment was  that  of  Herpetology,  and  I  may  appeal  to  the  collection  for  proof  of 
his  usefulness,  and  to  the  publications  for  evidences  of  his  ability  to  place  be- 
fore the  public  the  large  amount  of  new  information  derived  from  the  materials 
at  his  command.  When  a  few  years  ago  he  was  stricken  down  by  disease,  his 
loss  as  a  working  member  of  the  Academy  was  severely  felt  and  lamented. 

As  an  associate  Dr.  Hallowell  was  a  favorite  of  his  fellow  members.  His 
manners  were  always  urbane  and  deferential  to  the  views  and  feelings  of 
others,  his  temperwas  uniformly  equable  and  not  readily  ruffled  ;  the  kindness 
of  his  heart  was  a  perennial  spring,  while  his  sense  of  justice  led  him  to 
acknowledge  the  merits  and  the  services  of  all  who,  like  himself,  were  en- 
gaged in  scientific  occupations. 

We  have  lost  in  him  a  worthy  and  beloved  associate,  and  most  sincerely 
deplore  his  too  early  death,  although  to  him  it  is  a  gain. 

The  following  resolutions  were  then  offered  by  Dr.   Le  Conte  and 
adopted : 

Resolved,  That  the  Academy  has  learned  with  sincere  regret  the  death  of  its 
late  member,  Dr.  Edward  Hallowell. 

Resolved,  That  in  Dr.  Hallowell  the  Academy  has  lost  one  of  its  most  en- 
thusiastic and  laborious  students  and  valued  associates  ;  one  who  has  endeared 
himself  to  his  fellow  members,  as  well  by  his  high  personal  qualities  as  by 
his  steadfast  and  successful  pursuit  of  science. 


March  Qth. 
Vice  President  Bridges  in  the  Chair. 
Forty  members  present. 

Dr.  Joseph  Wilson  (Surgeon  U.  S.  Navy)  related  that  he  had  in  his  pos- 
session, during  some  months,  on  board  of  the  U.  S.  ship  Vandalia,  a  female 
whelp  of  a  small  Ocelot,  (Felis  pardalis  minimus,)  commonly  called  "tiger- 
cat."  It  was  obtained  in  Realejo,  Nicaragua,  in  the  month  of  December,  1858. 
At  that  time  it  was  too  young  to  eat  anything  except  milk,  but  gradually  came 
to  eat  crumbs  of  bread  from  her  cup,  and  small  scraps  of  meat.  The  animal  was 
light  gray,  beautifully  marked  with  dark  elliptical  rings  and  spots,  light  un- 
derneath ;  ears  quite  short,  rounded,  with  a  lunated  white  spot  on  top  ;  the 
tail  about  the  length  of  the  body  and  nearly  black.  She  was  of  the  size  of  an 
ordinary  cat,  and  weighed  five  pounds  eight  ounces  when  ten  months  old. 
She  was  transferred  to  the  Doctor's  protection  in  March  1859,  when  her  age 
was  conjectured  to  be  four  months.  She  was  named  Miss  Tiger  by  accla- 
mation, and  became  reconciled  to  her  change  of  abode  much  more  readily 
than  I  was  prepared  to  expect.  The  Vandalia  was  miserably  infested  by  rats, 
and  in  the  course  of  a  few  hours  she  received  her  first  lesson  in  the  valuable 
accomplishment  of  catching  them.  A  young  rat  was  caught  in  a  trap  and  pre- 
sented to  her  attention  ;  she  hesitated  but  a  moment,  when  she  commenced 
struggling  to  get  at  it,  and  when  permitted  she  pounced  upon  it  with  great 
fierceness  ;  she  walked  about  growling  with  her  prize,  evidently  proud  of  the 
conquest.  She  afterwards  played  with  it  for  about  three  hours,  performing 
many  fantastic  tricks  in  the  way  of  tossing  it  up  and  catching  it  as  it  came 

[March, 


NATURAL   SCIENCES   OP  PHILADELPHIA.  S3 

down,  turning  somer-saults  and  rolling  over  with  it  in  her  paws.  After  this 
she  seemed  quite  at  home,  and  required  no  more  lessons  in  rat-catching, 
though  she  eventually  became  very  expert.  It  occasionally  happened  that  a 
rat  was  seen  or  heard  in  a  store  room  or  corner  from  which  there  was  no 
secret  escape,  and  in  all  such  cases  Miss  Tiger  was  immediately  called  upon 
and  carried  to  the  scene  of  action.  She  generally  pointed  out  by  her  actions 
the  locality  of  the  object  of  pursuit,  and  stood  ready  to  pounce  upon  it  on  the 
very  first  opportunity.  On  these  occasions  she  sometimes  made  tremendously 
long  bounds,  say  ten  feet.  Escapes  in  these  cases  were  very  rare.  She 
eventually  came  to  understand  this  business  so  well,  that  when  called  she 
would  run  out  and  exhibit  an  eagerness  to  be  picked  up  and  carried,  com- 
parable to  that  of  a  child  who  expects  to  be  lifted  into  a  carriage.  In  attack- 
ing rats  she  was  quite  fearless,  and  so  far  as  known  was  never  hurt  by  them. 
She  mostly  seized  them  by  the  back  of  the  neck  or  head,  but  was  not  at  all 
particular  if  these  parts  did  not  happen  to  be  the  first  in  her  reach.  She  soon 
crushed  the  skull  by  forcing  her  long  cuspid  teeth  through  it,  generally  kill- 
ing her  prey  so  quickly  that  it  was  not  even  heard  to  squeal.  After  playing 
with  it  a  moderate  time,  she  would  eat  it,  commencing  with  the  head  and  pro- 
gressing steadily  till  she  finished  with  the  end  of  the  tail,  only  stopping  a 
moment  to  lick  her  chops,  when  she  came  to  the  heart  or  other  titbit.  Imag- 
ining that  the  hair  and  hide  were  not  very  good  food  for  her,  I  once  partially 
skinned  one  that  she  might  learn  to  tear  off  the  skin  and  leave  it  ;  but  this 
was  labor  lost,  as  she  immediately  began  to  eat  the  skin,  hair  and  all,  in  pre- 
ference to  the  other  part.  Rats  were  sometimes  taken  from  her  and  thrown 
overboard,  as  she  occasionally  caught  more  than  she  could  manage  to  eat ; 
but  she  soon  began  to  show  her  disapprobation  of  this  measure  by  a  very 
startling,  fierce  and  threatening  growl.  The  first  occasion  it  waked  me  up  at 
about  midnight,  and  when  I  went  out  to  inquire  what  was  wrong  with  Miss 
Tiger,  I  found  her  sitting  near  a  big  rat  and  growling  in  a  very  unusual  and 
startling  manner  at  about  six  men  whom  she  had  driven  from  their  beds  by 
her  threatening.  They  were  standing  around  her  with  various  weapons  in 
their  hands,  but  there  was  very  little  prospect  of  moving  her  without  some 
severe  bites  and  scratches.  As  I  approached  a  little  nearer  than  the  rest  she 
showed  a  disposition  to  take  her  prize  in  her  mouth,  and  while  her  teeth  were 
thus  employed  I  caught  her  by  the  top  of  her  shoulders  and  she  permitted  me, 
without  the  least  resistance,  to  carry  her  off,  rat  and  all,  to  a  place  on  deck, 
where  her  growling  could  not  annoy  the  sleepers.  She  was  frequently  carried 
off  in  this  manner  afterwards  both  by  myself  and  by  others.  She  would  sit 
by  the  hour  very  quietly  near  her  property,  till  she  was  disturbed  by  some 
movement  near  her,  when  she  would  commence  with  her  threatening  growl, 
which  was  loud  enough  and  fierce  enough  to  make  the  firmest  stand  back, 
till  they  had  seen  and  reflected  on  the  state  of  affairs.  She  had  another 
gentle,  plaintive  growl,  which  she  used  in  calling  for  her  breakfast  and  in 
showing  dissatisfaction  on  ordinary  slight  occasions.  She  had  no  cry  which 
could  be  compared  to  the  mewing  of  the  cat,  but  she  could  purr  to  perfection 
when  in  search  of  a  warm  bed.  Her  favorite  food  was  rare  beef  steak,  which 
she  even  preferred  to  rats  ;  but  hunger  and  petting  eventually  induced  her  to 
eat  bread  and  butter  for  her  breakfast,  whenever  she  had  a  night  of  unsuc- 
cessful hunting. 

The  gentleness  of  this  pet  was  really  astonishing.  She  allowed  herself  to 
be  picked  up  by  any  body,  without  any  worse  mark  of  dissatisfaction  than  a 
little  growling.  Even  when  feeding,  and  under  apprehension  that  her  rat  was 
about  to  be  taken  from  her,  she  would  not  bite  or  scratch.  She  would  play 
with  a  handkerchief  much  in  the  same  manner  as  with  a  rat.  She  was  fond 
of  being  handled,  and  when  rubbed  with  the  hand  she  would  roll  about  on 
her  back  and  pretend  she  was  going  to  bite,  seizing  the  fingers  between  her 
teeth,  growling  and  biting  with  such  cautious  gentleness  as  not  to  be  in  any 
I860.] 


84  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  ACADEMY  OP 

danger  of  wounding  the  skin.  But  one  exception  to  this  occurred  ;  one  of 
the  officers  attempted  to  play  with  her  in  this  manner  with  kid  gloves  on,  and 
was  immediately  punished  for  his  foppery  by  having  her  long  teeth  instantly 
forced  through  both  his  glove  and  his  finger.  She  may  have  perceived  some 
difference  between  the  texture  of  the  gloves  and  that  of  the  fingers  on  which 
she  was  accustomed  to  try  her  teeth.  She  knew  very  well  where  to  find  warm 
sleeping  places.  She  would  for  this  purpose  visit  the  hammocks  of  the  men 
at  night,  and  waken  any  sleeper  she  happened  to  fancy  by  patting  him  gently 
on  the  face  with  her  paw.  If  encouraged  and  welcomed  by  a  pat  on  the  back 
or  top  of  the  head,  she  would  lie  down  either  against  his  breast  or  at  his  feet ; 
but  if  refused  by  one  or  two  very  gentle  boxes  on  the  ear,  she  would  retire 
with  a  discontented  growl  and  seek  a  more  hospitable  sleeper.  How  she 
learned  to  distinguish  between  the  taps  on  the  top  of  the  head  as  marks  of 
approbation,  and  those  on  the  sides  of  the  opposite  signification,  is  a  subject  of 
mystery,  but  there  is  no  doubt  of  the  fact ;  perhaps  some  of  the  men  may 
have  taught  her  the  difference  by  boxing  her  more  energetically. 

She  was  very  fond  of  licking  the  men  about  the  face  and  gently  pinching  their 
ears  in  her  teeth  ;  and  although  she  frequently  engaged  in  this  disagreeable 
amusement,  she  never  wounded  any  one  in  the  least  while  thus  occupied.  In 
cold  weather  she  was  very  fond  of  getting  between  blankets,  and  required  but 
the  very  slighest  encouragement  to  crawl  into  the  very  middle  of  a  bed  and 
roll  herself  up  in  this  position  for  her  morning  nap. 

On  one  occasion  it  was  noticed  that  she  had  a  large  tumor  on  the  side  of 
her  face,  and  a  large  abscess  formed.  It  was  at  first  supposed  that  she  had 
hurt  her  face  in  playing  with  a  catfish  ;  some  one,  however,  noticed  that  it 
proceeded  from  an  irregularity  in  shedding  one  of  the  milk  teeth.  One  of 
the  officers,  of  uncommon  zeal  in  such  matters,  proposed  to  hold  her  while 
the  obnoxious  tooth  was  extracted.  I  determined  to  gratify  him  in  this 
matter,  and  to  the  astonishment  of  all  he  held  Miss  Tiger  on  his  lap  while  I 
extracted  the  obnoxious  tooth  with  a  pair  of  forceps,  and  neither  of  us  was 
scratched  during  the  operation. 

She  was  fond  of  dark  places,  and  delighted  in  running  about  deck  and  up  the 
rigging  early  in  the  mornings  and  on  cloudy  days.  When  the  men  were 
called  aloft  to  furl  "top  gallant  sails,"  she  would  jump  to  the  shrouds  and 
have  a  race  with  them  up  the  rigging,  and  with  very  little  effort  she  was  ' '  first 
man  in  the  top. ' ' 

She  generally  showed  so  much  excitement  in  the  presence  of  birds,  that 
doubtless  her  instinct  would  lead  her  to  seize  them.  She  killed  three  or  four 
chickens  at  different  times  secretly,  and  off  Cape  Horn  she  seized  and  killed 
an  albatross  of  at  least  double  her  weight.  A  common  green  parrot  was 
at  one  time  on  board  and  she  was  exceedingly  eager  to  get  at  it,  but  she 
was  boxed  a  little  on  the  ears  and  her  head  turned  the  other  way  a  few  times, 
till  she  appeared  to  understand  that  it  was  not  for  her.  Subsequently,  when 
she  appeared  to  be  watching  it  too  intently,  she  was  boxed  a  little  and  driven, 
till  in  about  a  week  she  seemed  to  regard  it  as  one  of  the  family. 

In  the  beginning  of  December  we  were  passing  the  "West  India  Islands,  the 
ship,  in  her  course,  starting  flocks  of  flying  fish,  in  which  Miss  Tiger  became 
interested,  they  looked  so  much  like  birds.  She  was  observed  in  the  moon- 
light watching  them  very  intently.  Her  absence  was  noticed  at  breakfast. 
A  search  through  the  ship  made  it  certain  she  had  been  lost  overboard 
during   the  night. 


March  13th. 
Mr.  Lea,  President,  in  the  Chair. 
Forty  members  present. 


[Marcb, 


NATURAL   SCIENCES   OP   PHILADELPHIA.  85 

The  following  papers  were  presented  for  publication  : 

"  Description  of  four  new  species  of  Unionidae  from  Brazil,  by  Isaac 

Lea."     "Description  of  fifteen  new  species  of  Uruguayan  Unionida3,by 

Isaac  Lea." 

And  were  referred  to  a  Committee. 

Mr.  Lea  stated  that  when  he  made  some  remarks,  a  few  weeks  since,  on  the 
Unionida  of  the  United  States,  he  gave  th9  number  of  thetn  incorrectly  by  an 
inadvertence.     He  now  desired  to  restate  them  numerically  : 

Unio, 465  species. 

Margaritana,       .........  26 

Anodonta, 59  " 

550 
To  these  may  be  added,  new  species  in  his  cabinet  not  yet 

described,        ........  30 

580 
And  to  these  may  be  added,  for  North  America,  known  to 
inhabit  Jtlexico,  Honduras,  Central   America   and 
one  in  Canada,  Unio,  29 

Anodonta,      8 

—  37 


617 
It  will  be  observed  that  we  have  not  in  North  America  either  of  the  genera 
Triquetra,  (Hyria,  Lam.,)  Prisodon,  (Castalia,  Lam.,)  Monocondylcea,  Mycetopus, 
£yssa?idonta,  or  Plagiodon.  They  are  all  emphatically  South  American  types, 
while  there  does  not  seem  to  inhabit  the  southern  half  of  America  a  single 
species  of  Margaritana,  (Alasmodonta,  Say.)  Ferussac  has  described  a  species 
(A.  incurva)  as  coming  from  South  America,  but  there  is  reasonable  doubt  of 
it.  The  Monocondylcea  and  Margaritana  seem  mutually  to  replace  each  other. 
The  Uniones  and  Anodontce  prevail  in  both  parts  of  the  continent  over  all  the 
other  genera,  both  as  to  numbers  and  universality  of  distribution.  The  genus 
Mulleria,  (Acostea,  D'Orb.)  has  only  been  found  in  the  tributaries  of  the  Mag- 
dalena  in  New  Granada. 

Dr.  Leidy  called  the  attention  of  the  members  to  a  specimen  of  the  singular 
body,  named  Hyalonema  mirabilis,  recently  presented  by  Dr.  Ruschenberger. 
It  is  the  second  specimen  obtained  within  a  short  time  for  the  Academy.  Both 
are  from  Japan.  The  specimen  of  Hyalonema  exhibited,  consists  of  a  twisted 
cord  of  siliceous  spiculse  over  a  foot  in  length,  and  about  half  an  inch  in 
diameter.  Twisted  around  it  is  a  coriaceous  membrane  with  wart-like  eminen- 
ces, belonging  to  a  zoophyte,  which  Dr.  L.  regards  with  M.  Valenciennes  as 
parasitic.  The  cord  of  siliceous  spiculse,  Dr.  J.  E.  Gray  supposes  to  be  the 
axis  of  the  zoophyte,  but  Dr.  L.  with  M.  Valenciennes,  views  it  as  belonging 
to  a  sponge.  This  latter  view  is  apparently  confirmed  by  a  specimen  of  a 
sponge,  in  the  cabinet  of  the  Academy,  from  Santa  Cruz,  presented  by  the  late 
Dr.  Griffith.  This  sponge  is  an  oblong  oval  mass,  about  four  inches  long,  sur- 
mounted at  one  extremity  with  a  corona  of  twisted  cords  of  siliceous  spiculse 
about  two  inches  in  length.  These  spiculse  are  very  similar  in  structure  to 
those  of  the  Hyalonema,  mainly  differing  in  size. 

The  Publication  Committee  laid  on  the  table,  part  3,  vol.  4,  of  the 
Journal  of  the  Academy. 
I860.] 


0(3  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  ACADEMY  OF 

March  20th. 
Mr.  Lea,  President,  in  the  Chair. 

Forty-two  members  present. 

The  following  papers  were  presented  for  publication  : 

"Descriptions  of  new  species  of  Cretaceous  Fossils  from  New  Jersey, 
by  W.  M.  Gabb." 

"  Description  of  four  new  species  of  Melanidae  of  the  United  States, 
by  Isaac  Lea." 

"  Description  of  five  new  species  of  Uniones  from  Alabama,  by  Isaac 
Lea." 

And  were  referred  to  Committees. 

Dr.  Leidy  announced  the  presentation  by  Dr.  T.  B.  Wilson  of  his 
entire  collection  of  birds,  amounting  to  26,000  mounted  specimens, 
and  2,000  skins. 

Mr.  Cassin  said,  in  relation  to  the  presentation  of  the  collection  of 
birds  now  in  the  Museum  of  this  Academy,  by  Dr.  T.  B.  Wilson : 

The  collection  of  birds  in  the  Museum  of  the  Academy  has  been 
regarded  for  some  years  as  the  collection  of  this  Academy,  and  is  ex- 
tensively known  and  referred  to  as  such  by  authors  and  naturalists. 
The  donation  this  evening,  so  liberally  and  characteristically  made  by 
Dr.  Wilson,  involves  only  a  change  of  ownership,  or  transfer  of  title, 
with  the  further  important  consideration  that  it  secures  the  collection 
to  the  Academy,  as  intended  by  Dr.  Wilson,  in  perpetuity  and  without 
contingency. 

Previous  to  this  donation  the  collection  has  been  the  private  property 
of  Dr.  Wilson,  and  has  been  accumulated  from  various  sources,  since 
1845,  with  great  judgment,  and  with  constant  and  unremitted  exertion 
on  his  part  and  also  on  the  part  of  his  brother,  Mr.  Edward  Wilson, 
long  resident  in  Europe.  The  latter  named  gentleman  has  most  ably 
and  successfully  seconded  his  brother  in  the  greatest  enterprises  ever 
entered  upon  in  America,  having  for  their  object  the  promotion  of  the 
Zoological  Sciences  and  of  general  Natural  History.  The  results  mainly 
have  been,  at  this  period,  the  formation  of  the  Library  of  this  Academy 
and  of  its  collections  in  all  departments,  but  especially  in  Mineralogy, 
Palaeontology,  Conchology,  Crustacea,  Icthyology  and  Ornithology. 

The  very  extensive  and  comprehensive  series  now  presented,  with 
the  comparatively  small  collection  previously  owned  by  the  Academy, 
comprise  one  of  the  most  complete  Ornithological  Museums  extant.  It 
is,  in  fact,  one  of  the  four  great  collections  of  birds  in  the  world,  and, 
so  far  as  can  be  ascertained  from  published  catalogues,  is  fairly  entitled 
to  be  considered  as  presenting  facilities  for  study  in  this  favorite 
branch  of  Natural  History  equal  to  those  of  any  other  Institution. 

Mainly,  the  collection  of  Dr.  Wilson  was  based  on  that  of  General 
Massena,  Duke  of  Rivoli,  and  his  son,  M.  Victor  Massena,  Prince 
D'Essling,  which  was  regarded  as  the  finest  private  collection  in 
Europe.  This  was  acquired  by  purchase  in  1846,  and  brought  to  this 
country.     Various  other  valuable  and  more  or  less  extensive  collections 

[Marchj 


NATURAL    SCIENCES   OF   PHILADELPHIA.  87 

have  been  added  since  that  period,  including  Mr.  Gould's  Australian 
birds,  which  are  the  types  of  his  great  work,  "  The  Birds  of  Austra- 
lia/' and  embracing  all  the  species  then  known,  except  five  only. 
Another  important  collection,  mainly  Parrots,  Humming  Birds  and 
Tanagers,  was  that  of  M.  Bourcier,  a  distinguished  French  Ornitholo- 
gist, and  quite  equally  so  was  a  collection  made  in  the  interior  coun- 
tries of  India  by  Capt.  Boys,  of  the  East  India  Company's  service. 
Very  important,  too,  are  collections  from  the  Ley  den  Museum,  through 
the  influence  of  the  eminent  naturalists  now  or  lately  attached  to  that 
great  Institution,  particularly  the  celebrated  Temminck,  and  many 
others  obtained  in  Europe  through  the  faithful  and  judicious  exertions 
of  Mr.  Edward  Wilson  for  the  interests  of  this  Academy. 

Numerous  other  smaller  additions  have  been  made,  whenever  oppor- 
tunity presented,  in  this  country,  by  Br.  Wilson,  and  also  have  been 
derived  from  European  Naturalists  by  exchange  and  purchase  to  the 
extent  of  several  thousand  specimens.  Messrs.  Verreaux,  the  well-known 
commercial  Naturalists  and  Ornithologists  of  Paris,  have  been  of  ex- 
ceeding service,  and  but  little  less  so  has  been  Mr.  John  Gr.  Bell,  of 
New  York,  the  principal  commercial  Naturalist  in  this  country,  whose 
high  interest  in  the  prosperity  of  the  Academy  and  scientific  know- 
ledge has  never  failed  to  be  exerted  and  always  has  been  of  great  value 
in  the  extension  of  the  collection.  Mr.  John  Krider,  Mr.  William  S. 
Wood  and  Mr.  James  Taylor,  of  this  city,  have  also  furnished  to  Br. 
Wilson  many  valuable  specimens,  and  all  of  these  gentlemen  have  in- 
variably shown  the  utmost  cheerfulness  and  liberality  in  their  business 
with  the  Museum  of  the  Academy. 

The  collection  now  presented  by  Br.  Wilson  has  been  derived  from 
the  following  sources,  and  includes  specimens  nearly  as  here  enumer- 
ated : 

Bivoli  collection,  1st  purchase,         -         -  12,500  specimens, 

do.  do.         2d       do.  -         -         -       2,500  <• 

Mr.  Gould's  Australian  collection,    -         -  2,000  u 

M.  Bourcier's  collection,      ....       1,000  " 

Capt.  Boys'  collection,     ....  1,000  " 

Mr.  Edward  Wilson's  collections  in  Europe, 
including  collections  from  the  Leyden  and  Bri- 
tish Museums, 4,500  " 

Br.  Thos.  B.  Wilson's  collections  in  Europe,       1,000  " 

do.  do.  do.        in  the  U.  S.,    .  1,500  " 


Total  now  presented  to  the  Academy,         26,000  " 

It  may  be  of  interest  to  add  that  the  collection  previously  owned  by 
the  Academy  comprises  about  3000  specimens,  including  a  very  supe- 
rior North  American  series  derived  from  nearly  all  ornitluologists  in 
the  United  States,  who  have  invariably  shown  the  greatest  interest  in 
the  formation  of  the  large  collection  of  this  Academy.  The  aggregate 
number  of  specimens  exhibited  and  now  belonging  to  the  Academy  is 
therefore  about  twenty-nine  thousand  birds. 
I860.] 


83  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  ACADEMY  OF 

Mr.  Lea  read  extracts  from  letters  of  Dr.  Lewis,  of  Mohawk,  New  York,  on 
the  subject  of  the  coloring  matter  of  the  nacre  of  the  genus  Unio,  and  exhibited 
some  fine  specimens  to  illustrate  the  subject.  The  following  extracts  will  fully 
convey  Dr.  Lewis's  ideas  on  this  subject  which  has  much  interest  with  the 
naturalist. 

"  I  hinted  something  about  Uniones  being  colored  with  an  oxide  or  salt  of 
gold.  My  reasons  for  this  are  derived  from  observing  some  singular  phenomena 
in  colors  on  submitting  shells  to  the  action  of  chloride  of  gold,  and  then  bring- 
ing them  in  contact  with  tin.  Whether  a  stannate  of  gold  formed  and  precipi- 
tated on  the  shells  or  not,  I  cannot  say,  but  the  colors  were  very  much  intensi- 
fied. It  is  to  be  remarked  that  the  colors  of  such  shells  as  Unio  complanatus 
and  of  U.  ligamentinus,  when  colored,  are  such  as  result  from  the  presence  of  gold 
in  a  state  of  atomic  division  and  dissemination  in  a  semi-opake  body.  I  think 
nitro-muriatic  acid  with  a  minute  trace  of  gold  in  it,  if  applied  to  shells,  will 
produce  colors,  but  I  never  have  satisfactorily  demonstrated  this.  My  observa- 
tions are  derived  from  having  once  used  acid  in  which  was  a  small  quantity  of 
gold,  too  small  to  be  reclaimed." 

"  I  notice  that  colors  are  most  brilliant  in  regions  where  gold  may  be  sus- 
pected. In  the  Lake  regions  of  the  Western  States,  minerals  are  abundant, 
and  the  conditions  are  not  incompatible  with  the  supposition  that  gold  is  spar- 
ingly disseminated  among  them,  in  quantities  too  small  perhaps  to  be  available, 
but  no  doubt  it  is  there." 

"As  regards  colors  in  the  nacre  of  Uniones,  j  on  are  correct  in  saying  that 
Uniones  are  colored  where  there  is  no  gold.  Hut  there  are  some  species  that  are 
not  colored  unless  you  find  them  in  some  particular  localities.  If  that  is  taken 
iuto  consideration  we  shall,  perhaps,  be  more  ready  to  accept  the  gold  theory. 
Modern  investigations  show  that  gold  exists  in  soils  that,  until  they  were  rigidly 
tested,  were  not  suspected  to  contain  it.  In  fact  I  am  disposed  to  believe  that 
gold  is  more  universally  disseminated  than  is  generally  supposed." 

"  But,  the  question  is  one  I  take  no  particular  interest  in,  except  that,  it  pre- 
sents itself  incidentally.  I  know  one  fact  that  you  'also  know.  That  of  two 
streams  producing  identically  the  same  species,  one  will  give  a  large  propor- 
tion of  white  nacres,  and  the  other  will  present  colored  nacres,  and  usually  we 
also  notice  another  phenomenon — a  greater  brilliancy  of  nacre  where  rich  colors 
abound.  In  this  case  I  have  my  private  opinion  that  gold  produces  its  peculiar 
tonic  effect,  for  tonic  it  is  under  certain  circumstances  by  increasing  the  secre- 
tions." 

"  To  have  gold  in  a  shell,  it  is  not  necessary  it  should  be  an  oxide.  It  is  only 
necessary  it  should  have  been  received  into  the  circulation  of  the  animal,  in 
solution  as  chloride,  or  some  other  possible  soluble  form  that  chemistry  has  not 
brought  to  light;  and  when  once  in  the  circulation  it  may  be  eliminated  by  be- 
ing deprived  of  its  solving  principle  and  excreted  or  secreted  with  the  other 
solid  matter  that  enters  into  the  formation  of  the  shell.  The  stannate  of  gold,  or 
purple  of  Cassius,  may  be  wholly  deprived  of  the  tin  associated  with  it,  yet  re- 
tain its  purple  color,  and  its  condition  of  atomic  division,  if  so  you  are  pleased 
to  call  it.  But  I  only  offer  this  as  suggestive  of  something  for  those  interested 
to  follow  further.  I  am  not  enough  of  a  chemist  to  develop  any  facts  out  of  a 
suspicion  of  this  kind." 

Mr.  Lea  remarked,  after  reading  the  above  extracts,  that  the  purple,  pink  and 
salmon  color  of  many  of  our  American  Unionidce  had  had  his  attention  from  the 
period  of  his  first  studying  this  beautiful  and  interesting  family,  more  than  thirty 
years  since.  Without  having  experimented  himself  upon  them,  he  was  aware 
that  no  chemist  had  been  able  to  detect  the  presence  of  a  metal  or  other 
elementary  body.  .  He  therefore  thought  it  likely  to  be  caused  by  the  presence 
of  some  organic  body  which  had  not  yet  been  detected;  such  is  supposed  by 
chemists  to  be  the  case  with  the  colored  fluates  of  lime,  colored  quartz,  &c. 
What  Dr.  Lewis  states  as  regards  the  colors  being  more  frequent  and  more  in- 
tense in  the  waters  of  Michigan  and  iri»the  streams  leading  into  the  northern 

[March, 


NATURAL   SCIENCES   OP   PHILADELPHIA.  89 

great  lakes  from  the  southern  side,  is  very  true.  The  Unio  rectus  is  usually 
white  in  the  Ohio,  though  sometimes  tinted  with  purple  and  salmon  color,  while 
in  the  more  northern  waters  it  is  usually  of  a  fine  rich  purple  or  salmon.  Two 
specimens  from  the  upper  Mississippi,  brought  by  Dr.  Cooper,  were  exhibited 
by  Mr.  Lea,  which  were  of  exquisite  purple  and  salmon.  The  Unio  ligamentinus 
has  probably  never  been  found  pink  or  purple  in  the  Ohio,  while  at  Grand 
Rapids,  Michigan,  those  with  a  fine  pink  and  salmon  color  are  very  common. 
The  Margaritana  margaritifera  of  Columbia  river  and  its  tributaries  has  a  fine 
purple  nacre  in  almost  all  the  specimens,  rarely  white,  while  those  in  the  rivers 
of  Pennsylvania,  Connecticut  and  Massachusetts  are  almost  universally  white, 
as  those  from  the  northern  part  of  Europe  are  also. 

Dr.  Draper  had  informed  Mr.  Lea  that  he  had  calcined  some  of  these  purple 
shells,  but  that  they  had  burned  white  and  he  had  not  detected  any  metallic  sub- 
tance  in  their  composition.  The  subject  was  certainly  one  well  worth  the  pursuit, 
as  no  doubt  could  remain  that  the  color  was  derived  from  some  foreign  sub- 
stance entering  into  the  composition  of  some  individuals,  while  others  were 
free  from  it.  It  was  not  an  uncommon  case  to  find  the  dorsal  portion  of 
the  nacre  to  be  pink  or*  purple  while  the  other  portions  were  white,  and  this  was 
also  sometimes  the  case  with  the  cavity  of  the  beaks.  Mr.  Lea  did  not  believe 
the  color  arose,  as  some  persons  supposed,  from  the  structure  of  the  surface  of 
the  nacre  dividing  the  rays  of  light  by  thin  laminations.  This  division  of 
color  was  exhibited  in  almost  every  species,  and  is  what  naturalists  call  the 
"  pearly  hue,"  oftentimes  of  great  beauty,  but  quite  a  different  matter  from 
the  pink,  purple  and  salmon  color  of  the  mass  of  the  carbonate  of  lime  com- 
posing the  substance  of  the  valves. 


March  27th. 

Mr.  Lea,  President,  in  the  Chair. 

Forty-eight  members  present. 

The  following  papers  on  report  of  the  respective  committees  were 
ordered  to  be  printed  in  the  Proceedings : 

Descriptions  of  Four  New  Species  of  TJNIONIDiE  from  Brazil  and  Buenos  Ayres. 

BY  ISAAC    LEA. 

Unio  trifidus. — Testa  lrevi,  obliquo-oblonga,  ad  latere  planulata,  valde  in- 
nequilaterali,  postice  acute  angulata,  antice  rotunda  ;  valvulis  crassiusculis, 
antice  crassioribus  ;  natibus  prominentibus,  ad  apices  rugose  et  divaricate  un- 
dulatis ;  epidermide  micante,  luteo-virldi,  eradiata;  dentibus  cardinalibus 
grandibus,  trifidis,  sulcatis  ;  lateralibus  longis,  crenulatis,  in  valvulo  dextro 
trifidis  ;  margarita,  argentea  et  iridescente. 

Hab. — Buenos  Ayres,  South  America.     M.  D'Orbigny. 

Unio  patelloides. — Testa  laevi,  subrotunda,  subcompressa,  subeequilaterali, 
antice  et  postice  rotundata ;  valvulis  subcrassis,  antice  crassioribus  ;  natibus 
prominulis,  ad  apices  divaricate  undulatis ;  epidermide  tenebroso-castanea, 
striata,,  eradiata;  dentibus  cardinalibus  longis,  compressis,  obliquis,  crenulatis 
corrugatisque ;  lateralibus  longis,  crenulatis  curvisque  ;  margarita  argentea 
et  iridescente. 

Hab. — Amazon  River,  Brazil.  Captain  George  Brown.  Rio  Plata.  H.Cum- 
ing. 

Anodonta  Amazonensis. — Testa.  Isevi,  transversa,  subinflata.,  valde  insequi- 
laterali,  postice  subbiangulata,  antice  rotunda;  valvulis  subcrassis;  natibus 
I860.] 


90  PROCEEDINGS   OF   THE   ACADEMY   OF 

subelevatis,  tumidis  ;  epidermide  micante,  tenebroso-viridi,  nigricaate,  vel  era- 
diata  vel  obsoletfe  radiata ;  margarita  intus  subrosea  et  valde  iridescente. 
Hab. — Upper  Amazon,  Brazil.     C.  M.  Wheatley. 

Anodonta  Moricandii. — Testa.  la;vi,  oblique  quadrata,  subinflata,  ad  latere 
planulata,  valde  inzequilaterali,  postice  obtuse  angulata  et  biante ;  antice 
oblique  rotundata.  et  valde  hiante  ;  valvulis  tenuibus,  diaphinis ;  natibus  sub- 
prominentibus ;  epidermide  luteo-oliva,  polita,  obsolete  radiata,  margarita 
caeruleo-alba.  et  valde  iridescente. 

Hab. — Bahia,  Brazil.     S.  Moricand,  Geneva. 


Descriptions  of  Fifteen  new  Species  of  Uruguayan  TJNIONIDiE. 

BY   ISAAC   LEA. 

During  the  winter  of  1858-59,  R.  B.Forbes,  Esq.,  of  Boston,  whose  name  has 
been  identified  with  so  many  works  of  philanthropy  and  public  utility,  organ- 
ized an  excursion  to  the  La  Plata,  the  Uruguay  and  Rio  Negro  rivers,  in  South 
America;  his  object  in  part  being  to  afford  facilities  for  studying  the  natural  his- 
tory of  the  countries  bordering  on  these  waters.  Professor  J.  Wyman,  who  ac- 
companied him,  has  most  kindly  placed  at  my  disposal  all  the  specimens  of  the 
Unionidoz  which  he  had  been  enabled  to  collect  in  these  extensive  southern  fresh 
waters.  In  this  very  interesting  collection  I  was  surprised  to  find  so  many 
species  which  had  not  been  before  observed.  These  are  now  herein  described, 
and  consist  of  eleven  Uniones  and  four  Anodonta.  The  whole  number  brought 
of  these  fresh  water  Mulluscs,  was  twenty-three  species.  Those  heretofore  de- 
scribed are  Prisodon  truncatus,  Schum.,  (Caslalia  ambigua,  Lam.,)  Unio  Para- 
nensis,  Lea.,  U. parallelopipedon,  Lea.,  Anodonta  rotunda,  Spix,  A.  trapezalis,  Lam., 
A.  laio-marginata,  Lea,  A.  tenebricosa,  Lea,  A.  Blainvilliana,  Lea.  In  addition 
there  were  three  small  species  of  Cyrena,  two  of  which  I  have  not  ascertained, 
the  third  is  the  variegata  of  D'Orbigny.  There  was  also  a  small  species  of 
Cyclas. 

Unio  Wymanii. — Testa  lsevi,  antice  subsulcata,  quadrata,  compressa,  ad  latere 
planulata,  inaequilaterali,  postice  obtuse  angulata,  antice  rotundata;  valvulis 
subcrassis,  antice  crassioribus ;  natibus  prominulis,  ad  apices  divaricate  undu- 
latis ;  epidermide  tenebroso-oliva,  vel  eradiata.  vel  obsolete  radiata ;  dentibus 
cardinalibus  compressis,  erectis,  crenulatis,  in  utroque  valvulo  duplicibus  ;  later- 
alibus  longis,  crenulatis  subcurvisque  ;  margarita  argentea.  et  valde  iridescente. 

Hab. — Uruguay  River,  S.  America.     Prof.  J.  Wyman. 

Unio  Ueuguayensis. — Testa  laevi,  antice  subsulcata,  elliptica,  inflata,  subequi- 
laterali,  postice  obtuse  angulata,  antice  rotundata ;  valvulis  subcrassis,  antice 
crassioribus;  natibus  subprominentibus,  ad  apices  divaricate  undulatis;  epid- 
ermide virido-fusca,  postice  tenebricosa,  polita,  obsolete  radiata ;  dentibus  car- 
dinalibus compressis,  crenulatis  suberectisque  ;  lateralibus  longis  subrectisque  ; 
margarita  argentea  et  iridescente. 

Hab. — Uruguay  River,  S.  America.     Prof.  J.  Wyman. 

Unio  piger. — TestS,  laevi,  elliptic^,  inflata,  subequilaterali,  postice  obtuse  ar.- 
gulata,  antice  oblique  rotundata ;  valvulis  crassiusculis,  antice  paulisper  cras- 
sioribus ;  natibus  subprominentibus,  inflatis,  ad  apices  divaricate  undulatis  ; 
epidermide  nigro-fusca,  striata,  obsolete  radiata;  dentibus  cardinalibus  com- 
pressis, crenulatis ;  lateralibus  sublongis  curvisque ;  margarita  argentea  et 
iridescente. 

Hab. — Uruguay  River,  S.  America.     Prof.  J.  Wyman. 

Unio  per^eformis. — Testa,  laevi,  subrotunda,  inflata,  valde  insequilaterali, 
postice  obtuse  subangulata,,  antice  oblique  rotundata;  valvulis  subcrassis,  an- 
tice paulisper  crassioribus  ;  natibus  vis  prominentibus,  inflatis ;  epidermide 

[March, 


NATURAL    SCIENCES  OP  PHILADELPHIA.  91 

striata,  nigro-virente,  eradiata;  detitibus  cardinalibus  parviusculis,  compressis 
crenulatisque;  lateralibus  sublongis  subrectisque  ;  margarita.  argentea  et  iri- 
descente. 

Hab. — Uruguay  River,  S.  America.     Prof.  J.  Wyman. 

Unio  NocTDRNis. — Testa,  laevi,  subrotunda,  subcompressa,  inaequilaterali,  an- 
tice et  postice  rotundata;  valvulis  crassis,  antice  crassioribus :  natibus  promi- 
nulis, subinflatis ;  epidermide  nigricante,  antice  rugoso-striata,  eradiata;  den- 
tibus  cardinalibus  parviusculis,  erectis ;  subcompressis,  in  utroque  valvule- 
duplicibus;  lateralibus  sublongis  valde  curvisque ;  margarita  vel  alba  vel 
salmonis  colore  tincta. 

Hab. — Uruguay  River,  S.  America.     Prof.  J.  Wyman. 

Unio  fcnebralis. — Testa  lsevi,  subrotundata,  compressissima,  inaequilaterali, 
antice  et  postice  rotundata ;  valvulis  crassis,  antice  crassioribus ;  natibus 
prominulis,  compressis ;  epidermide  nigricante,  striata,  ad  apices  micante, 
eradiata;  dentibus  cardinalibus  parviusculis,  subcompressis,  tripartitis ;  later- 
alibus sublongis  valde  curvisque  ;  margarita  vel  alba  vel  salmonis  colore  tincta. 

Hab. — Uruguay  River,  S.  America.     Prof.  J.  Wyman. 

Unio  gratus. — Testa,  lsevi,  subrotunda,  subinflata,  inaequilaterali,  antice  et 
postice  rotundata;  valvulis  subcrassis,  antice  paulisper  crassioribus;  natibus 
subprominentibus,  ad  apices  divaricate  undulatis  ;  epidermide  tenebroso-fusca, 
micante,  obsolete  radiata;  dentibus  cardinalibus  parviusculis,  compressis 
striatisque  ;  lateralibus  sublongis  subcurvisque  :  margarita  alba  et  iridescente. 

Hab. — Uruguay  River,  S.  America.     Prof.  J.  Wyman. 

Unio  disculus. — Testa  laevi,  subrotunda,  valde  compressa,  valde  inaequilat- 
erali, antice  et  postice  rotundata  ;  valvulis  crassiusculis,  antice  paulisper  cras- 
sioribus; natibus  subprominentibus,  ad  apices  paulisper  divaricate  undulatis ; 
epidermide  tenebroso-castanea,  minute  striata  obsolete  radiataque  ;  dentibus 
cardinalibus  parviusculis,  lamellatis  crenulatisque;  lateralibus  sublongis,  stri- 
atis  curvisque ;  margarita  alba,  et  iridescente. 

Hab. — Uruguay  River,  S.  America.     Prof.  J.  Wyman. 

Unio  pickus. — Testa  lsevi,  elliptica,  subinflata,  valde  inaequilaterali,  postice 
subrotundata,  antice  oblique  rotundata;  valvulis  crassiusculis,  antice  paulisper 
crassioribus ;  natibus  prominulis  ;  epidermide  micante,  nigra,  striata  obsolete 
radiata  vel  eradiata ;  dentibus  cardinalibus  parviusculis,  compressis,  obliquis, 
in  valvulo  sinistro  singulis ;  lateralibus  subloDgis  subcurvisque ;  margarita 
caerulea,  alba  et  iridescente. 

Hab. — Uruguay  River,  S.  America.     Prof.  J.  Wyman. 

Unio  lepidus. — Testa  lsevi,  elliptica,  subinflata,  valde  inaequilaterali,  postice 
subrotundata,  antice  rotunda;  valvulis  subtenuibus,  antice  paulisper  crassiori- 
bus; natibus  prominulis,  ad  apices  rugose  et  divaricate  undulatis;  epidermide 
polita,  fusco-virente,  striata,  radiata;  dentibus  cardinalibus  parviusculis,  com- 
pressis, obliquis  ;  lateralibus  sublongis  subcurvisque ;  margarita  caeruleo-alba, 
et  valde  iridescente. 

Hab. — Uruguay  River,  S.  America.     Prof.  J.  Wyman. 

Unio  JEthiops. — Testa,  laevi,  oblonga,  subinflata,  ad  latere  planulata,  valde 
inaequilaterali,  postice  biangulata,  antice  rotundata;  valvulis  crassiusculis, 
antice  crassioribus  ;  natibus  prominulis,  planulatis,  ad  apices  divaricate  undu- 
latis ;  epidermide  micante,  nigra,  striata,  eradiata;  dentibus  cardinalibus  par- 
viusculis, compressis,  obliquis,  suberectis  crenulatisque  ;  lateralibus  praelongis, 
crenulatis  rectisque  ;  margarita  alba  et  iridescente. 

Hab. — Uruguay  River,  S.  America.     Prof.  J.  Wyman. 

Anodonta  Wymanii. — Testa,  laevi,  elliptica,  subinflata,  inaequilaterali,  postice 
subbiangulata,  antice  regulariter  rotundata;  valvulis  crassis,  antice  paulisper 

I860.] 


92  PROCEEDINGS   OP  THE   ACADEMY    OF 

crassioribus ;  natibus  prominulis,  ad  apices  sequis  ;  epidermide  cinnoinomea,  vel 
eradiata  vel  obsolete  radiata ;  margarita  rosea  et  valde  iridescente. 
Hab. — Uruguay  River,  S.  America.     Prof.  J.  Wyman. 

Anodonta  rubicunda — Testa  alata,  laevi,  subrotu  nda,  inflata,  subequilaterali, 
antice  et  postice  rotundata.;  valvulis  subtenuibus  ;  natibus  elevatis,  tumidis, 
rosaceis ;  epidermide  tenebroso-rufo-fusca,  vel  obsolete  radiata  vel  eradiata. 
margarita  rufo-salmonis  colore  tincta  et  valde  iridescente. 

Hab. — Uruguay  River,  S.  America.     Prof.  J.  Wymau. 

Anodonta  Forbesiana. — Testa  laevi,  suboblonga,  ventricosa,  inaequilaterali, 
valvulis  crassiusculis ;  natibus  elevatis,  inflitis  ;  epidermide  luteo-fusca, 
micante,  vel  eradiata  vel  obsolete  radiata  ;  margarita  albida,  et  valde  iridescente. 

Hab. — Uruguay  River,  S.  America.     Prof.  J.  Wyman. 

Anodonta  Uruouayensis. — Testa  laevi,  obovata,  ventricosa,  valde  inaequilat- 
erali; valvulis  subcrassis,  antice  paulisper  crassioribus;  naiibus  subelevatis, 
tumidis  ;  epidermide  tenebroso-oliva,  eradiata;  margarita  caeruleo-alba  et  valde 
iridescente. 

Hab. — Uruguay  River,  S.  America.     Prof.  J.  Wyman. 


Descriptions  of  Five  New  Species  of  TJNIONES    from  North  Alabama. 

BY   ISAAC   LEA. 

Unio  pr/Dicns. — Testa  laevi,  subtrigona,  compressa,  inaequilaterali,  postice 
obtuse  angulata,  antice  rotunda  ;  valvulis  subcrassis,  antice  crassioribus  ;  na- 
tibus prominulis,  ad  apices  rugoso-undulatis ;  epidermide  luteo-fusca,  micante, 
virido-radiata  ;  dentibus  cardinalibus  crassiusculis,  erectis,  compressis  crenu- 
latisque  ;  lateralibus  subcurtis,  crassis  subcurvisque  ;  margarita  alba  et  irides- 
cente. 

Hab. — North  Alabama,  Prof.  Tuomey ;  and  Florence,  Alabama,  L.  B.  Thorn- 
ton, Esq. 

Unio  camelopardilis. — Testa  laevi,  oblonga,  subinflata,  inaequilaterali,  postice 
obtuse  biangulata,  antice  regulariter  rotundata ;  valvulis  subtenuibus,  antice 
crassioribus ;  natibus  prominulis,  ad  apices  rugoso-undulatis  ;  epidermide 
lutea,  polita,  undique  virido-maculata;  dentibus  cardinalibus  parvis,  erectis, 
compresso-pyramidatis  crenulatisque  ;  lateralibus  longis,  lamellatis  subrectis- 
que  ;  margarita  luteo-alba.  et  valde  iridescente. 

Hab. — North  Alabama,  Prof.  Tuomey. 

Unio  fucatus. — Testa  laevi,  elliptica,  subinflata,  valde  inaequilaterali,  postice 
subbiangulata,  antice  rotundata ;  valvulis  tenuibus,  antice  paulisper  crassiori- 
bus ;  natibus  prominulis,  ad  apices  undulatis  ;  epidermide  olivo-lutea,  micante, 
undique  virido-maculata  ;  dentibus  cardinalibus  parvis,  compresso-conicis,  cre- 
nulatis,  in  utroque  valvulo  duplicibus  ;  lateralibus  longis,  lamellatis  subcur- 
visque; margarita  vel  caerulea.  vel  luteo-alba  et  valde  iiidescente. 

Hab. — North  Alabama,  Prof.  Tuomey.    Tuscumbia,  L.  B.  Thornton,  Esq. 

Unio  discrepans. — Testa  laevi,  elliptica,  subinflata,  ad  latere  subplanulata, 
valde  inaequilaterali,  postice  obtuse  biangulata,  antice  rotundata ;  valvulis 
subtenuibus,  antice  crassioribus  ;  natibus  prominulis ;  epidermide  luteo-oliva, 
micante,  radiata  ;  dentibus  cardinalibus  parvis,  compresso-conicis  crenulatis- 
que ;  lateralibus  longis,  lamellatis  subcurvisque  ;  margarita  vel  alba  vel  pur- 
purea et  valde  iridescente. 

Hab. — North  Alabama,  Prof.  Tuomey. 

Unio  planicostatus. — Testa  laevi,  elliptica,  compressa,  ad  latere  subplanulata, 
valde  inaequilaterali,  postice  obtuse  biangulata;  antice  rotundata;  valvulis 
tenuibus,  diaphanis,  antice  paulisper  crassioribus:  natibus  prominulis,  ad  apices 

[March, 


NATURAL    SCIENCES    OF   PHILADELPHIA.  93 

undulatis  ;  epidermide  olivacea,  undique  radiatd ;  dentibus  cardinalibus  par- 
vis,  conicis,  crenulatis,  in  utroque  valvulo  duplicibus;  lateralibus  longis  lamel- 
latis  subcurvisque  ;    margarita  vel  caeruleo-alba  vel   purpurascente   et  valde 
iridescente. 
Hab. — Tuscumbia,  Alabama,  L.  B.  Thornton,  Esq. 

Unio  scitulus. — Testa  Lsevi,  elliptica,  inflata,  valde  insequilaterali,  postice 
obtuse  biangulata,  antice  rotundata;  valvulis  subtenuibus,  antice  crassiorib  us  ; 
natibus  prorninentibus,  ad  apices  undulatis;  epidermide  lutea,  undique  virido- 
radiata;  dentibus  cardinalibus  parviusculis,  erectis,  acuminatis,  crenulatis,  in 
utroque  valvulo  duplicibus ;  lateralibus  longis,  lamellatis  subrectisque ;  mar- 
garita alba  et  valde  iridescente. 

Hab. — Tuscumbia,  Alabama,  L.  B.  Thornton,  Esq. 


Descriptions  of  Four  New  Species  of  MELANID2E  of  the  United  States. 

BY   ISAAC   LEA. 

ScHizocHiLtrs  Showalteeii. — Testa,  transverse  costata,  subcylindraeea, 
crassa,  castanea,  minute  striata  ;  spira,  elevata  ;  suturis  impressis  ;  anfractibus 
subplanulatis  ;  fissura  submagna,  profunda  ;  apertura  subparva,  elliptica,,  intus 
vittata,;  columella  subcrassa ;  labro  paulisper  crenulato. 

Hab. — Coosa  river,  Uniontown,  Alabama.     E.  E.  Showalter,  M.  D. 

Anculosa  Showalterii. — Testa  valde  costata,  suborbiculari,  crassa,  tenebroso- 
fusca,  nigricante.  exilissime  striata  ;  spira  brevissima  ;  suturis  valde  impressis; 
anfractibus  inflatis,  septenis  transversis  costis  indutis  ;  apertura  magna,  sub- 
rotunda,  superne  subangulata,  interne  tenebroso-vittata ;  columella  crassa, 
planulata,  tenebroso-fusca:  labro  valde  extenso  et  valde  crenulato. 

Hab.— Coosa,  river,  Uniontown,  Alabama.     E.  R.  Showalter,  M.  D. 

Melania  crenatella. — Testa,  transverse  striata,  turrito-subulata,  subcostata, 
paulisper  plicata,  subtenui,  tenebroso-fusca,  nigricante  ;  spha.  elevata,  ad  apices 
crebre  plicata  ;  suturis  valde  impressis  ;  anfractibus  septenis,  planulatis,  trans- 
versis costis  indutis;  apertura  parva,  elliptica,  intus  vittata;  columella 
albida,  incurvata  ;   labro  subcontract  et  valde  crenulato. 

Hab.— Coosa  river,  Uniontown,  Alabama.     E.  R.  Showalter,  M.  D. 

Melania  Newberryi.— Testa  laevi,  ovato-conica,  subtenui,  tenebroso-fusca, 
trivittata,  inferne  suturis  lutea;  spira  subelevata  ;  suturis  valde  impressis; 
anfractibus  senis,  inflatis;  apertura  parviuscula,  ovato-rotundata,  intus  albida. 
et  vittata  ;   columella  albida,  incurvata  ;  labro  inflato. 

Hab. — Upper  des  Chutes  river,  Oregon  Territory.     J.  S.  Newberry,  M.  D. 


Descriptions  of  New  Species  of  Cretaceous  Fossils  frcm  New  Jersey. 

BY   WM.    M.    GABB. 
Act^onina  D'Orb. 

A.  b  i  p  1  i  c  a  t  a  ,  pi.  2,  fig.  13. 

Actceon  biplicata,  M.  &  H. 

This  fossil  I  had  considered  new,  but  have,  since  the  plate  was  drawn,  seen 
the  type  of  Meek  and  Hayden's  species,  to,  which  it  bears  such  a  close  resem- 
blance, that  I  shall  refer  it  to  their  species.  The  fact  of  its  having  been  re- 
ferred to  another  genus,  and  the  figure  not  having  been  published,  misled  me. 
The  existence  of  two  folds  on  the  columella,  which  can  be  seen  in  the  New 
Jersey  fossil,  has  not  been  yet  ascertained  in  the  one  from  Nebraska. 
I860.] 


94  PROCEEDINGS   OF   THE    ACADEMY   OF 

Solarium  Lam. 

S.  ab  y  ss  i  n  u  s  ,  pi.  2,  fig.  9.     Shell  conical ;  whorls  three,  rounded  ;  mouth 
circular,  surface  markings  unknown.     A  cast. 
Locality. — With  the  above  from  Burlington  Co.,  N.  Jersey. 

Volutilithes   Swains. 

V.  Abbotti,  pi.  2,  fig.  1.  Shell  fusiform,  whorls  three  or  four,  spire 
moderately  elevated  ;  modth,  three-fourths  the  length  of  the  shell ;  four  folds 
on  the  columella ;  surface  apparently  smooth.     A  cast. 

Locality. — Burlington  Co.,  N.  J. 

I  take  pleasure  in  dedicating  this  species  to  Mr.  C.  C.  Abbott  of  Trenton. 
N.  J.,  to  whom  I  am  indebted  for  the  type  of  the  species,  as  well  as  for  many 
other  species  of  cretaceous  fossils. 

Tukbinella  Lam. 

T.  subconica,  pi.  2,  fig.  6.  Shell  subconical,  spire  low  ;  body  whorl 
subangular  above,  two  folds  on  the  columella,  surface  marked  by  longitudinal 
ribs,  about  ten  on  the  body  whorl,  crossed  by  numerous  smaller  revolving 
lines.     A  cast. 

Locality. — Menmouth  Co.,  N.  J. 

T.  p  a  r  v  a ,  pi.  2,  fig.  3.  Shell  small,  subconical,  spire  very  low,  whorls  two  or 
three,  mouth  wide,  and  at  the  upper  part  angular,  three  folds  on  the  columella  : 
surface  marked  by  about  twelve  large  longitudinal  ridges  or  undulations,  on 
the  body  whorl  crossed  by  three  or  four  revolving  lines.     A  cast. 

Locality. — With  the  preceding. 

Cancellaria  Lam. 

C.  sept  em  li  rata  ,  pi.  2,  fig.  10.  Shell  subglobose,  spire  low,  whorls  two, 
mouth  wide,  surface,  from  markings  on  the  cast,  apparently  ornamented  by 
about  seven  prominent  revolving  lines.     A  cast. 

Locality  and  position. — From  the  highest  bed  at  Mullica  Hill,  N.  J. 

Purpuroidea.  Lycet. 

P?du  bi  a,  pi.  2,  fig.  11.    Shell  ovate,  whorls  four  or  five,  spire  elevated,  sur- 
face marked  by  longitudinal  ribs,  about  fifteen  on  the  body  whorl;  a  few  revolv 
ing  striae  appear  to  exist  near  the  lower  part  of  the  body  whorl,  but  this  specimen 
is  so  weathered,  that  this  character  may  be  only  the  result  of  disintegration  of 
the  shell.     The  lower  part  of  the  mouth  is  broken. 

Locality  and  position. — Mullica  Hill,  with  the  preceding. 

Fusus  Lam. 

F.  tr  iv  o  1  v  u  s  ,  pi.  2,  fig.  5.  Shell  fusiform,  elongate,  whorls  three,  spire,  mo- 
derately elevated,  mouth  long  and  angular,  surface  markings  unknown  ;  on  the 
cast  there  are  three  prominent  revolving  lines,  dividing  the  whorls  into  a 
corresponding  number  of  flat  surfaces,  beak  elongate  ;  length  of  shell  2  in., 
beak  l£  in.,  width  of  last  whorl  1  in. 

Locality  and  position. — Yellow  Limestone,  Timber  Creek,  N.  J. ;  collection  of 
the  Academy.  The  types  of  all  the  other  species  in  this  paper  are  in  my  own 
collection. 

Rapa  Klein. 

R.  pyru  lo  i  d  e  a,  pi.  2,  fig.  4.  Shell  pyriform,  whorls  three,  spire  low, 
surface  marked  by  longitudinal  ribs  or  undulations,  about  twelve  on  the  body 
whorl,  crossed  towards  the  beak  by  fine  revolving  striae. 

Locality  and  position. — Green  marl,  Burlington  Co.,  N.  J. 

[March, 


NATURAL   SCIENCES   OP   PHILADELPHIA.  95 

Pleurotoma  Lam. 

P.  Mull  i  c  a  en  sis,  pi.  2,  fig.  8.  Shell  fusiform,  robust;  spire  elevated, 
whorls  four  or  five,  surface  marked  by  numerous  longitudinal  ribs  (crossed  by 
revolving  lines  ?) 

Locality  and  position. — Upper  bed,  Mullica  Hill,  N.  J. 

Arca  Linn. 

A.  quindecemradiata,  pi.  2,  fig.  2.  Shell  gibbous,  inequilateral,  beaks 
incurved,  umbones  small;  umbonal  ridge  subangular,  and  extends  to  the  mar- 
gin of  the  shell,  surface  marked  by  about  fifteen  radiating  ribs,  crossed  by  very 
distinct  lines  of  growth;  no  appearance  of  ribs  on  the  cast,  posterior  to  the 
umbonal  ridge. 

Locality . — Common  in  the  more  northerly  portions  of  the  cretaceous  deposits 
of  New  Jersey. 

Cibota  Brown.     {Byssoarca  Swains.) 

C.  multiradiata,pl.2,  fig.  1 .  Shell  small,  gibbous,  beaks  incurved,  um- 
bones small,  rounded;  anterior  ends  rounded  gently,  basal  margin  slightly 
sinuous,  posterior  rounded  below,  and  inclined  anteriorly  above ;  surface 
marked  by  numerous  fine  radiating  ribs  ;  margin  crenulated. 

Locality  and  position. — Green  marl,  Mullica  Hill,  N.  J. 

Leda  Schum. 

L.  a  n  g  u  1  a  t  a ,  pi.  2,  fig.  12.  Shell  twice  as  wide  as  long,  beaks  small,  curved 
anteriorly,  umbonal  ridge  angular  and  extending  to  the  posterior  basal  margin  ; 
anterior  margin  rounded,  basal  very  slightly  sinuous,  posterior,  inclined  an- 
teriorly to  the  hinge  line. 

Locality  and  position. — Green  marl,  Burlington  Co.,  N.  J. 


The  following  communication  from  Mr.  A.  E.  Jessup,  Mr.  E.  A. 
Jessup  and  Mrs.  CHra  J.  Moore,  children  of  the  late  Augustus  E.  Jes- 
sup, was  read. 

Philadelphia,  March  6th,  1860. 

Isaac  Lea,  Esq.,  President  of  the  Academy  of  Natural  Sciences  of  Philadelphia. 

Dear  Sir, — The  undersigned,  children  of  the  late  Augustus  E.  Jessup,  be- 
lieving that  it  was  his  intention  to  leave  a  sum  of  money  to  the  "  Academy 
of  Natural  Sciences,"  for  the  purposes  stated  below,  and  desiring  to  carry  out 
what  we  have  cause  to  think  were  his  intentions,  propose  to  pay  to  the  Acad- 
emy the  sum  of  one  hundred  and  twenty  dollars  per  annum,  to  be  applied  to 
its  Publication  Fund,  and  the  further  sum  of  four  hundred  and  eighty  dollars 
per  annum,  to  be  used  for  the  support  of  one  or  more  deserving  poor  young 
man  or  men,  who  may  desire  to  devote  the  whole  of  his  or  their  time  and 
energies  to  the  study  of  any  of  the  Natural  Sciences. 

The  above  sums  we  propose  to  pay  as  long  as  we  feel  our  circumstances  to 
be  such  as  will  warrant  our  doing  so,  and  we  look  forward  to  investing  in 
trust,  at  some  not  distant  time,  the  principal  of  the  sums  named,  for  the  pur- 
pose of  creating  a  perpetual  fund  for  the  above  named  uses. 

Signed,  A.  E.  Jessup. 

E.  A.  Jessup. 
Clara  J.  Moorb. 

On  motion  of  Mr.  Foulke,  the  letter  was  referred  to  a  special  com- 
mittee of  five. 
I860.] 


96  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  ACADEMY  OE 

April  3d. 

Vice  President  Bridges  in  the  Chair. 

Fifty  members  present. 

A  paper  was  presented  for  publication,  entitled,  "  Conspectus  Piscium 
in  expeditione  ad  Oceanum  Pacificura  Septentrionalern,  C.  Ringgold  et 
J.  Rodgers  ducibus,  a  Guilelmo  Stirnpson,  M.  D.,  collectore  ;  Sicydianae: 
auctore  Theo.  Grill." 

Mr.  Lesley  read  the  following  extract  from  a  letter  received  from 
Mr.  T.  S.  Hunt,  Chemist  of  the  Canada  Geological  Survey,  dated 
Montreal,  March  25th,  1860  :— 

"If  we  mingle  in  equivalent  proportions  the  chlorides  of  calcium  and 
magnesium  in  concentrated  solution,  and  then  having  precipitated  the  bases 
by  a  slight  excess  of  carbonate  of  soda  in  the  cold,  and  expose  the  mixture  for  a 
few  hours  in  a  closed  flask  to  a  temperature  of  200° — 212°  F.,  the  pasty  mass 
is  entirely  transformed  into  a  beautiful  granular  powder,  made  up  of  spherical, 
translucent,  crystalline  grains,  which  are  sparingly  soluble  in  cold,  dilute,  acetic 
acid  and  are  a  double  carbonate  of  lime  and  magnesia.  In  my  previous  and 
published  trials,  at  temperatures  of  300° — 400c  F.,  the  product  was  much  less 
beautiful,  and  was  mingled  with  carbonate  of  magnesia.  It  now  remains  to 
be  seen  whether  the  combination  may  not  be  slowly  effected  at  a  temperature 
much  below  200°  F.,  and  experiments  upon  this  point  are  in  progress." 

Mr.  Lesley  drew  the  attention  of  the  Academy  to  the  significant  direction 
in  which  these  and  similar  experiments  are  carrying  the  chemical  geology  of 
the  day.  If  they  result  in  nothing  more  than  the  destruction  of  those  igneous 
prejudices  which  still  shackle  observers,  especially  in  metamorphic  mineral  re- 
gions, and  set  us  free  to  study  ab  initio  the  phenomena  of  magnetic  iron  veins, 
copper  lodes  and  gold  quartz,  primary  limestones,  serp^ptmes  and  dolomites, 
the  consequences  must  be  practically  important. 

Mr.  Foulke  remarked  the  equally  important  bearing  the  low  temperature 
of  these  experiments  must  be  seen  to  have,  on  the  theory  of  non-fossiliferous, 
primary  rocks.  If  metamorphism  has  been  possible  at  such  low  temperatures, 
the  argument  in  favor  of  the  destruction  of  organic  remains  from  metamorphic 
strata  by  fiery  agencies  is  of  force  no  longer,  and  we  must  conclude  that  these 
early  and  apparently  non-fossiliferous  rocks  were  really  destitute  of  life. 

Dr.  Leidy  stated  that  he  had  just  received  a  short  notice  from  Prof. 
Leuckart,  of  Giessen,  in  which  he  mentions  the  results  of  some  experiments 
with  Trichina  spiralis.  Having  fed  dogs  with  human  flesh  containing 
Trichinae,  he  found  that  in  a  week  or  less,  the  worms  completed  their  devel- 
opment, but  without  assuming  the  form  of  a  Tricocephalus  or  Strongylus. 
Within  the  intestine  of  the  dog,  the  generative  apparatus,  together  with  the 
eggs  and  embryos,  were  fully  developed  in  the  Trichina?.  The  embryos 
rapidly  pass  away  with  the  excrement  of  the  dog.  A  pig  having  been  fed  with 
a  dog's  intestine  containing  fully  developed  Trichinae,  was  killed  and  dissected 
on  the  3d  of  March,  and  exhibited  in  the  muscles  millions  of  Trichinae.  From 
these  facts  it  is  rendered  probable  that  embryos  of  Trichina  voided  by  dogs 
find  their  way  into  the  human  stomach  through  the  food  or  drink,  and  sub- 
sequently burrow  into  the  tissues  of  the  body. 


Nott.— The  date  of  tho  meeting  of  the  Academy  on  page  51,  should  be  Feb.  14th,  instead  of 
Feb.  11th. 

[March, 


NATURAL    SCIENCES  OF  PHILADELPHIA.  97 

April  10th. 
Mr.  Lea,  President,  in  the  Chair. 
Thirty-eight  members  present. 

Mr.  Lea  remarked  that  he  had  recently  received  from  Prof.  J.  Wyman 
specimens  in  alcohol  of  two  s*pecies  of  Anodonta  from  the  Uruguay  River, 
South  America,  descriptions  of  the  soft  parts  of  which  he  had  made,  and  in- 
tended, at  a  future  time,  to  publish  in  the  Journal  at  length  ;  but  he  wished 
at  present  to  mention  that  he  had  found  a  form  of  Palpi  (mouth  lips)  different 
from  any  of  the  (Jnionidce  which  had  come  under  his  notice  from  any  other 
part  of  the  world.  The  form  of  the  Palpi  heretofore  described  have  always 
been  obliquely  or  transversely  elliptical  or  subtriangular,  while  these  two  spe- 
cies, An._Wym.anii,  Lea,  and.4n.  lato-marginata,  hen,,  are  round,  and  the  pair  on 
either  side  only  joined  above,  the  edges  being  entirely  free.  It  is  greatly  to 
be  regretted  that  more  or  all  the  South  American  Unionidce  could  not  have 
been  examined,  as  regards  their  soft  parts,  to  ascertain  if  this  difference  of 
form  of  the  Palpi  should  be  persistently  different  in  all  the  South  American 
Unionida;,  or  only  with  this  member  of  the  family — the  Anodontai. 


April  17th. 
Mr.  Lea,  President,  in  the  Chair. 

Fifty-six  members  present. 

The  following  papers  were  presented  for  publication  : 

"  Monograph  of  the  Genus,  Lubrisomus,  of  Swainson,  by  Theo.  Gill." 

"  Monograph  of  the  Genus  Labrax,  of   Cuvier,  by  Theo.  Gill,'' 

"  Monograph  of  the  Philypni,  by  Theo.  Gill." 

"  Notice  of  Geological  Discoveries,  made  by  Capt.  J.  H.  Simpson, 
Top.  Engineers,  U.  S.  Army,  in  his  recent  explorations  across  the  Con- 
tinent." 

11  Catalogue  of  Birds  collected  during  a  survey  of  a  route  for  a  ship 
canal  across  the  Isthmus  of  Darien,  by  order  of  the  Government  of  the 
United  States,  made  by  Lieut.  N.  Michler,  U.  S.  Top.  Engineers, 
with  notes  and  descriptions  of  new  species,  by  John  Cassin." 

And  were  referred  to  Committees. 

Mr.  Lesley  described  a  boulder  of  gneiss,  eight  feet  high,  on  the  summit  of 
one  of  the  Orange  Co.  highlands,  in  the  State  of  New  York,  which  was  sup- 
ported by  four  smaller  rocks,  so  that  it  was  lifted  about  a  foot  above  the  floor 
of  nearly  horizontal  gneiss,  forming  the  top  of  the  mountain.  One  of  these 
supports  was  a  hard  blue  limestone,  from  the  crust  of  which  Mr.  Lesley  ob- 
tained numerous  fossils,  among  which  was  probably  the  Orthis  costalis,  (Hall,) 
of  the  Chazy  Limestone.  Another  block  of  limestone,  also  fossiliferous,  lay 
not  far  away,  and  a  few  small  pieces  of  a  reddish  sandstone  like  that  of  certain 
bands  in  the  Oneida  Conglomerate  ;  but  with  these  exceptions,  there  was  neither 
drift  nor  diluvial  striae  visible,  but  here  and  there  large  blocks  of  gneiss. 
The  whole  surface  of  the  exposures,  which  were  numerous  and  many  hundred 
feet  square,  has  been  weathered  down  2  or  3  inches,  as  is  evident  from  the 
ridges  of  refractory  quartz  veins,  which  have  successfully  resisted  the  atmo- 
sphere. On  this  weathered  surface  occur  what  have  been  called  the  footmarks 
of  animals  ;  but  these  are  nothing  else  than  weathered-out  nodules  of  rock 
more  ferruginous  than  the  rest.  The  locality  is  two  miles  east  of  Southfield 
Station,  on  the  New  York  and  Erie  Railroad.  Mr.  Lesley  and  his  brother  were 
accompanied  and  guided  to  the  locality  by  Mr.  T.  B.  Brooks  and  Mr.  Jenkins, 
two  excellent  local  geologists  and  mineralogists,  living  in  the  village  of  Munroe. 

I860.]  6 


98  PROCEEDINGS    OF   THE   ACADEMY   OF 

Dr.  Leidy  stated  that  on  last  Saturday,  in  company  with  Dr.  Darrach,  he  had 
visited,  to  them,  anewandrich  botanical  locality,  which  was  worthy  of  the  atten- 
tion of  those  members  interested  in  our  local  flora.  This  was  at  Jackson,  N.  J. 
about  20  miles  from  Philadelphia,  on  the  Camden  and  Atlantic  Railway.  A 
cedar  swamp,  crossed  by  the  latter,  not  one  hundred  yards  from  the  station, 
contains  the  greatest  profusion  of  Saracenia  purpurea,  and  Helonias  bullata, 
which  is  now  in  flower.  Near  by,  they  also  found  abundantly  the  Pyxidan- 
thera  and  Cassandra  both  in  flower.  Oxycoccus,  Drosera,  etc.,  were  also 
noticed.  The  neighboring  extensive  forest  tract  is  thickly  carpeted  with  Gaul- 
theria  procumbens. 

Prof.  W.  B.  Rogers  communicated  the  result  of  observations  which  he  had 
made  within  the  last  year  on  the  structural  and  geological  relations  of  the  Al- 
bertite  or  so-called  Albert  Coal  of  New  Brunswick. 

An  examination  of  the  mine  afforded,  as  he  thought,  convincing  proof  that 
this  remarkable  accumulation  of  asphaltic  matetial  could  not  have  formed  a 
part  of  the  regular  carbonaceous  deposits  of  the  region, — that  it  is  not  and 
never  has  been  a  true  bed  or  stratum,  but  that  it  should  rather  be  regarded  as  a 
mass  collected  within  an  irregular  fissure  of  subsequent  formation,  by  the  dis- 
tillation or  infiltration  of  asphaltic  matter  from  the  surrounding  bituminous 
shales. 

The  principal  features  of  the  deposit  pointing  to  such  an  origin  are — the  very 
limited  extent  of  the  mass  longitudinally  traced, — its  sudden  and  great  irregular- 
ities of  thickness  and  trend,  and  the  yet  more  striking  fact  of  its  transverse  direc- 
tion in  many  parts  of  its  course  as  compared  with  the  bedding  of  the  adjacent 
rocks.  In  the  lower  level  at  a  depth  of  about  four  hundred  and  sixty  feet  where 
the  combustible  material  has  been  removed  almost  entirely  from  end  to  end,  the 
slaty  rocks  are  seen  in  many  places  abutting  against  the  sides  of  the  mine  at 
a  steep  angle,  presenting  frequently  a  jagged  surface,  such  as  would  result  from 
a  transverse  fracture  and  gaping  of  the  strata.  The  Albertite  was  seen  adhering 
to  these  irregular  surfaces,  as  well  in  the  cavities  as  on  the  projections,  affording 
even  in  hand  specimens  excellent  examples  of  the  discordance  of  the  mass  as  to 
position  with  the  stratification  of  the  contiguous  rocks. 

It  is  worthy  of  note  that  the  material  thus  adhering  to  the  walls  of  the  mine 
has  none  of  that  intermixture  with  earthy  sediment  which  so  often  marks  the 
contact  of  regular  coal  seams  with  the  enclosing  strata,  but  maintains  the  same 
remarkable( purity  as  in  the  midst  of  the  mass.  It  is,  moreover,  quite  free  from 
the  carbonaceous  and  rocky  debris,  and  other  marks  of  mechanical  violence, 
which  it  must  have  presented  had  it  originated  in  the  dislocation  and  displace- 
ment of  a  coal  seam  originally  conformable  with  the  stratification  of  the  neigh- 
borhood. 

These  evidences  of  the  nature  and  origin  of  the  deposit  are  confirmed  bjthe 
statement  that  in  the  progress  of  the  mining,  several  large  fragments  of  the  verti- 
cal wall-rock  have  been  found  detached  and  imbedded  in  the  midst  of  the  Alber- 
tite, and  on  one  occasion  a  mass  of  unusually  great  dimensions  could  be  traced 
by  correspondence  of  form  to  a  cavity  in  the  wall  at  some  distance  above,  from 
which  it  would  seem  to  have  fallen,  while  the  contents  of  the  fissure  were  still 
but  imperfectly  solidified. 

The  conclusions  of  Prof.  Rogers,  as  to  the  origin  and  nature  of  this  remark- 
able deposit  are  thus  completely  in  harmony  with  those  which  Prof.  Leidy  ha? 
maintained  on  the  ground  of  a  microscopic  examination  of  the  material. 

Prof.W.  B.  Rogers  gave  an  account  of  some  experiments  in  binocular  vision, 
which  he  had  devised  for  the  purpose  of  testing  the  theory  of  the  successive 
combination  of  corresponding  points  as  maintained  by  Sir  David  Brewster. 

In  one  class  of  these  experiments  two  slightly  inclined  luminous  lines  were 
combined  into  a  perspective  resultant,  either  with  or  without  a  stereoscope.  On 
looking  at  this  intently  for  a  few  seconds,  so  as  to  induce  the  reverse  ocular 

[April. 


NATURAL   SCIENCES   OP   PHILADELPHIA.  99 

spectrum,  and  then  directing  the  eyes  towards  a  distant  wall,  a  single  spec- 
trum was  observed,  having  the  attitude  and  relief  of  the  original  binocular 
resultant.  When  the  luminous  lines  were  regarded  in  succession,  each  by  the 
corresponding  eye,  the  other  eye  being  shaded,  so  that  no  direct  binocular 
combination  could  be  formed,  it  was  found  on  looking  towards  the  wall  that 
the  subjective  images  united  into  a  single  spectral  line,  having  the  same  relief 
as  if  the  lines  had  been  directly  combined  in  the  stereoscope. 

In  these  experiments,  according  to  the  theory  of  Brewster,  the  resultant 
spectrum,  instead  of  being  a  single  line  in  a  perspective  attitude  ought  to  pre- 
sent the  form  of  two  lines  inclined  or  crossing,  situated  in  the  plane  of  the 
wall  without  projection  or  relief.  The  conditions  of  the  experiments  are  such 
as  exclude  all  opportunity  of  a  shifting  of  the  image  on  the  retina,  and  this  is 
essential  to  the  successive  combinations  of  pairs  of  points  required  by  the  theory 
in  the  production  of  perspective  effect. 

A  similar  result  was  still  more  clearly  shown  by  vibrating  a  screen  between 
the  eyes  and  the  twin  pictures  of  a  stereoscope,  so  as  alternately  to  expose 
and  cover  each,  completely  excluding  the  simultaneous  vision  of  the  two. 
The  stereoscopic  relief  was  as  apparent  in  these  conditions  as  when  the  vibra- 
ting screen  was  withdrawn. 

The  perception  of  the  resultant  in  its  proper  relief  does  not  therefore  require 
that  each  pair  of  corresponding  points  should  be  combined  by  directing  the 
optic  axes  to  them  pair  by  pair  in  succession,  as  maintained  by  Brewster. 
Nor  is  it  necessary  for  the  singleness  of  the  resultant  perception  that  the 
images  of  corresponding  points  of  the  objects  should  fall  on  what  are  called 
corresponding  points  of  the  retinse.  The  condition  of  single  vision  in  such 
cases  seems  to  be  simply  this,  that  the  pictures  in  the  two  eyes  shall  be  such 
and  so  placed  as  to  be  identical  with  the  pictures  which  the  real  object  would 
form,  if  placed  at  a  given  distance  and  in  a  given  attitude  before  the  eyes. 

Dr.  Ruschenberger  asked  how  it  is,  under  the  explanation  given  by  Prof. 
Rogers,  that  a  man  with  only  one  eye  is  capable  of  perceiving  solidity,  and  of 
appreciating  the  properties  of  photographs  viewed  stereoscopically. 

Mr.  Powel  asked  at  what  rate  per  second  the  vibrating  or  revolving  screen 
presented  its  openings  ;  for  if  it  happened  eight  or  ten  times  in  a  second, 
might  it  not  fail  to  practically  intercept  vision  ?  Objects  thus  seen  would  ap- 
pear permanently.  Thus,  although  not  appearing  to  each  eye  at  the  identical 
instant  of  time,  the  object  would  be  persistent  in  both,  for  an  impression  upon 
the  eye  cannot  be  discharged  oftener  than  about  eight  times  in  a  second,  some 
impressions  remain  much  longer.  An  object  illuminated  by  a  flash  of  light- 
ning for  a  very  instant,  may  thus  appear  solid  to  both  eyes,  the  intense  re- 
flection impressed  upon  the  retina  endures  long  enough  for  the  sensorium  to 
scan  it  in  detail.  A  man  takes  quick  aim  with  a  rifle,  it  may  be  almost  in- 
stantaneously, yet  by  distinct  operations  and  different  foci  of  vision  he  must 
see  the  distant  mark — the  tip  sight,  and  again  the  heel  sight,  no  two  of  which 
can  be  in  focus  at  once.  We  have  here  successive  points  in  a  line,  rapidly 
scanned  in  determining  position.  The  breadth  of  field  of  distinct  vision  is 
exceedingly  narrow  for  the  same  instant  of  time,  and  so  is  the  penetration  of 
focus  very  short.  A  separate  direction  and  a  new  adjustment  of  the  eye  must 
be  given  for  parts  of  even  a  very  small  object. 

Mr.  P.  remarked,  while  upon  the  subject,  that  he  believed  the  stereoscopic 
effect  often  noticed  in  viewing  large  photographic  pictures  with  only  one  eye, 
was  caused  by  the  aperture  of  the  lens  used  in  taking  the  picture ;  for  the 
aperture  is  often  so  great  that  objects  have  an  appreciable  parallax  from  the 
opposite  margins  of  the  aperture,  and  the  picture  thus  contains  more  than 
could  be  seen  from  one  point.  When  both  eyes,  however,  view  such  a  picture 
they  decide  that  it  is  flat  and  in  one  plane,  and  their  evidence  denies  the 
stereoscopic  effect  which  one  eye  cannot  so  well  dispute. 

I860.] 


100  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  ACADEMY  OF 


April  2<lth. 
Mr.  Lea,  President,  in  the  Chair. 

Forty-four  members  present. 

The  Committee  to  whom  was  referred  the  communication  addressed 
to  Isaac  Lea,  Esq.,  President  of  the  Academy  of  Natural  Sciences,  by 
A.  D.  Jessup,  E.  A.  Jessup  and  Clara  J.  Moore,  under  date  of  March 
6th,  1860, 

Reported,  That  the  unsolicited  efforts  of  the  children  of  the  late 
Augustus  E.  Jessup  to  ascertain  any  expressed  intentions  on  his  part 
to  pecuniarily  benefit  the  cause  of  science  through  this  Academy,  and 
the  filial  regard  and  liberal  feeling  evinced  by  them  in  fulfilling  his 
supposed  views,  satisfy  your  Committee  that  the  respect  and  esteem 
entertained  by  the  Academy  for  the  father,  is  also  merited  by  the 
children  of  our  lamented  fellow  member,  Augustus  E.  Jessup,  Esq. 

Your  Committee  recommend  that  the  President  and  Curators  of 
this  Academy  shall,  ex-officio,  be  a  perpetual  Committee  under  the  di- 
rection of  the  Academy  to  carry  out  the  intentions  of  the  late  Augus- 
tus E.  Jessup,  Esq.,  as  expressed  in  the  above  mentioned  letter  of  his 
children,  A.  D.  Jessup,  E.  A.  Jessup  and  Clara  D.  Moore,  and  that 
said  Committee  shall  make  a  quarterly  report  of  their  proceedings,  your 
Committee  also  recommend  that  a  copy  of  the  Publications  of  this 
Academy  shall  be  furnished  to  each  of  the  above  named  children  of  the 
late  Augustus  E.  Jessup  during  life,  commencing  with  the  volumes 
now  in  progress.  Wm.  S.  Vaux,  Chairman  of  Committee. 

The  report  was  unanimously  adopted. 

The  Committee  of  the  Biological  Department  to  whom  was  referred 
the  communication  "On  the  Physical  and  Chemical  Characteristics  of 
Corroval  and  Vao,  two  recently  discovered  varieties  of  Woorara,  and  on 
a  new  alkaloid  containing  their  active  principle,  by  William  A.  Ham- 
mond, M.  D.,  Assistant  Surgeon  U.  S.  Army,  and  S.  Weir  Mitchell, 
M.  D.,  Lecturer  on  Physiology,  in  the  Philadelphia  Medical  Associa- 
tion," reported  in  favor  of  it?  publication  in  the  Proceedings. 

The  following  papers  were,  on  the  report  of  the  Committees  to  whom 
they  had  been  referred,  ordered  to  be  published  in  the  Proceedings : 

Conspectus  Piscium  in  Expeditions  ad  Oceanum  Pacificum  Septentrionalem,  C.  Bin- 
gold   et  J.  Rodgers   ducibus,  a  Gulielmo   Stimpson    collectorum.    SICYDI- 

AN.E: 

AUCTORE   THEO.    GILL. 

SlCTDIANiE   Gill. 

Corpus  elongatuni,  antice  subcylindricurn,  squamosum  vel  nudum  ;  aper- 
turse  brancliiales  paulo  fissse,  verticales  ;  caput  elongatum,  rostro  prominens  ; 
maxilla  inferior  triangularis,  crassa  ;  labium  inferius  plerumque  dentibus  gra- 
cilibus,  confertissimis  prseditum. 

Pinnae  dorsales  duse  ;  pinna?  pectorales  basi  latse  fere  verticales ;  pinna?  ven- 
trales  in  modo  disci  conjunctse,  ad  basin  pectori  adhaerentes. 

Haec  subfamilia  bene  distinguitur  ab  subfamiliis  "Gobinae  "  Gill  et  "Triden- 

[April, 


NATURAL  SCIENCES  OF  PHILADELPHIA.  101 

tigerinse"  Gill  pectori  pinnarum  ventralium  adhaeratione,  et  forma  capitis  et 
osteologia. 

Genus  I.  Sicydium  Val. 
Corpus  plerumque  squamis  ctenoideis  obtectuni  ;  maxillae  superioris  dentes 
gracillimi,  confertissimi,  uniseriati ;  maxillae  inferioris  distantes,  magni,  praeci- 
pue  prope  symphisin ;  dentes  labiales  gracillimi. 

Subgenus  I.  Sicydium. 

Maxilla  inferior  superne  ad  symphisin  et  prope  commissuras  lateribus  ap- 
pendicibus  carnosis  prcedita. 

Typus  S.  (Sicydium)  Plumieri  Val.  Hist.  Nat.  des  Poissons,  vol.  xii. 

Subgenus  II.  Sicyopterus  Gill. 
Maxilla  inferior  appendicibus  carnosis  carens. 
Typus  S.  (Sicyopterus)  Stimpsoni  Gill  nov.  sp. 

Genus  II.  Sicyogaster  Gill. 

Corpus  alepidotum.  Dentes  in  utraque  maxilla  uniseriati ;  ei  ad  maxillae 
superioris  partem  anteriorem  crassi,  tricuspidati,  laterales  simplices  ;  maxillae 
inferioris  dentes  anteriores  remoti,  simplices. 

Typus  Sicyogaster  concolor  Gill,  nov.  sp. 

Genus  Sicydium  Val. 

Sicydium  Val.  Hist.  Nat.  des  Poissons,  vol.  xii,  p.  18. 

Corpus  antice  subcylindricum,  versus  pinnam  caudalem  regulariter  atten- 
natum  ;  squamae  imbricatae,  plerumque  marginibus  subrotundae,  nee  angulatae, 
valde  pectinatae,  striis  concentricis  et  radiantibus  obsoletis  ;  squamae  dorsales 
et  laterales  anteriores  parvae,  cycloideae. 

Caput  oblongum,  subquadratum,  latitudine  altitudinem  aequante  vel  super- 
ante  ;  rostrum  subverticale,  obtuse  rotundatum.  Oculi  cerciter  in  capitis  parte 
mediana  siti. 

Os  mediocre,  fere  horizontale,  usque  ad  oculos  extendens.  Maxilla  inferior 
triangularis,  superiore  brevior  minorque,  intus  superiorem  claudens ;  labia 
crassa,  praecipue  labium  superius. 

Dentes  maxillae  superioris  gracillimi,  confertissimi,  in  serie  unica  dispositi ; 
maxillae  inferioris  in  serie  una,  remoti,  mediocres,  ad  utruntque  latus  symphi- 
sis majores. 

Pinnae  dorsales  omnino  disjunctae  ;  pinna  caudalis  rotundata  vel  subrotun- 
data,  sub  oculis  desinens  :  maxilla  inferior  superiore  brevior,  minorque,  intus 
superiorem  claudens :  labia  crassa,  maxillas  dentesque  tegentia. 

Subgenus  Sicyopterus  Gill. 

1.  Sicydium  Stimpsoni  Gill. 

Caput  latitudine  antrorsum  retrorsumque  subaequale,  vix  quam  altitudo 
majore ;  rostro  subverticali,  obtuse  rotundato  ;  capitis  longitudine  corporis 
longitudinis  extremi  partem  quintam  aequante,  latitudine  capitis  longitudinis 
2-3  aequante,  altitudine  fere  latitudinem  aequante.  Labium  superius  utrinque 
emarginatum  fere  sub  nare,  sub  rostro  fissum ;  intus  papillarum  serie  circa 
marginem  superiorem  extendente  et  papilla  unica  supra  sinum  labri  anteri- 
orem praeditum.  Pori  capitis  in  linea  transversa  arcuata  pone  oculos,  et  in 
linea  brevi  obliqua  in  operculi  parte  inferioriqne,  suboperculo,  &c. 

Pinna  dorsalis  prima  radio  secundo  ejus  filiforme,  ultimo  remotiori. 

D.  vi,  11  ;  A  11  ;  C  8,  13,  7  ;  P  18  ;  V  i,  5+5  i. 

Color  subpurpureus,  fasciis  obscurioribus  septem  variegatus  ;  pinnae  dorsa- 
lis analisque  basi  albo  punctulatae  ;  pinna  caudalis  albo  punctulata. 

Habitat  in  aquae  dulcis  rivulis,  lapidibus  adherens,   Hilo  Hawaii. 

Forsitan  Sicydio  laticepiti  Val.  proximum. 

I860.] 


102  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  ACADEMY  OF 

Genus  Sicyogaster  Gill. 

Corpus  alepidotum,  antice  subcylindricum,  inde  versus  caudam  lente  at- 
tenuatum. 

Caput  oblongum  depressum,  altiore  latius,  antice  rotundatuni.  Oculi  in 
parte  subanteriori  positi.    Os  mediocre,  horizontaliter  fissum. 

Dentes  in  maxilla  utraque  serie  regulare  unica  dispositi  ;  dentes  circa 
maxillae  superioris  partem  anteriorem  approximatae,  apicibus  lateraliter  dila- 
tatis,  tricuspidatis,  cuspa  mediana  majore,  subrotundata ;  dentes  laterales 
pauciores,  remotiores,  simplices,  subcylindrici  et  paulo  recurvati.  Dentes 
maxillae  inferioris  partis  anterioris  subcylindrici  recurvatique,  remoti.  Dentes 
labiales  tenuissimi  adsu»t. 

Pinnae  dorsales  duse,  prima  radiis  valde  flexibilibus ;  pinna  caudalis  mar- 
gine  rotundata ;  pinnae  ventrales  postice  bene  conjunctae,  antice  funiculo  mus- 
culari  spinas  connectente  et  membranae  marginem  formante  praeditae. 

Hoc  genus  a  Sicydio  Val.,  valde  differt  corpore  omnino  alepidoto,  dentibus 
trilobatis  crassis  in  maxillae  superioris  parte  anteriore  et  dentibus  maxillae  in- 
ferioris subaequalibus. 

Eo  referenda  est  unica  species. 

Sicyogaster  c  o  n  c  o  1  o  r   Gill. 

Caput  longitudinis  totius  partem  quintam  formans,  altitudihe  sui  longitu- 
dinis  dimidiam  superante.  Maxilla  superior  circiter  dentibus  tricuspidatis 
sexdecim  et  latere  utroque  circiter  dentibus  simplicibus  quatuor  vel  quinque 
armata  ;  maxilla  inferior  circiter  dentibus  simplicibus  remotis  decim  praedita, 

D  vi,  11  ;  A  10 ;  C  +  15+  ;  P  15  V  i,  5  +5  i. 

Color  subpurpureus  ;  pinnae  analis  et  ventrales  submargaritaceae,  analis  pur- 
pureo  marginata. 

Habitat  cum  Sicydio  Stimpsoni  in  aquae  dulcis  rivulis  saxis  adhaei'ens. 

In  specimine  unico  in  collectione,  labium  inferior  dentes  graciles  pancos 
liabet. 


Honograph  of  the  Genus  LABROSOMUS  Sw. 
BY  THEO.  GILL. 

In  the  genus  Clinus  as  proposed  by  Cuvier,  and  even  as  revised  by  Valen- 
ciennes, there  are  dissimilar  types  which  yet  remain  to  be  named  and  elevated 
to  the  rank  of  genera.  Among  the  species  of  this  group,  described  by  the  latter 
naturalist  in  the  eleventh  volume  of  the  "  Histoire  Naturelle  des  Poissons," 
there  are  several  species  which  are  distinguished  by  the  presence  of  superciliary 
tentacles,  and  of  a  transverse  pectiniform  series  of  filaments  on  the  nape. 
Those  fishes  provided  with  such  appendages,  have  at  the  same  time  a  much 
less  inequality  between  the  spinous  and  soft  portions  of  the  dorsal  than  the 
typical  Clini,  and  the  teeth  in  the  outer  row  are  much  stronger.  They  would 
therefore  be  correctly  referred  to  a  genus  which  is  quite  distinct  from  Clinus. 
For  this  genus,  the  name  Labrosomus,  first  proposed  by  Swainson,  must  be 
adopted,  but  the  characters  given  by  that  author  to  it  are  not  the  proper 
generic  ones,  and  the  greater  number  of  the  species  referred  to  it  are  not  con- 
generic with  its  type. 

The  name  of  Labrosomus  (or  Labrisomus)  was  first  published  in  1839,  in  the 
second  volume  of  the  "Natural  History  of  Fishes,  Amphibians  and  Reptiles." 
At  the  seventy-fifth  page  of  that  volume,  Swainson  has  divided  the  Cuvieran 
genus  Clinus  into  five  genera  :  Clinus,  of  which  the  Clinus  acuminatus 
Cia\,  is  taken  as  the  type;  Labrisomus  with  Clinus  pectinifer  Val.,  as 
type  ;   Tripterygion  Risso,  Cliniirachus  Reese,  which  is  typified  by  Blennius 

[April, 


NATURAL   SCIENCES   OF   PHILADELPHIA.  103 

variabilis  of  Rajinesque,  and  Blennophis,*  of  which  the  Clinus  a  n  g  u  i  l- 
laris  Val.,  is  the  only  true  species.  Of  these  genera,  Clinus  Sw.,  and  Cli- 
nitrachusSw.,  are  distinguished  by  false  or  illusive  characters,  and  cannot  be 
regarded  as  distinct.  The  others  are  valid,  but  their  characters  require  re- 
vision. 

The  only  claim  to  distinction  of  the  genus  Labrosomus  given  by  Swaiuson, 
are  founded  on  the  strong,  conic  and  pointed  row  of  front  teeth,  behind  which 
are  villiform  ones  ;  a  thicker  body  than  in  Clinus,  and  the  "dorsal  fin  dis- 
tinctly emarginate  towards  the  caudal."  The  genus  resting  on  these  charac- 
ters alone  is  composed  of  very  incongruous  elements.  To  it  are  referred,  at 
page  277  of  the  second  volume,  the  following  species,  all  of  which  are  de- 
scribed as  species  of  Clinus  by  Valenciennes  :  Labrosomus  g  o  b  i  o,  L.  p  e  c  t  i- 
nifer,  L.  capillatus,  L.  Delalandii,  L.  linearis,  L.  variolosus, 
L.  Peruvianus,  L.  microcirrhis,  L.  ?geniguttatus,  L.  elegans, 
L.  ?  littoreus  and  L.  latipin  n  is. 

Of  these  species,  not  more  than  three  can,  with  propriety,  be  regarded  as 
congeners-,  if  the  Labrosomus  pectinifer  is  taken  as  the  type.  These  are 
Labrosomus  pectinifer,  L.  capillatus  and  perhaps  L.  Delalandii. 
The  latter  is  more  probably  the  representative  of  a  distinct  genus. 

That  genus  is  distinguished  from  Labrosomus  by  the  smaller  mouth,  the  pre- 
sence of  only  two  rays  to  the  ventral  fins,  and  perhaps  by  the  undulating 
margin  of  the  spinous  portion  of  the  dorsal  fin.  It  may  be  named  Malacocte- 
nus,  in  illusion  to  the  pectiniform  row  of  filaments.  This  genus  is  the  nearest 
ally  of  Labrosomus.     All  the  others  are  very  distinct. 

Labrisomus  gobio  Sw.,  is  the  type  of  quite  a  distinct  genus,  whose  charac- 
ters consist  of  a  broad,  depressed  head,  with  a  very  short  muzzle,  large-  ap- 
proximated eyes,  superciliary  and  nasal  tentacles,  two  ventral  rays  and  a  com- 
paratively short  spinous  dorsal.  The  genus  may  be  called  Gobioclinus.  The 
only  species  G-obioclinus  gobio  is  found  in  the  West  Indies,  and  has  but 
eighteen  dorsal  spines. 

Labrisomus  linea  ri  s  Sw.,  is  synonymous  with  Clinus  brachycepha- 
lus  Val.  This  also  is  the  type  of  a  distinct  genus  distinguished  by  its  abbre- 
viated and  blenniform  head,  the  profile  being  very  convex ;  by  the  villiform 
teeth,  the  absence  of  superciliary  tentacles,  the  spinous  portion  of  the  dorsal 
long,  and  the  presence  of  only  two  rays  to  the  ventral  fins.  The  name  of 
Blennioclinus  is  conferred  on  it ;  for  the  species,  the  specific  name  of  Valenci- 
ennes must  be  retained. 

Labrisomus  variolosus  is  distinguished  by  a  large  thick  head,  with 
lateral  eyes,  short  superciliary  tentacles  and  a  small  nuchal  one.  The  mouth 
is  large  ;  the  teeth  of  the  jaws  in  an  outer  row  strong  and  conical,  behind 
which  are  villiform  ones  ;  those  of  the  vomer  and  palate  villiform  and  in  three 
patches,  one  on  the  vomer  and  one  on  each  palatine  bone.  The  spinous  por- 
tion of  the  dorsal  is  long,  and  the  ventrals  have  each  three  rays.  The  species 
thus  characterized  is  the  type  of  a  new  genus  which  may  be  named  Anchenion- 
chus. 

Labrisomus  microcirrhis,  L.  elegans  and  L.  Peruvianus  are 
nearly  related  to  Anchenionchus,  and  are  from  the  same  zoological  province. 

Labrosomus  ?  geniguttatusis  distinguished  from  Anchenio  ichus  by  the 
more  approximated  eyes,  and  by  the  disposition  of  the  vomero-palatine  teeth, 
as  well  as  the  small  size  of  the  anterior  row  of  maxillary  teeth.  The  dorsal 
is  moderately  long,  and  each  of  the  ventrals  have  three  rays.  The  mouth  is 
comparatively  small,  and  there  are  superciliary,  nasal  and  nuchal  tentacles. 
For  this  species,  the  generic  name  of  Callicllnus  is  proposed. 

*  Valenciennes  has  since  given  the  name  of  Blennophis  to  a  very  distinct  genus  from 
that  to  which  Swainson  appplied  the  names.  As  Swainson's  genua  is  a  natural  one, 
another  name  must  be  substituted  for  that  of  Valenciennes— Ophioblennius  is  therefore 
propused. 

I860.] 


104  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  ACADEMY  OF 

Labrisomus  ?  littoreus  may  possibly  belong  to  the  genus  Acanthoclinus  of 
Jenyns,  but  it  is  only  known  from  a  drawing  and  description. 

Labrisomus  latipinnis  is  related  to  Blennioclinus,  but  is  distinguished 
from  tbe  species  of  that  genus  by  the  presence  of  superciliary  tentacles.  The 
generic  name  of  Ophthalmolophus  may  be  retained  for  it. 

If  the  above  views  of  the  limits  of  the  Labrosomus  are  correct,  only  two  of 
the  species  assigned  by  Swainson  to  the  genus  truly  belong  to  it.  Of  the  re- 
maining species,  nearly  each  one  belongs  to  a  genus  distinct  from  the  others. 
The  affinities  and  characters  of  the  genera  above  indicated  will  be  more  fully 
exposed  at  another  time. 

About  three  years  after  the  publication  of  the  work  of  Swainson,  the  same 
species  that  served  as  the  type  of  the  genus  of  that  naturalist,  was  described 
by  Dr.  Dekay,  in  the  ichthyological  part  of  his  "Zoology  of  New  York,  or  the 
New  York  Fauna,"  as  the  representative  of  a  new  genus  of  Percoids,  under 
the  name  of  Lepisoma.  That  the  genus  Lepisoma  is  identical  with  the  Labri- 
somus of  Swainson,  no  one  can  entertain  a  doubt  after  a  perusal  of  the  generic 
and  specific  description  of  Dekay. 

Dr.  Dekay  has  given  the  characters  of  his  genus  Lepisoma,  as  follows : 

"  Body  and  fins  scaly.  Fleshy  filaments  along  the  basal  line  of  the  head  and 
on  the  orbits.  A  single  dorsal  fin.  Branchial  rays  six.  Teeth  in  the  jaws 
vomer  and  palatines.     Ventrals  before  the  pectorals." 

Dekay  in  his  remarks,  states  "that  it  is  with  much  hesitation  that  he  places 
this  genus  at  the  end  of  the  jugular  section  of  this  family  (Percidse).  In  its 
general  aspect,  it  might  readily  be  referred  to  the  families  Scisenidse  or  Labri- 
dae ;  but  the  presence-of  vomerine  and  palatine  teeth  excludes  it  from  them." 

The  amiable  naturalist  was  much  mistaken  in  regard  to  the  affinities  of  the 
genus,  as  must  be  perceptible  from  his  descriptions.  Even  in  his  brief  generic 
diagnosis,  the  ichthyologist  is  surprised  by  the  peculiarity  described  by  the 
second  sentence  ;  ' '  fleshy  filaments  along  the  base  of  the  head  and  on  the  orbits.'''' 
This  character  is  so  peculiar,  so  much  at  variance  with  the  compact  character, 
if  I  may  so  express  myself,  of  the  head  in  the  family  of  Percoids,  that  it  might 
well  cause  the  naturalist  to  doubt  if  a  fish  with  such  appendages  can  really  be- 
long to  the  family  of  Percoids.  On  a  careful  examination  of  the  specific  de- 
scription, the  characters  are  found  to  disagreee  more  and  more  with  the  natural 
ones  of  the  family  to  which  Dekay  has  referred  it. 

The  scales  are  described  as  being  "  moderate,  rounded,  finely  striate  on  their 
free  surfaces,  with  a  smooth  membranous  margin.'"  The  head  is  "corrugated 
and  destitute  of  scales.  Along  the  basal  line  of  the  head,  on  each  side,  are  nine 
or  ten  fleshy  processes,  ending  in  bifid  or  trifid  filaments,"  &c.  "Another  fleshy 
process  arises  from  beneath  the  upper  margin  of  the  orbit,  which  subdivides  into 
.six  or  eight  smaller  processes,"  &c.  The  anterior  nostril  has  a  "fleshy  valve, 
through  which  is  pierced  the  nasal  aperture  ;  its  posterior  border  elongated  and 
terminating  in  six  or  eight  filaments.'"  The  opercle  and  preopercle  are  rounded 
and  smooth  on  their  margins." 

All  of  the  attributes  of  the  species  underlined  in  the  foregoing  abstract  are  more 
or  less  at  variance  with  the  characters  of  Percoid  fishes,  even  as  the  family 
was  accepted  by  Dr.  Dekay ;  the  doubt  of  the  reader  is  still  more  increased 
when  he  finds  it  stated  that  the  ' '  branchial  membrane  (is)  large,  extending  loosely 
around  the  throat,  with  six  rays,  and  that  the  ventrals  arise  near  the  inferior  fold 
of  the  branchial  membrane,  and  are  composed  of  two  long  articulated  rays  and  a 
short  rudimentary  one  on  each  side." 

This  condition  of  the  branchial  membrane,  this  number  of  ventral  rays  are 
so  different  from  the  characters  of  the  true  Percoids,  that  one  can  have  no 
hesitation  in  denying  a  fish  with  such  attributes  a  place  in  the  family.  As  in 
all  those  as  well  as  in  minor  details,  it  agrees  with  Labrosomus,  it  is  unhesita- 
tingly referred  to  that  genus. 

[April, 


NATURAL    SCIENCES   OF  PHILADELPHIA.  105 

The  genus  Lepisoma  has  heen  adopted  hy  the  following  authors,  but  it  is 
necessary  to  add,  entirely  on  the  authority  of  Dr.  Dekay. 

Troschel  has  translated  into  German  the  characters  of  the  genus  for  the 
"  Archiv  fur  Naturgeschichte  "  of  1844,  page  233.  He  has  questioned  the  pre- 
sence of  three  ventral  rays. 

Dr.  Storer,  in  his  ' '  Synopsis  of  the  Fishes  of  North  America, ' '  has  adopted 
it  without  qualification. 

Sir  John  Richardson,  in  the  article  ''  Ichthyology  "  of  the  last  edition  of  the 
"Encyclopedia  Britannica,"  at  page  277  of  the  twelfth  volume,  has  taken  the 
characters  of  the  genus  from  the  "Archiv,"  and  on  account  of  the  presence  of 
six  branchiostegal  rays,  places  it,  together  with  Boleosoma  and  Pileoma,  at  the 
end  of  his  family  of  Theraponidce,  but  adds  that  he  "cannot,  without  more 
data,  fix  their  proper  place  in  the  system." 

No  notice  has  been  taken  of  the  genus  Labrosomus,  except  in  a  reference  of 
Lepisoma  cirrhosum  Dekay  to  it,  in  a  recent  number  of  the  Proceedings  of 
the  Academy  of  Natural  Sciences.  That  this  is  entitled  to  distinction  appears 
to  be  evident,  and  its  characters  are  now  given. 

Labrosomus  Sw.,  emend. 
Synonymy. 

Labrisomus  Sw.,  Nat.  Hist.,  Fishes,  Amphibians  and  Reptiles,  vol.  ii.  pp.  75> 
182,  277,  1839. 

Lepisoma  Dekay,  Zoology  of  New  York,  Fishes,  p.  11,  1842. 

Blennius  sp.  auct. 

Clinus  sp.  auct. 

Body  oblong,  highest  at  the  pectoral  fins,  thence  attenuated  towards  the 
caudal.  Scales  moderate,  covering  the  body  and  encroaching  upon  the  verti- 
cal fins.  Head  compressed,  naked,  declining  from  the  nape  with  a  slight 
curve.  Eyes  large,  separated  by  a  narrow  interval.  Superciliary  tentacles 
multifid,  and  one  or  two  transverse  rows  of  filaments  across  the  nape.  Nostrils 
approximated  ;  the  anterior  ones  with  a  tufted  barbel  on  the  posterior  border. 
Teeth  in  the  anterior  row  stout,  recurved,  conic  and  pointed,  behind  which  is 
a  band  of  villiform  teeth.  Vomerine  and  palatine  teeth  stout  and  conic,  gene- 
rally in  a  single  row.  Dorsal  fin  commencing  near  the  nape  ;  the  spinous  por- 
tion long,  and  with  from  sixteen  to  eighteen  rays,  slowly  decreasing  in  height 
to  the  soft  portion  ;  the  latter  oblong,  with  its  rays  subequal  and  higher  than 
the  spinous  portions.  Caudal  fin  moderate,  truncate  or  rounded,  and  discon- 
nected from  the  dorsal  and  anal  fins.  Ventral  fins  jugular,  closely  approxi- 
mated, each  composed  of  three  rays. 

1.  Labrosomus  pec tinifer  Sw. 
Synonymy. 

Clinus  pectinifer  Val.,  Hist.  Nat.  des  Poissons,  vol.  xi.  p.  374,  1836. 

Labrisomus  pectinifer  Sw.,  Nat.  Hist.,  Fishes,  Amphibians  and  Reptiles,  vol. 
ii,  p.  277,  1839. 

Lepisoma  cirrhosum  Dekay,  Zoology  of  New  York,  Fishes,  p.  41,  pi.  30,  fig, 
94,  1842. 

Lepisoma  cirrhosum  Storer,  Synopsis  of  Fishes  of  North  America,  p.  49,  ib. 
in  Memoirs  American  Academy,  1856. 

Clinus  pectinifer  Mull,  and  Troschel  con  Schomburgh  Annals  and  Magazine 
Nat.  Hist.,  2d  ser.  vol.  ii,  p.  16  ;  ib.  in  Schomburgh's  Barbados. 

Clinus  pectinifer  Castlenau,  Animaux  nouveaux  ou  rares  recueilles  &c,  dans 
l'Amerique  du  sud.  Poissons,  p.  26,  1855. 

Labrtsomus  pectinifer  Gill,  Proc.  Acad.  Nat.  Sci.  Phila.,  1860,  p.  21. 

There  can  scarcely  remain  a  doubt  of  the  identity  of  the  Lepisoma  cir  rh  o- 
s  u  m  of  Dr.  Dekay  with  the  Labrosomus  pectinifer.  The  only  difference 
between  the  description  of  Dekay  and  that  of  Valenciennes,  is  respecting  the 

1S60.] 


103  PROCEEDINGS  OP  THE  ACADEMY  OP 

orbital  and  nuchal  filaments.  The  orbital  filaments  are  stated  by  Dr.  Dekay  to 
"subdivide  into  six  or  eight  smaller  processes,  each  of  which  terminate  in 
several  slender  filaments,  not  thicker  than  the  finest  thread;"  Valenciennes 
describes  them  as  divided  to  their  base  in  ten  or  twelve  slender  filaments. 
Dr.  Dekay  informs  us  that  the  nuchal  filaments  are  nine  or  ten  on  each  side, 
each  bifid  or  trifid  ;  Valenciennes  describes  them  as  being  arranged  in  two 
pectiniform  rows,  each  row  consisting  of  thirty  or  more. 

Another  variation  of  Lepisoma  cirrhosum  from  Labrosomus  pectinifer 
is  concerning  the  vomero-palatine  dentition ;  Dekay  mentions  that    "in  the 
upper  jaw,  in  front,  is  a  series  of  equal,  conical,  slightly  recurved  teeth,  some- 
what longer  than  those  below,  smaller  on  the  sides  ;  behind  the  outer  row,  in 
front,  is  a  patch  of  minute  crowded  teeth.     Similar  teeth  in  bands  on  the 
vomer  and  palates.     On  the  anterior  part  of  the  vomer  is  a  very  large  solitary 
tooth."     This  description  of  the  vomerine  and  palatine  teeth  is  ambiguous, 
and  may  be  variously  interpreted.     If  by  it  is  meant  that  the  vomero-palatine   « 
teeth  are  in  several  rows,  or  in  a  villiform  band,  it  widely  disagrees  with  the 
Labrosomus  pectinifer.     In  the  latter  species  there  is  but  one  row  of  stout 
conic  teeth,  like  those  of  the  outer  row  of  the  upper  jaw,  with  "  a  very  large 
solitary  tooth  on  the  anterior  part  of  the  vomer."     A  figure  is  given  of  the 
dentition  of  the  Lepisoma  cirrhosum,   but   very  little    reliance    can    be 
placed  on  it.     The  vomerine  and  palatine   teeth  are  certainly  represented  as 
pluriserial,  but  there  is  no  "very  large  solitary  tooth  "   represented  on  the 
vomer.     A  doubt  may  therefore  arise  respecting  the  propriety  of  referring 
Lepisoma  cirrhosum  to  Labrosomus  pectinifer.     Considering,  however, 
that  the  description  of  the  former,  in  all  respects  except  those  above  men- 
tioned, agrees  with  the  latter  ;  that  the  number  of  rays  is  almost  exactly 
similar  ;  that  in  each,  a  larger  tooth  is  at  the  front  of  the  vomer,  and  that  the 
description  and  figure  of  the  dentition  of  Lepisoma  c  i  r  r  h  o  s  u  m  do  not  agree 
with  each  other ;  it  appears  almost  certain  that  the  two  belong  tothe  same 
species,  and  that  error  has  entered  into  the  description  and  illustration  of  the 
species  as  well  as  in  the  allocation  of  the  genus. 

The  Labrosomus  pectinifer  is  widely  distributed  through  the  Caribbean 
Sea,  and  is  found  at  the  Islands  of  Barbados,  Trinidad,  St.  Thomas,  Jamaica, 
Cuba,  as  well  as  at  the  Bahama  Islands  and  on  the  coast  of  Florida. 

The  specimens  from  which  Valenciennes  described  the  species  were  obtained 
at  Brazil  and  at  Bahia.  A  specimen  from  Brazil  does  not  specifically  differ 
from  West  Indian  ones. 

Valenciennes  even  observes  that  it  is  one  of  the  small  number  of  species 
that  cross  the  Atlantic  ocean.  A  specimen  is  stated  by  him  to  have  been  ob- 
tained by  Adanson  among  the  rocks  of  the  Island  of  Gorea,  in  January,  1750. 

2.  Labrosomus  fasciatus   Gill. 

Clinus  fasciatus  Castelnau,  Animaux  nouveaux  ou  rares  recueilles,  &c, 
dans  l'Amerique  du  sud.     Poissons,  p.  26,  pi.  xii.  fig.  2,  1855. 

This  species  is  very  closely  related  to  the  Labrosomus  pectinifer  Sw., 
and  it  was  at  first  believed  that  it  was  probably  only  a  variety.  My  friend,  J. 
C.  Brevoort,  Esq.,  has  since  sent  me  an  outline  of  the  figure  of  Castelnau  and 
a  copy  of  his  description,  and  I  am  now  disposed  to  regard  it  as  a  true  species. 

The  Labrosomus  pectinifer  is  sometimes  found  with  four  dark  brown 
vertical  bars,  between  which  are  smaller  and  more  obscure  ones,  interrupted 
at  the  middle.  Such  appears  to  have  been  the  variety  mentioned  by  Drs. 
Miiller  and  Troschel  in  their  list  of  the  Fishes  collected  by  Sir  Robert  Schom- 
burgh  at  the  island  of  Barbados,  and  published  in  the  "Annals  and  ]\4agazine 
of  Natural  History"  and  the  History  of  Barbados.  This  variety,  in  every 
other  respect,  resembles  typical  individuals  of  the  species,  and  has,  like  them, 
the  rays  of  the  caudal  and  pectoral  fins   covered  with  five  or  six  rows  of  spots. 

[April, 


NATURAL   SCIENCES   OF   PHILADELPHIA.  107 

111  the  normal  variety  of  the  Labrosomus  pectinifer,  the  bauds,  although 
present,  are  faint  and  confused. 

The  Labrosomus  fasciatus,  from  the  figure  and  description  of  Castlenau, 
appears  to  differ  from  the  L.  pectinifer  or  its  variety,  by  the  absence  of 
the  intermediate,  interrupted  and  fainter  bands,  and  of  the  rows  of  spots  on 
the  caudal,  by  the  red  color  of  the  abdomen  and  opercula,  and  of  the  ventral, 
pectoral  and  caudal  fins,  as  well  as  of  the  broad  marginal  band  of  the  soft  por- 
tion of  the  dorsal  fin.     The  following  is  the  description  given  by  Castlenau  : 

"  Ressemble  pour  la  forme  au  pectinifer,  et  a  une  tache  semblable  a  Poper- 
oule.  Le  corps  est  d'un  brun  clair  avec  quatre,  larges  bandes  transversales 
d'un  brun  tres  obscur  ;  l'opercule,  la  gorge,  la  partie  inferieure  de  la  tete  et 
la  moitie  anterieure  des  dessons  du  corps  sont  d'un  beau  rouge  vix  ;  les 
nageoires  anale  et  ventrale  sont  de  cette  ratine  couleur. 

"De  Rio  Janeiro." 

3.  Labrosomus  capillatus  Sw. 

Synonymy. 

Clinus  capillatus  Val.,  Hist.  Nat.  des  Poissons,  vol.  xi.  p.  377. 

Labrisomus  capillatus  Sw.,  Nat.  Hist.  Fishes,  Amphibians  and  Reptiles,  vol. 
ii.  p.  277. 

Clinus  capillatus  Mull  and  Trosch.,  con  Schomburgh,  Annals  and  Mag.  of 
Nat.  Hist.  2d  ser.  vol.  ii.  p.  16  ;  ib.  in  Schomburgh's  Barbados. 

The  Labrosomus  capillatus  is  recorded  as  an  inhabitant  of  the  same 
coasts  as  the  L.  p  ec  t  ini  f  er.  It  is  very  nearly  allied  to  the  latter,  but 
differs  from  it  by  the  immaculate  pectoral  fins,  and  the  spot  on  the  operculum 
is  bordered  with  white. 

4.  Labrosomus  X  a  n  t  i  Gill. 

This  species  in  form  and  proportions  is  very  nearly  allied  to  Labrosomus 
pectinifer. 

It  attains  a  length  of  about  six  inches.  Of  the  length,  the  head,  from  the 
front  row  of  teeth  to  the  margin  of  the  operculum  forms  a  fourth  part,  and 
the  caudal  fin  about  a  seventh.  The  greatest  height  is  rather  less  than  the 
head's  length.  The  dorsal  outline  from  the  nape  to  the  posterior  third  of  the 
dorsal  fin  is  nearly  straight  and  scarcely  convex,  and  thence  gradually  declines 
in  a  slight  curve  to  the  end  of  the  fin,  when  the  height  of  the  caudal  peduncle 
is  scarcely  more  than  a  fourth  of  the  length  of  the  head. 

The  profile  from  the  eyes  to  the  snout  slopes  more  gradually  than  in  Labro- 
somus pectinifer,  and  the  suborbital  is  less  broad. 

The  dorsal  commences  behind  the  vertical  of  the  preopercle,  and  the  spines 
regularly  increase  in  height  towards  the  middle  of  the  spinous  portion,  and 
thence  slightly  decrease  towards  the  soft  portion,  which  is  almost  twice  as  high 
as  the  last  spine. 

The  pectoral  fins  are  produced  at  its  middle  rays,  and  their  length  is  equal 
to  nearly  a  fifth  of  that  of  the  body.  The  articulated  rays  of  all  the  fins  are 
simple  and  unbranched  as  in  its  congener. 

D  xviii.4-13  ;  A  iii.  18 ;  C  7+7  ;  P  14 ;  V  3. 

The  color  of  the  body  is  brown,  crossed  by  about  ten  darker  bands.  The 
head  is  dotted  with  blackish,  and  from  the  posterior  and  inferior  borders  of 
the  eye,  two  bands  proceed  obliquely  to  the  margin  of  the  preopercle.  The 
opercle  is  darker  than  the  preopercle,  but  there  is  no  black  spot.  The  dorsal 
has  the  basal  portion  of  the  membrane  between  the  first  and  third  spines 
blackish  ;  the  rest  of  the  n  en  brane  is  tinged  with  purple,  but  immaculate. 
The  basal  half  of  the  fin  is  covered  with  scales  as  in  Labrosomus  pectinifer. 
The  anal  fin  is  crossed  by  six  ob^que  purplish  bands.  The  caudal,  pectorals 
and  ventrals  are  immaculate. 
I860.] 


108  PROCEEDINGS  OP  THE  ACADEMY  OF 

This  species  is  very  nearly  allied  to  the  "West  Indian  Labrosomus  p  e  c  t  i  n  i- 
fer  and  L.  capillatus  Sw.,  hut  differs  from  them  in  color  and  some  minor 
details  of  form.  The  median  tooth  of  the  front  of  the  vomer,  which  is  so 
large  in  the  Labrosomus  pectinifer,  is  of  the  same  size  as  the  others  in 
the  Labrosomus  x  a  n  t  i. 

Old  and  young  specimens  were  obtained  by  Mr.  J.  Xantus  under  rocks  on 
Cerro  Blanco.  They  are  numbered  2334,  2335  and  2478  in  the  collection  of 
the  Smithsonian  Institution. 

I  have  dedicated  this  species  to  Mr.  Xantus  as  a  slight  testimony  to  his 
worth  and  abilities  :  while  engaged  in  his  duties  on  the  coast  survey,  and  with 
many  obstacles  to  contend  against,  on  account  of  the  present  condition  of  af- 
fairs in  Mexico,  he  has  obtained  a  collection  of  terrestrial  and  marine  animals, 
which  is  rich  in  new  forms,  and  all  the  species  of  which  are  in  the  highest 
state  of  preservation. 

5.  Labrosomus  Herminieri  Gill. 
Synonymy. 

Blennins  Herminieri  Leseur,  Journ.  Acad.  Nat.  Sci.  Pa.,  vol.  iv.  p.  361; 
1825. 

Clinus  Herminieri  Val.,  Hist.  Nat.  des  Poissons,  vol.  xi.  p. 

This  species  appears  to  be  nearly  related  to  the  other  species  of  the  genus,  but 
is  distinguished  by  the  presence  of  only  sixteen  spines  in  the  dorsal  fin,  and  by 
a  different  pattern  of  coloration.  The  dorsal  fin  anteriorly  has  an  elongate 
black  spot.  "The  cheeks  and  head  are  rufous  brown,  vermicular  with  little 
blackish  lines,  which  form  an  irregular  kind  of  close  net  work." 

The  radial  formula  is  as  follows : 

D  16,  11 ;  A  20  ;  P  16  ;  V  3  ;  C  14. 

Specimens  were  taken  at  the  West  Indian  Island  of  St.  Bartholomews,  in 
cavities  of  madreporic  rocks,  in  the  month  of  June,  1816,  by  C.  A.  Lesueur. 
It  has  not  since  been  re-discovered. 


Monograph  of  the  Genus  LABRAX,  of  Cuvier. 
BY   THEO.    GILL. 

There  is  found,  in  the  Mediterranean  sea,  a  fish  which  has,  from  the  earliest 
times,  attracted  the  attention  of  the  inhabitants  of  the  neighboring  coasts  from 
the  abundance  in  which  it  is  found  and  the  size  to  which  it  attains.  By  the 
Ancients,  as  at  the  present  day,  it  was  much  esteemed  as  an  article  of  food,  and 
was  called  by  the  Greeks  A*/?/>*|  and  by  the  Romans,  Lupus.  Of  this  fish. 
Cuvier  has  said  that  its  appearance  and  almost  all  the  details  of  its  form  recall 
to  mind  the  perch,  and  that  a  just  idea  would  be  given  of  it  by  describing  it  as 
a  "  large,  elongated  and  silvery  perch." 

From  the  Perches,  however,  it  differs  in  several  characters,  which  induced 
Cuvier  to  separate  it  generically,  and  for  the  name  of  the  genus,  he  adopted  the 
Greek  designation  of  the  species.  The  characters  by  which  Cuvier  distinguished 
it  from  the  Perches  were  the  presence  of  teeth  on  the  tongue  and  of  two  spines  to 
the  operculum.  It  differs  also  from  the  true  Perches  in  the  armature  of  some 
of  its  bones,  and  by  the  shorter  spinous  dorsal  fin,  whose  rays,  in  the  European 
and  allied  American  species,  do  not  exceed  the  number  of  nine. 

Though  Cuvier  was  the  first  to  properly  distinguish  the  genus,  its  type  bad 
been  long  previously  placed  by  Klein  as  the  first  of  two  species  which  he  placed 
in  a  group,  for  which  he  used  the  same  name  of  Labrax. 

In  the  second  and  third  volumes  of  the  great  "  Histoire  Naturelle  des 
Poissons,"  Cuvier  and  Valenciennes  have  referred  to  the  genus  Labrax  seven 
species,  six  of  which  are  described  in  the  former  volume. 

Of  these,  the  Labrax  1  u  p  u  s  is  the  type  of  the  genus,  and  is  distinguished  by 

[April, 


NATURAL    SCIENCES   OF  PHILADELPHIA.  109 

the  spur-like  spines  of  the  inferior  margin  of  the  preoperculum ;  the  presence 
of  a  perfect  marginal  band  of  teeth  and  of  an  oval  basal  patch  on  the  tongue  ; 
three  spines  to  the  anal  fin.  and  other  characters  which  will  be  noticed  in  the 
diagnosis  of  the  genus.     To  this  should  the  name  of  Labrax  be  restricted. 

The  second  species  (le  Bar  alonge,  or  Perca  elongata  of  Geoffrey)  is  distin- 
guished by  finer  and  more  numerous  teeth  on  the  inferior  border  of  the  preoper- 
culum, and  the  presence  of  only  two  anal  spines.  This  is  doubtless  the  type  of 
a  distinct  genus  to  which  the  name  of  Dicentrarchus  may  be  given. 

The  third  species  is  the  Labrax  lineatus  of  Cuvier,  the  common  rock  fish 
and  striped  bass  of  the  United  States.  This  is  now  taken  as  the  type  of  a  new 
genus,  for  which  Mitchell's  name  of  Roccua  is  preserved.  The  characters  are 
given  below.  To  this  genus  should  be  also  referred  the  Labrax  multiline- 
atus  described  by  Cuvier  and  Valenciennes  in  the  third  volume  of  their 
"Histoire." 

The  fourth  species,  Labrax  Waigiensis,  has  been  identified  by  Bleeker 
with  the  Psammoperca  datnioides  of  Richardson;  if  this  is  correct, — and 
notwithstanding  the  discrepancies  between  the  descriptions  of  the  "Histoire 
Naturelle"  and  Richardson,  such  appears  to  be  the  case — it  belongs  to  a  very 
distinct  genus  from  Labrax  1  u  pu  s  .  The  teeth  of  the  jaws,  vomer  and  palatines 
are  described  by  Richardson  as  crowded,  rounded  and  granular,  while  by  Cuvier 
the  teeth  on  both  jaws,  the  chevron  of  the  vomer  and  the  palatines  are  said  to  be 
villiform  ("  dents  en  velours  ");  it  is  also  stated  by  Cuvier  that  there  is  a  small 
oval  disc  at  the  base  of  the  tongue.  By  Richardson,  the  tongue  is  said  to  be 
smooth.  In  the  latter  statement,  however,  be  disagrees  not  only  with  Cuvier 
and  Valenciennes,  but  with  Bleeker,  who  also  asserts*  that  there  is  an  oblong 
patch  at  the  base  of  the  tongue;  "  lingua  basi  thurma  denticulorum  scabra." 
Both  authors  agree  as  to  the  presence  of  a  single  spine  to  the  operculum 
(although  one  of  the  generic  characters  assigned  to  Labrax  by  Cuvier  is  the 
presence  of  two  spines  on  that  bone),  and  of  a  strong  horizontal  spine  at  the 
angle  of  the  preoperculum,  above  which  the  margin  is  pectinated. 

The  next  species  in  order, — Labrax  Japonic  us  of  Cuv.  and  Val., — is  the 
type  of  the  genus  Lateolabrax  of  Bleeker,  which  is  widely  separated  from 
Labrax  by  the  absence  of  any  teeth  on  the  tongue.  In  the  plectroid  armature 
of  the  operculum  it,  however,  resembles  that  genus. 

The  last  species — Labrax  mucronatu  s — is  now  taken  as  the  type  of  a  new 
genus,  for  which  the  name  of  Morone  is  accepted.  Its  generic  characters  and 
affinities  will  be  given  at  length  in  a  subsequent  portion  of  this  memoir. 

Of  the  seven  species  referred  by  Cuvier  and  Valenciennes  to  the  genus  Labrax, 
six  are  thus  seen  to  belong  to  different  genera.  Nor  do  any  of  these  genera 
appear  to  be  unnecessary,  but  on  the  contrary,  all  of  them  are  well  distinguished 
from  each  other  by  characters  that  ichthyologists  must  admit  are  of  importance  ; 
two  of  the  species,  indeed,  that  were  referred  to  the  genus  by  the  French  nat- 
uralists, do  not  agree  with  their  characters  of  that  genus.  It  is  not  in  dispar- 
agement of  those  celebrated  and  able  men  that  these  remarks  have  been  made. 
The  progress  of  scientific  discovery  and  the  examination  of  better  materials 
have  enabled  their  successors  to  discover  the  errors  of  the  founders  of  modern 
ichthyology.  None  could  have  performed  the  work  at  that  day  better  than  they. 
Having  long  since,  from  an  examination  of  the  descriptions  of  various 
authors,  been  aware  of  the  confusion  and  uncertainty  in  which  our  American 
species  of  the  Cuvieran  Labrax  were  enveloped,  I  have  thought  that  it  might  be 
a  useful  task  to  attempt  the  elucidation  of  the  genus.  More  than  three  years 
ago,  I  had  noticed  that  the  Labrax  rufus  of  Dekay  belonged  to  a  different 
natural  genus  from  Labrax,  but  not  having  then  had  an  opportunity  of  exam- 
ining the  European  species,  I  believed  that  the  Labrax  lineatus  was  a  true 
Labrax.  The  name  which  I  had  then  applied  to  the  Labrax  rufus  having 
never  been  published,  I  have  now  renounced  it  for  that  of  Mitchell,  not  b    :^use 

*  Natuurkundig  Tydschrift  voor  Nederlandsch  Indie,  vol.  ii.  p.  479. 

I860.] 


110  PROCEEDINGS  OP  THE  ACADEMY  OP 

he  was  the  author  of  the  genus,  but  because  the  name  had  been  applied; 
though  from  a  false  idea,  to  one  of  its  species. 

The  number  of  American  species  admitted  by  Drs.  Dekay  and  Storer  in  the 
genus  Labrax  amounts  to  seven,  and  another  specific  name  has  been  since  added 
by  Filippi,  an  Italian  naturalist.  It  will  be  attempted  to  demonstrate,  in  the 
following  monograph,  that  all  of  these  nominal  species  are  referrable  to  three 
true  ones.     Three  of  the  synonyms  apply  to  one  species  and  four  to  another. 

Besides  the  species  that  have  been  attributed  to  the  genus  by  Richardson. 
Dekay  and  Filippi,  several  others  have  been  described  under  that  name  by 
modern  naturalists.  Dr.  Charles  Girard  has  noticed  two  of  these  in  the  "Pro- 
ceedings of  the  Academy  of  Natural  Sciences  of  Philadelphia,"  under  the  name 
of  Labrax  n  eb  u  1  o  s  u  s  and  L.  clathratus.  He  afterwards  constructed 
for  them  a  new  genus  which  he  called  Paralabrax,  and  placed  it  in  the  vicinity 
of  Serranus.  They  appear  truly  to  belong  there,  or  perhaps  to  the  group  com- 
posed of  Elastoma  Sw.,  or  Macrops  Dumeril,  and  Etelis  Cuv. 

Mr.  Hill,  of  Jamaica,  in  a  useful  catalogue  of  the  Fishes  of  that  island,  has 
also  noticed  a  fish  which  he  referred  to  Labrax,  under  the  name  of  L.  p  1  u  v  i  a  - 
lis,  or  the  rainy  weather  chub.  It  is  said  by  that  gentleman  to  be  confounded 
by  the  fishermen  with  the  Labrax  mucronatus,  but  differs  from  it  by  the 
presence  of  vertical  bars,  like  those  of  the  common  perch  of  Europe  and  America. 
Is  not  this  related  to  the  Perca  P  1  u  m  i  e  r  i  of  Cuvier  and  Valenciennes  ?  The 
presence  of  the  vertical  bars  would  militate  against  its  natural  association  with 
Morone,  and  it  may  perhaps  be  the  type  of  a  distinct  genus  or  belong  to  the 
genus  Percichthys  of  Girard 

For  the  faculties  of  investigating  inf)  the  history  of  this  group  I  am  indebted 
to  the  Museum  of  the  Smithsonian  Institution. 

I.  Labrax  (Klein)  Cuv.  emend. 
Synonymy. 

Labrax  Klein,  Miss.  V.  p.  25,  1749. 

Perca  sp.  Linn.  auct. 

Scieena  sp.  Bloch. 

Cenlropome  sp.  Lac. 

Perseque  sp.  Lac. 

Labrax  sp.  Cuv.  Regne  Animal,  ed.  prima,  vol.  ii.  1817. 

Dentes  maxillare3,  palatini  et  vomerini  velutini;  dentes  linguales  velutini  in 
margine  totio  et  fascia  longitudinali  mediana  dispositi.  Squamae  occipitales  et 
interorbitales,  et  in  genis  pleurusque  cycloidea;  vel  vix  pectinatee.  Preoper- 
culurn  postice  serratuni  vel  pectinatum,  ad  angulum  plerumque  subtusque 
spinis  recurvatis  antrorsum  spectantibus.  Operculum  biaculeatum.  Finn* 
dorsales  ad  basin  baud  membraca  elevata  conjunct^ ;  pinna  d.orsalis  prim.. 
numero  radiorum  baud  decern  superante.  Pinna  analis  spinis  tribus  inmagni- 
tudine  regulariter  increscentibus. 

The  genus  Labrax,  as  above  restricted,  is  chiefly  distinguished  by  the  contin- 
uous band  of  villiform  teeth  around  the  margin  of  the  tongue,  and  the  oval 
disc  at  its  base.  It  is  most  intimately  allied  to  the  genus  Roccus,  from  which  it 
is  separated  by  the  character  of  the  lingual  dentition  and  the  plectroid  inferior 
-margin  of  the  preoperculum  ;  the  latter  character  is  seen  in  the  less  nearly 
allied  genus,  Lateolabrax  of  Bleeker. 

But  a  single  species  of  this  genus  is  yet  known. 

Labrax  diacanthus  Gill. 
Synonymy  (partim.) 
Perca  labrax  Linn.  Systema  Naturre. 
Scieena  diacantha  Bloch. 
The  full  synonymy  of  this  species  can  be  ascertained  by  reference  to  the 

[April, 


NATURAL   SCIENCES   OF   PHILADELPHIA.  Ill 

"Fauna  Italica"  of  the  Prince  of  Canino;  as  it  has  been  given  by  Cuvier  aa 
•well  as  Canino,  it  is  not  necessary  to  more  than  refer  to  it  here. 

As  many  names  bad  been  given  to  the  species  before  it  was  designated 
Labrax  lupus  by  Cuvier,  that  name  cannot  be  retained  if  we  are  to  be  guided 
by  the  rules  of  priority.  A  specific  name  given  to  it  by  Bloch  is  therefore 
adopted. 

In  the  edition  of  the  "  Systema  Naturre  "  by  Gmelin,  the  European  Lalraz 
appears  under  the  name  of  Perca  punctata.  Cuvier  and  Valenciennes  have 
shown  that  this  name  is  only  a  misapplication  of  one  by  Linnaeus,  who  had 
given  it  to  a  Scisenoid  from  North  America,  which  he  placed  immediately  before 
the  Perca  labrax  in  his  System.  Gmelin,  in  his  edition  of  the  same  work, 
has  by  mistake  omitted  both  the  description  of  the  Linnsean  Perca  punctata 
and  the  name  of  Perca  labrax,  so  that  the  name  of  the  former  is  there  ap- 
plied to  the  description  of  the  latter.  Bloch  has  also  applied  the  name  of 
Perca  punctata  to  the  young  of  Labrax  diacanthus,  but  without  allu- 
sion to  the  names  of  Linnasus  or  Gmelin.  As  the  name  thus  applied  would 
have  at  that  time  conflicted  with  the  one  of  Linnasus,  it  should  not  be  retained. 
The  name  of  Sciasna  diacantha  coming  next  in  order,  its  specific  part  must 
be  adopted.  Although  the  name  of  Lupus  was  bestowed  on  this  species  by  the 
ancient  Romans,  that  does  not  appear  to  constitute  a  valid  reason  for  accepting 
it  as  a  scientific  name. 

II.  DlCENTRARCHUS    Gill. 

Synonymy. 

Perca  sp.  Geoffrey. 
Labrax  sp.  Cuv.  et  Val. 

Genus  Labrici  Cuv.  simile,  sed  preoperculo  margine  inferiore  dentibus  non 
validis,  et  pinna  analis  solum  spinis  duabus. 

Dicentrarchus  elongatus  Gill. 
Synonymy. 
Le  Bar  alonge  Cuv.  and  Val.,  Hist.  Nat.  des  Poissons,  vol.  ii.  p.  TO. 
This  species  I  have  never  seen,  but  it  evidently  belongs  to  a  distinct  genu;. 
and  I  have  been,  in  a  measure,  compelled  to  give  it  a  name  in  order  to  present  a 
perfect  view  of  the  classification  of  the  Labraces. 

The  species  is  an  inhabitant  of  the  Mediterranean  sea. 

The  synonymy  of  the  species  is  given  in  the  second  volume  of  the  "  Hist<<ire 
Naturelle  des  Poissons,"  to  which  reference  is  made. 

III.  Roccus  (Mitch.)  Gill. 

Synonymy. 

Scicena  sp.  Bloch. 

Perca  sp.  Bloch,  Schneid.,  Mitchell,  1818. 

Centropome  sp.  Lac. 

Poccus  sp.  Mitchell,  Report  in  part  on  the  Fishes  of  New  York,  p.  25,  1814. 

Le.pibema  Raf.  Ichthyologia  Ohiensis,  p.  23,  1820. 

Ijabrax  sp.  Cuv.,  et  Vol. 

Corpus  gracile  vel  oblongo-ovatum,  dorso  antice  curvato.  Dentes  max- 
illares,  palatini  etvomerini  velutini ;  dentes  linguales  velutini.  in  fasciis  later- 
alibus  et  ad  basin  in  seriebus  duabus  longitudinalibus  separatis  vel  coalescent- 
ibus  dispositi.  Squampe  a  nucha  ad  nares  et  in  gem's  plerusque  cycloidear 
Preoperculum  postice  subtusque  pectinatnm,  operculum  biaeuleatum.  Pinna 
dorsales  ad  basin  non  membrana  elevata  conjunctaj.  Pinna  dorsalis  prima 
numero  radiorum  non  decern  superante.  Pinna  analis  spinis  tribus  in  ma<jni- 
tudine  regulariter  increscentibus.     Linea  lateralis  rectilinearis. 

I860.] 


112  PROCEEDINGS  OP  THE  ACADEMY  OF 

The  genu3  Roccus  is  very  closely  allied  to  both  Labrax,  as  here  revised,  and 
Morone.  From  Labrax  it  differs  chiefly  in  the  character  of  the  armature  of  the 
preoperculum,  and  by  the  absence  of  the  teeth  at  the  anterior  extremity  of  the 
tongue;  the  whole  margin  of  the  tongue  in  the  latter  genus  being  provided 
with  a  band  of  villiform  teeth,  and  the  spur-formed  teeth  of  the  inferior  margin 
of  the  preoperculum  calling  to  mind  the  genus  Plectropoma  of  Cuvier  among  the 
Serrani.  The  difference  between  the  last  named  genus — or  at  least  of  many  of 
its  species — and  Serranus  is  indeed  not  of  as  great  value  as  that  between  Labrax 
and  Roccus.  The  only  constant  character  between  Serranus  and  Plectropoma,  as 
those  genera  were  established  by  Cuvier,  is  the  spur-like  dentition  of  the 
inferior  border  of  the  preoperculum,  while  Labrax  and  Roccus  are  distinguished 
not  only  by  an  equally  great  and  constant  difference  of  the  preopercular  border, 
but  also  by  the  difference  of  the  lingual  dentition.  As  the  former  character  is 
of  as  great  value  in  the  Labraces  as  in  the  Serrani,  consistency  will  require  that 
if  Plectropoma  and  Serranus  are  considered  as  distinct  genera,  Roccus  and  Labrax 
should  also  be  so  regarded. 

The  difference  between  Roccus  and  Morone  is  of  even  more  importance  than 
that  of  Roccus  and  Labrax.  The  distinguishing  characters  will  be  referred  to 
under  the  diagnosis  of  Morone. 

The  name  which  has  been  adopted  for  this  genus  is  one  given  by  Dr.  Mitchell, 
in  the  year  1814,  to  a  medley  comprising  the  Roccus  lineatus,  which  he 
called  Roccus  s  tr  i  at  u  s  ,  and  the  Otolithus  re  gal  is,  which  was  designated 
as  Roccus  comes.  The  name  was  solely  the  result  of  ignorance  on  the  part 
of  the  author,  of  the  application  of  the  ordinary  terms  used  by  naturalists  at 
that  day.  The  name  itself  is  a  barbarous  latinization  of  the  popular  name, 
rock  fish,  by  which  its  chief  species  is  known  in  many  parts  of  the  United 
States.  Notwithstanding  these  facts,  it  has  been  nevertheless  deemed  more 
advisable  to  accept  the  name  than  to  apply  a  new  one.  It  is  scarcely  worse 
than  Raltus,  Kangurus,  Catus,  Gunnellus,  and  many  other  names  of  similar 
derivation. 

Rafinesque,  in  the  "  Ichthyologia  Ohiensis,"  also  proposed  for  his  Perca 
chrysops,  in  case  it  should  be  found  to  be  generically  distinct  from  Perca, 
the  name  of  Lepibema.  He  believed  it  to  be  distinguished  "  by  the  scaly  bases 
of  the  caudal,  anal  and  second  dorsal  fins,  the  last  with  some  spiny  rays,  and 
all  the  three  parts  of  the  gill  cover  more  or  less  serrulate,  besides  the  small 
teeth."  Rafinesque  suggested  that  to  this  genus  the  Perca  Mite  belli  of 
Mitchell  might  "  perhaps  be  found  to  belong." 

The  genus  Roccus  may  be  divided  into  two  sections. 

§1.  Corpus  elongatum;  dentes  ad  lingua?  basin  in  seriebus  longitudinalibus 
duabus  ordinati. 

Roccus  lineatus  Gill. 

Synonymy. 

Sciaina  lineata  Bloch,  Ichthyologie,  pars.  ix.  p.  53,  pi.  305. 

Perca Schoepff.,  Schrift.  der  Gesells.  Nat.  Freund,  vol.  viii.  p.  160. 

Perca  saxatilis  Bloch,  Systema  Ichthyologia?,  Schneid.  ed.  p.  89. 

Perca  septentrionalis  Bloch,  Systema  Ichthyologise,  Schneid.  ed.  p.  90,  pi.  70. 

Centropome  raye  Lac,  Hist.  Nat.  des  Poissons,  vol.  iv.  p.  225. 

Roccus  striatus  Mitchell,  Report  in  part  on  the  fishes  of  New  York,  p.  25,  1814. 

Perca  Mitchelli  Mitchell.  Trans.  Lit.  and  Phil.  Soc,  N.  Y.,  vol.  i.  p.  413,  pi.  3 

fig.  4. 
Rock-Fish  Mease,  Trans.  Lit  and  Phil.  Soc,  N.  Y.,  vol.  i.  p.  502. 

Perca,  Mitchelli         lRaf  Ichthiologia  Ohiensis,  p.  23,  (passim). 
Lepibema  Mitchelli   )  °  i r       j  vr  • 

Labrax  lineatus  Cuv.  et  Val.,  Hist.  Nat.  des  Poissons,  vol.  ii.  p.  79. 
Perca  labrax!  Smith,  Nat.  Hist.  Fishes  of  Mass.,  p.  277. 

[April, 


u 

If 

u 

It 

u 

u 

It 

u 

NATURAL    SCIENCES    OF   PHILADELPHIA.  113 

Labrax  lineatus  Rich.,  Fauna  Boreali- Americana,  vol  iii.  p.  10. 
Storer,  Report  on  the  Fishes  of  Mass.,  p.  7. 
Ayres,  Boston  Journ.  Nat.  Hist.,  vol.  iv.  p.  757. 
Dekay,  Zoology  of  New  York,  Fishes,  p.  7,  pi.  1.  fig.  3. 
Liosley,  Catalogue  of  Fishes  of  Connecticut. 
Storer,  Synopsis  Fishes  of  N.  America,  p.  21,  ib.  in  Memoirs 
Am.  Acad. 
"  "         Storer,  Hist.  Fishes  of  Mass.,  ib.  in  Memoirs  Am.  Acad.,  vol. 

V.  p.  55,  pi.  1,  fig.  4.,1853. 
"  "         Baird,  Report  on  Fishes  of  New  Jersey  coast,  p.     ib.  in  Ninth 

Annual  Report  of  Smith.  Inst.,  p.  321. 
"  "         Holbrook,  Ichthyology  of  South  Carolina,  p.  17,  pi.  iv.  fig.  2. 

"  «         Gill,  Annual  Report  Smith.  Inst.,  1857,  p.  255. 

This  species  is  so  well  known  and  has  been  so  frequently  described  and 
figured  that  no  description  is  here  needed.  The  best  that  has  appeared  is  that 
of  Holbrook  in  the  Ichthyology  of  South  Carolina;  in  that,  the  only  correct 
account  of  the  lingual  dentition  published  by  any  American  author,  is  given. 
The  best  illustration  of  the  species  is  given  by  Sonrel  in  Dr.  Storer's  "  History 
of  the  Fishes  of  Massachusetts,"  and  is  superior  to  that  of  Dr.  Holbrook. 

Cuvier  and  Valenciennes  have  described  the  tongue  as  having  asperities  only 
en  its  sides,  while  other  naturalists  have  stated  that  the  teeth  on  the  tongue  are 
most  obvious  on  its  sides,"  or  more  correctly  that  the  "tongue  is  rough  at  its 
base  and  upon  its  sides  and  smooth  in  the  centre."  Dr.  Holbrook  has  well  said 
that  "there  are  two  bands  of  minute  teeth,  at  the  root  of  the  tongue,  separated 
slightly  from  each  other  in  the  mesial  line ;  the  sides  of  the  tongue  are  also 
armed  with  small  teeth." 

Prof.  Filippi,  a  learned  naturalist  of  Turin,  has  also  correctly  described  the 
lingual  dentition  of  Roccus  lineatus  in  comparison  with  a  species  of  the 
genus  which  he  regarded  as  new,  but  which  has,  in  this  monograph,  been  con- 
sidered as  identical  with  the  Roccus   chrysops. 

§  II.  Corpus  oblougo-ovatum,  compressum  ;  dentes  ad  linguae  basin  in  turma 
ovali  aggregati. 

Roccus  chrysops  GUI. 
Synonymy. 

Perca  chrysops        )  R        lchthvologia  Ohiensis,  p.  28. 

Lepibema  chrysops  \  °  '  c 

Labrax  mzdtilineatus  Cuv.  and  Val.,  His,  Nat.  des  Poissons,  vol.  iii.  p.  588. 

Perca  multilineata  Les.  fide  Cuv.  and  Val. 

Labrax  notatus  Smith,  in  Rich.  Fauna  Boreali-Americana,  vol.  iii.  p.  8,  183C. 

Labrax  multilineatus  Kirtland,  Boston  Journal  Nat.  Hist.,  vol.  v.  p.  21,  pi.  7, 
fig.  1. 
"  "  Dekay,  Nat.  Hist,  of  New  York  Fishes,  p.  14. 

Labrax  albidus   Dekay,  Nat.  Hist,  of  New  York  Fishes,  p.  13,  pi.  51,  fig.  165. 

Tjabrax  notatus  Dekay,  loc.  cit.,  p.  14. 

Labrax  multilineatus  Storer,  Synopsis  of  the   Fishes  of  North  America,  p.  22, 
ib.  in  Memoirs  of  American  Acad. 

Labrax  notatus  Storer,  loc.  cit.,  p.  22. 

Labrax  albidus  Storer,  loc.  cit.,  p.  23. 

Ijabrax  osculatii  Filippi,  Revue  et  Magazin  de  Zoologie,  2d  series,  vol.  v.  p.  164. 

Labrax  chrysops  Gill,  Proc.  Acad.  Nat.  Sci.,  Phila.,  1860,  p.  20. 
Non  Labrax  chrysops  Girard. 

The  Roccus  chrysops  of  this  monograph  is  undoubtedly  identical  with 
the  Perca  or  Lepibema  chrysops  of  Rafinesque,  and  the  Labrax  multi- 
lineatus of  the  "  Histoire  Naturelle  des  Poissons"  and  of  Kirtland.  The 
descriptions  that  have  been  yet  given  of  the  species  under  those  names  are 
meagre  and  unsatisfactory,  but  the  notice  of  the  color  given  bv  the  above 

I860.] 

7 


114  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  ACADEMY  OP 

named  authors  and  the  possession  of  specimens  from  the  same  hydrographical 
basins  as  those  from  whence  the  fishes  described  by  them  were  taken,  leave  no 
doubt  as  to  the  identity  of  the  species. 

Rafinesque's  description  of  his  Perca  chrysops  is,  like  almost  all  his  des- 
criptions, inapplicable  to  any  known  fish,  but  it  agrees  with  the  Morone 
chrysops  better  than  any  other  species.  Rafinesque  erroneously  attributes 
to  his  species  six  branchiostegal  rays,  a  single  opercular  spine,  eight  spines  to 
the  first  dorsal  fin,  and  places  it  under  the  genus  Perca,  all  the  species  of  which , 
he  informs  us,  have  naked  heads.  He  proposed  for  it  a  new  genus  to  which  he 
gave  the  name  Lepibema,  in  allusion  to  the  scaly  bases  of  the  unpaired  fins. 

Lesueur  subsequently  sent  to  the  Parisian  Museum  two  specimens  of  a  species 
which  he  called  Perca  multilineata,  which  Cuvier  and  Valenciennes 
placed  in  their  genus  Labrax,  but  adopted  for  it  the  specific  name  of  Lesueur. 
Their  description  is  mostly  comparative,  it  being  said  to  differ  from  the  Labrax 
lineatus  by  its  higher  body,  shorter  head,  more  feeble  teeth,  the  stronger 
asperities  of  the  tongue,  and  especially  the  larger  scales  of  the  maxillaries, 
which  resemble  those  of  Labrax  mucronatus,  while  in  Labrax  lineatus 
they  were  said  to  be  scarcely  perceptible. 

The  description  of  the  lingual  dentition  is  very  unsatisfactory,  and  no  cor- 
rection is  made  of  the  statement  made  in  the  second  volume  that  the  Labrax 
lineatus  has  only  lateral  teeth.  It  is  not  in  the  development  of  the  asperi- 
ties of  the  tongue  that  the  lingual  dentition  of  the  species  differs,  but  that  while 
there  are  two  narrow  rows  separated  by  a  mesial  line  in  Roccus  lineatus, 
the  rows  are  broader  at  the  middle,  in  proportion,  and  coalescent  in  Roccus 
chrysops. 

There  were  said  to  be  in  one  specimen  sixteen,  and  in  another,  nineteen 
longitudinal  dark  lines.  So  large  a  number  is  rarely  seen  ;  the  most  constant 
arrangement  is  five  above,  including  the  one  through  which  the  lateral  line 
runs,  while  sometimes  there  are  several  below  the  lateral  line,  and  at  other 
times  they  are  obsolete.  These  lines  are  sometimes  straight,  but  often  in- 
terrupted. 

In  the  "Fauna  Boreali-Americana  "  of  Richardson,  a  Labrax  is  described  in 
the  volume  on  Ichthyology,  under  the  name  of  Labrax  not  at  us  (Smith),  the 
Bar-fish  or  Canadian  Basse."  This  species  is  said  to  "  differ  from  Mitchell's 
Basse  (L.  lineatus  Cuv.)  in  being  much  more  robust,  and  in  being  marked 
with  rows  of  spots,  five  above  and  five  below  the  lateral  line,  so  regularly  in- 
terrupted and  transposed  as  to  appear  like  ancient  church  music."  It  has  been 
suggested  by  Dr.  Dekay  that  it  is  the  same  as  the  Perca  Mitchelli,  var. 
interrupt  us  of  Mitchell,  but  the  comparison  will  apply  very  well  to  Roccus 
chrysops,  and  it  is  doubtless  identical  with  that  species.  In  the  remarks 
upon  the  species,  it  is  said — by  Dr.  Richardson  apparently — that  "in  the  more 
robust  form,  and  in  the  strong  scales  of  the  head,  the  Canadian  Bar-fish  resem- 
bles the  L.  mucronatus  of  the  United  States  and  the  West  Indies,  and  the 
L.  multilineatus  of  the  Wabash.  The  latter  has  sixteen  narrow,  black, 
longitudinal  lines  on  the  flanks."  It  has  been  attempted  to  show  that  the 
number  of  lines  is  not  a  specific  character,  and  if  this  is  the  case,  the  Labrax 
n  o  t  a  t  u  s  and  L.  multilineatus  are  probably  identical  with  each  other 
and  with  Roccus  chrysops.  The  Labrax  not  at  us,  it  is  true,  is  stated 
by  Smith  to  have  but  one  anal  spine  and  six  articulated  ventral  rays,  but  this 
statement  is  undoubtedly  due  to  a  lapsus  calami  or  ati  error  of  observation.  So 
great  a  variation,  in  the  number  of  anal  spines,  from  a  nearly  allied  species, 
would  be  in  direct  opposition  to  all  we  know  of  the  peculiarities  of  the  fishes 
of  this  tribe,  while  it  is  one  of  the  characters  of  the  family  to  have  only  five 
branched  rays  in  the  ventral  fins.  Smith  states  that  he  counted  fifty-eight 
scales  along  the  lateral  line,  a  statement  which  confirms  the  identity  of  this 
.  species  with  Roccus  chrysops. 

In  the  abstracts  of  Smith's  description  of  Labrax  notatus,  given  by  Dekay 

[April, 


NATURAL    SCIENCES    OF   PHILADELPHIA.  115 

and  Storer,  tbe  species  is  said  to  have  the  "length,  one  to  two  feet."  If  this 
was  so,  it  might  militate  against  the  idea  of  its  identity  with  Itoccus  chry- 
sops,  but  an  examination  of  the  description  of  Smith  and  Richardson  reveals 
no  mention  whatever  of  the  size  of  the  species. 

In  the  number  of  Guerin's  "  Revue  et  Magazin  de  Zoologie,"  for  April,  1853, 
(vol.  v.  p.  164,)  Professor  Filippi,  of  Turin,  has  described  a  Roccus  to  which  he 
has  given  the  name  of  Labrax  0  s  c  u  1  a  t  i  i ,  a  traveller  in  America,  M.  Oscu- 
lati,  having  obtained  it  from  Lake  Ontario.  Filippi  has  distinguisbed  this 
species  from  Labrax  line  at  us  very  well,  alluding  to  the  two  longitudinal 
lines  of  basal  teeth  in  that  species,  and  attributing  to  his  own  a  single  oval 
patch.  His  other  characters  are  the  greater  heighth  of  the  body  in  L.  Oscu- 
latii, which  equals  a  third   of  the  length,  while  ia  L.  line  at  us  it   is  a 

9 
quarter;  and  the  number  of  scales,  which   are  formulated  as   56  —   for  L. 

9  15 

Osculatii,  and  64  —  for  L.  1  in  ea  tu  s  .     The  true  teeth  are  also  said  to 

11 
be  more  numerous.  The  distinctive  characters  of  the  species  are  very  well 
stated  by  Filippi,  but  his  expression  of  surprise  that  a  fish  so  common  in  the 
United  States  should  not  have  been  noticed  by  any  American  naturalist,  not 
even  by  Dr.  Dekay,  is  uncalled  for.  Unhappily,  the  species  had  been  too  often 
noticed,  and  in  Dekay's  Ichthyology  of  New  York  it  appears  under  no  less  than 
three  different  names.  Filippi  has  mentioned  its  habitat  as  the  sea  and  rivers 
of  the  United  States  (Mare  et  fluviis  confederationis  Americanse).  I  know  not 
on  what  authority  it  is  said  to  inhabit  the  sea;  it  is  probably  assumed  to  be 
found  there  because  the  Roccus  li  neat  us  is.  So  far  as  we  now  know,  it  is 
confined  to  the  great  fresh  water  lakes  and  the  Western  rivers. 

Specimens  of  the  Roccus  chrysops  are  in  the  Museum  of  the  Smithsonian 
Institution,  from  southern  Illinois,  obtained  by  Mr.  Robert  Kennicott,  and  from 
the  Root  river  at  Racine,  Wisconsin,  Toronto,  &c,  obtained  by  Professor  Baird. 

The  specimens  from  the  hydrographical  basins  of  the  Ohio  river  and  of  the 
Great  Lakes  cannot  be  specifically  distinguished  from  each  other.  Nor  can  I 
perceive  the  difference  signalized  by  Dr.  Kirtland  in  the  caudal  fins  of  Ohio  and 
Lake  Erie  specimens. 

In  extreme  youth,  this  species  appears  to  be  crossed  by  obscure  vertical 
bands;  at  a  later  epoch  these  bands  are  lost,  and  afterwards  the  longitudinal 
lines  are  assumed. 

The  best  descriptions  of  this  species  have  been  published  by  Prof.  Filippi 
under  the  name  of  Labrax  Osculatii,  and  by  the  late  Dr.  Dekay  under  that 
of  Labrax  albidus.  The  best  figure  is  that  given  by  Dr.  Kirtland  in  the 
Journal  of  the  Boston  Society  of  Natural  History,  but  the  dorsals  are  errone- 
ously represented  as  being  connected  by  a  low  membrane.  In  the  text  they  are 
correctly  described  as  being  "  distinct." 

IV.     Moeone.  (Mitch.)  Gill. 

Synonymy. 
Perca'sp.,  Bloch,  Gmel.  Lac. 
Morone  sp.,  Mitchell. 
Bodianus  sp.,  Mitchell. 
Labrax  sp.,  Raf. 

Corpus  oblongo-ovatum,  gibbosum  ad  pinnae  dorsalis  initium.  Dentes  max- 
illares,  palatini  et  vomerini  velutini ;  dentes  linguales  in  margine  totio  dispo- 
siti,  ad  basin  carentes.  Squamae  in  capite  totio  bene  pectinatae.  Preoperculum 
postice  subtusque  pectinatum.  Operculum  biaculeatum.  Pinnae  dorsales  ad 
basin  membrana  paulo  elevata  conjunctae ;  pinna  dorsalis  spinosa  radiis 
numero  non  decern  superantibus.  Pinna  analis  spinis  tribus,  quarum  secnn- 
da  saepe  major  est.  Linea  lateralis  antice  convexa  vix  dorso  concurrens. 
I860.] 


116  PROCEEDINGS    OF    THE   ACADEMY   OF 

The  chief  distinctive  characters  of  the  genus  are  the  presence  of  strongly 
pectinated  scales  on  the  cheeks  and  opercular  bones,  and  the  band  of  villiforni 
teeth  on  the  sides  and  of  more  scattered  ones  at  the  tip. 

In  the  armature  of  the  preoperculum  and  operculum,  it  resembles  the  genus 
Eoccus.  In  the  connection  of  the  dorsal  fins  at  the  base,  the  less  allied  Pacific 
genera  Lateolabrax  of  Bleeker,  and  Psammoperca  of  Richardson.  The  slightly 
gibbous  back  in  front  of  the  dorsal  fin,  and  the  greater  developement  of  the 
second  anal  spine  are  secondary  features,  which  support  the  natural  characters 
of  Morone  as  distinguished  from  the  genus  Roccus. 

For  the  name  of  the  genus,  one  used  by  Mitchell  for  a  group  founded  in 
error,  has  been  adopted.  The  name  of  Mitchell  resulted  from  a  misunder- 
standing of  that  author  regarding  the  value  of  the  terms  made  use  of  by  Lin- 
naeus. The  genus  Perca  was  placed  by  the  Swedish  naturalist  in  his  section 
of  Thoracic!;  Mitchell,  believing  that  the  Morone  americana,  Perca  Ha- 
ve s  c  e  n  s  and  Pomotis  macula  t  us  were  rather  abdominal  fishes,  considered 
them  to  be  generically  distinct  from  Perca,  and  consequently  gave  to  them  the 
generic  name  of  Morone.  It  is  scarcely  necessary  to  state  that  all  the  species 
enumerated  have  the  normal  position  of  the  ventrals  of  Perca,  and  that  there- 
fore Morone  of  Mitchell  was  a  mere  synonyme  of  Perca  of  Linnaeus.  I  have 
nevertheless  preferred  to  take  that  name  rather  than  to  give  a  new  one. 

Morone  americana.   Gill, 
ct  Synonymy. 

Perca  Schoepff,  Schrift.  der  Gesells.  Nat.  Freund,  vol.  viii.  p.  159. 

Perca  americana  Gmel.,  Systema  Naturae,  vol.  i.,  pars  iii.,  p.  1308. 

Perca  Schoepff,  Naturforscher,  vol.  xx.,  p.  17. 

Perca  americana  Bloch,  Systemae  Ichthyologiae,  Schneid.  ed. 

Perca  americana  Lac,  Hist.  Nat.  des  Poissons,  vol.  iv.  p.  412. 

Morone  rufa  Mitchell,  Report  in  part  on  the  Fishes  of  New  York,  p.  18. 

Bodianus  rvfus  Mitchell,  Trans.  Lit.  and  Phil.  Soc.  of  New  York,  vol.  i.  p. 
420,  Jan.  1814. 

Centropomus  albus  Raf.  Precis  des  decouvertes  Somilogiques,  June,  1814. 
p.  19. 

Perca  mucronata  Raf.,  American  Monthly  Magazine  and  Critical  Review,  vol. 
ii.  p.  205. 

Labrax  mucronatus  Cuv.  and  Val.  Le  petit  Bar  d'Amerique,  Hist.  Nat.  de3 
Poissons,  vol.  ii.,  p.  81,  pi.  121. 

Bodianus  rvfus  Smith,  Nat.  Hist.  Fishes  of  Mass,  p.  274. 

Labrax  mucronatus  Storer,  Report  on  Ichthyology  of  Mass.,  p.  8. 

Perca  macronatus  (misprint)  Sw.  Nat.  Hist,  of  Fishes,  Amphibians  and 
Reptiles,  vol.  ii.,  p.  198.     1839. 

Labrax  rufus  Dekay,  Nat.  Hist,  of  New  York  Fishes,  p.  9,  pi.  3,  fig.  7. 

Labrax  mucronatus  Ayres,  Boston  Journal  Nat.  Hist.,  vol.  iv.,  p.  257. 

Labrax  mucronatus  Linsley,  Catalogue  of  Fishes  of  Connecticut. 

Labrax  rufus  Storer,  Synopsis  of  the  Fishes  of  North  America,  p.  22  ;  ib.  in 
Memoirs  of  American  Acad.,  new  series,  vol.  ii.,  p.  274.     1846. 

Labrax  rufus  Storer,  Hist,  of  the  Fishes  of  Mass.,  p.  1,  ib.  in  Memoirs  of 
American  Acad.,  n.  s.,  vol.  v.,  p.  57. 

Labrax  mucronatus  Baird,  Report  on  Fishes  of  New  Jersey  Coast,  p.  8  ;  ib.  in 
Ninth  Annual  Report  of  Smith.  Inst.  p.  322.     1855. 

Labrax  americanus  Holbrook,  Ichthyology  of  South  Carolina,  p.  21,  pi.  3, 
fig.  2.     1855. 

Labrax  rufus  Gill,  Annual  Report  of  Smith.  Inst.,  p.  256.     1857. 

Labrax  mucronatus  Hill,  Catalogue  of  Fish  of  Jamaica,  p.  1. 
P. 

Labrax  nigricans  Dekay,  Nat.  Hist,  of  New  York  Fishes,  p.  12,  pi.  50,  fig. 
160.     1842. 

[April, 


NATURAL    SCIENCES   OP   PHILADELPHIA.  117 

Labrax  nigricans  Storer,  Synopsis  of  the  Fishes  of  North  America  ;  ib.  in  Me- 
moirs of  American  Acad.,  vol.  ii.  p.  23.     1846. 

y- 

Morone  pallida  Mitchell,  Report  in  part  on  the  Fishes  of  New  York,  p.  IS. 

Bodianus  pallidas  Mitchell,  Trans.  Lit.  and  Phil.  Soc.  of  New  York,  vol.  i. 
p.  420. 

Bodianus  pallidas  Smith,  Nat.  Hist,  of  Fishes  of  Mass.  p.  294. 

Labrax  pallidus  Dekay,  Nat.  Hist,  of  New  York,  Fishes,  p.  11,  pi.  1,  fig.  2. 
1842. 

Labrax  pallidus  Storer,  Synopsis  of  the  Fishes  of  North  America,  p.  22  ;  ib. 
in  Memoirs  of  American  Acad.,  vol.  ii.,  p.  22. 

Labrax  pallidus  Perley,  Report  upon  the  Fishes  of  the  Bay  of  Fundy,  p.  121. 
1851. 

Labrax  pallidas  Perley,  Descriptive  Catalogue  (in  part,)  of  Fishes  of  New 
Brunswick  and  Nova  Scotia,  p  4  ;  ib.  in  Reports  on  Sea  and  River  Fisheries 
of  New  Brunswick,  p.  182.     1852. 

In  the  above  synonymy,  it  will  be  observed  that  several  species  which  have 
been  created  as  distinct,  and  so  retained  by  succeeding  naturalists,  have  been 
merged  into  one.  Although  there  can  scarcely  be  a  doubt  of  the  identity  of 
these  nominal  species,  the  synonymy,  at  the  same  time,  has  been  divided  into 
three  portions,  each  applying  to  one  of  the  nominal  species  as  previously 
accepted. 

The  reference  of  all  the  variations  of  the  Labrax  americanus  type  to 
one  species  has  been  only  done  after  a  careful  study  of  Dekay's  descriptions, 
and  after  examination  of  numerous  specimens  of  the  genus.  The  descriptions 
of  Dekay  certainly  do  not  afford  any  means  for  distinguishing  his  species,  in 
the  case  of  Labrax  rufus  and  Labrax  nigricans,  except  a  very  slight 
difference  in  the  shade  of  color.  The  description  of  the  color  of  the  latter 
species  is  given  by  Dekay,  as  follows  : 

"  The  general  hue  is  deep  brownish-black,  more  intense  on  the  head  ami 
upper  part  of  the  body.  In  the  older  specimens,  there  is  a  strong  brassy  hue 
throughout ;  occasionally  dark  longitudinal  parallel  streaks  on  the  upper  part 
of  the  body,  pupils  black,  irides  yellow,  base  of  the  fins  light  greenish- yellow, 
edge  of  the  membrane  of  the  spinous  dorsal,  black  ;  upper  portion  of  the 
membrane  of  the  posterior  dorsal  fin  transparent,  and  separated  from  the 
yellow  portion  at  the  base  by  a  tolerably  well  defined  dark  band  ;  membrane 
of  the  anal  fin  dark  toward  the  tips  of  the  rays. ' ' 

Let  any  naturalist  take  an  ordinary  specimen  of  the  common  white  perch, 
and  decide  whether  the  difference  of  color  between  that  specimen  and  the 
Labrax  nigricans  is  sufficient  to  authorize  a  separation  on  that  ground  ; 
in  all  other  respects,  the  description  of  Dr.  Dekay  will  exactly  apply  to  his 
Labrax  rufus. 

The  distribution  of  the  darker  shades  of  color  on  the  body  and  fins,  is  the 
same  in  both  species  ;  the  proportions  are  the  same,  and  the  difference  in  the 
number  of  rays  is  not  greater  than  is  noticed  in  the  same  species.  Is  it  not 
probable  that  Dr.  Dekay  was  induced  to  separate  the  Labrax  nigricans 
from  his  other  species  on  account  of  a  supposed  difference  of  station  ?  The 
Labrax  rufus  is  described  as  being  "obtained  in  brackish  streams,"  while 
the  Labrax  nigricans  is  said  to  be  found  in  "  deep  fresh-water  ponds  in 
Queen  and  Suffolk  Counties."  But  the  true  Labrax  rufus  {Morone  ameri- 
cana)  is  found  also  in  streams  of  fresh  water,  and  in  ponds  that  are  now  en- 
tirely disconnected  from  the  salt  water,  although  not  far  from  the  sea.  As 
there  is  therefore  no  difference  in  the  habitation  of  the  supposed  two  species, 
and  as  no  specific  distinctions  appear  to  exist  from  the  descriptions  of  Dr. 
Dekay,  no  alternative  is  left  but  to  consider  them  identical. 

Mr.  William  H.  Herbert,  a  popular  writer  on  our  fi- lies,  entertained  <:  great 
doubts  "  whether  the  Labrax  nigricans  was  more  "than  a  casual  variety  of 
I860.] 


118  PROCEEDINGS    OF   THE   ACADEMY   OF 

the  Black  Bass  of  the  Saint  Lawrence, "  the  "  Grystes  nigricans  of  Agassiz. " 
Such  doubts  deserve  no  consideration,  as  there  are  none  of  its  being  at  least 
the  congener  of  Morone  americana. 

As  to  the  Labrax  pallidus,  there  is  a  greater  discrepancy  in  the  descrip- 
tion of  it  as  compared  with  that  of  the  Labrax  r  u  f  u  s  .  It  is  said  that  in  the 
former,  the  opercle  has  "  a  single  flat  spine,  and  a  pointed  membrane  extend- 
ing beyond  it,"  while  the  generic  characters  given  by  Cuvier  to  the  genus  are 
retained,  one  of  which  is  founded  upon  the  presence  of  "two  points  on  the 
opercle."  The  statement  that  Labrax  pallidus  has  but  one  spine  is  pro- 
bably due  to  a  misapprehension  of  Dekay.  In  the  Morone  americana 
there  is  one  acute  point  terminating  the  opercle,  above  which  is  an  emargina- 
tion  separating  it  from  a  more  obtuse  or  rounded  process,  which  in  one  case 
has  been  regarded  as  a  spine,  and  in  the  other  has  not.  It  is  impossible  to 
believe  that  two  fishes  of  this  genus  so  nearly  resembling  each  other,  should 
so  differ  in  the  developement  of  the  opercular  spines. 

Another  distinctive  character  is  said  to  exist  in  the  first  ray  of  the  posterior 
dorsal,  which  is  "  nearly  as  long  as  the  second."  Was  not  this  relative  differ- 
ence in  the  proportions  of  the  rays  the  result  of  injury  to  the  tips  of  the  suc- 
ceeding soft  ones  ?  As  a  third  character,  it  is  mentioned  that  the  body  is 
"  much  compressed."  From  the  figures  of  Labrax  rufus  and  Labrax  pal- 
lidus, it  would  appear  that  any  difference  in  height  was  rather  in  favor  of 
the  former  than  of  the  latter.  No  mention  is  made  in  the  description,  of  the 
color  of  the  fins  of  Labrax  pallidus,  but  from  the  figure  it  would  appear 
that  the  pattern  is  nearly  the  same  in  that  species  as  in  Labrax  rufus,  but 
the  shade  is  lighter  towards  the  borders  of  the  dorsal  and  anal.  This  differ- 
ence is  too  trivial  to  be  accepted  as  specific,  and  if  the  above  conjectures  as  to 
the  nature  of  Dr.  Dekay's  statements  are  correct,  the  Labrax  pallidus 
must  be  regarded  as  a  mere  s  vnonyme  of  Morone  americana. 

Morone  interrupta  Gill. 
Synonymy. 

Labrax  chrysops  Girard.     General  Report  upon  the  Zoology  of  the  several 
Pacific  Railroad  routes,  Ichthyology,  p.  29. 
non  Roccus  chrysops  Gill. 

The  form  of  this  species  scarcely  differs  from  the  Morone  americana, 
the  chief  difference  existing  in  the  more  gradual  declination  of  the  dorsal  out- 
line to  the  end  of  the  second  dorsal  fin,  and  the  greater  inequality  of  the  an- 
terior and  posterior  portions  of  the  caudal  peduncle.  The  greatest  height  of 
the  body  equals  three-tenths  of  the  length  from  the  snout  to  the  concave  mar- 
gin of  the  caudal  fin  ;  of  that  length,  the  head  forms  almost  three-tenths, 
being  not  much  less  than  the  height  of  the  body,  and  the  caudal  fin,  at  its  mid- 
dle rays,  equals  half  of  the  height  of  the  body.  The  caudal  fin,  when  expanded,^ 
is  emarginated  and  its  angles  rounded  ;  the  shortest  rays  equal  three-fifths  of 
the  length  of  the  longest. 

The  dorsal  fin  commences  at  a  vertical  intermediate  between  the  bases  of 
the  pectoral  and  ventral  fins,  and  is  of  a  triangular  form,  the  fourth  ray  being 
the  largest,  and  equalling  the  length  of  the  pectoral  fin  ;  the  spines  have  the 
same  form  and  arrangement  as  those  of  Morone  americana.  The  second 
dorsal  is  connected  by  a  membrane  as  in  Morone  americana;  its  spinous 
or  first  i  ay  is  little  more  than  half  the  length  of  the  first  articulated  one,  which 
itself  is  nearly  as  long  as  the  fourth  dorsal  spine  ;  the  fin  thence  decreases  in 
height  towards  its  last  ray,  which  is  shorter  than  its  spinous  one. 

The  anal  fin  commences  under  the  fourth  or  fifth  articulated  ray  of  the 
second  dorsal,  and  about  four  of  its  rays  are  posterior  to  the  termination  of 
that  fin  ;  the  first  spine  is  short  and  robust ;  the  second  at  least  twice  as  long 
as  the  first,  compressed,  and  very  strong  ;  the  third  is  as  long  or  longer  than  the 
second,   but  much  more  slender.     The  first  articulated  ray  of  the  anal  is 

[April, 


NATURAL    SCIENCES    OP    PHILADELPHIA.  119 

longer  than  the  spines,  and  about  twice  as  long  as  the  last ;  the  outline  of  the 
fin  is  slightly  emarginated. 

The  first  ray  of  the  pectoral  fin  is,  as  usual,  articulated  but  simple  ;  the 
third  is  longest  and  branched,  and  equals  the  base  of  the  second  dorsal. 

The  ventrals  are  about  as  long  as  the  pectorals  ;  the  length  of  the  spine  is 
equal  to  two-thirds  of  that  of  the  first  or  second  branched  rays. 

The  radial  formula  is  as  follows : 

D  ix— I,  12  ;  A  hi,  10  ;  C  4,  I,  8,  7,  I,  2 ;  P  3,  14 ;  V  i,  5. 

The  scales  are  of  about  the  same  size  as  in  the  Morone  americana,  the 
lateral  line  running  through  about  fifty,  besides  the  smaller  ones  at  the  base 
of  the  caudal  fin  ;  at  the  region  of  its  greatest  height,  there  are  about  nineteen 
rows,  of  which  about  seven  are  above  the  lateral  line  and  eleven  beneath.  The 
relative  proportions  on  the  different  parts  of  the  body  are  almost  nearly  the 
same  as  in  that  species,  the  chief  difference  existing  on  the  front  of  the  back, 
where  the  exposed  portions  of  the  disc  are  higher  and  narrower  than  in  M. 
americana.  On  the  cheeks  from  the  orbit  to  the  angles,  there  are  about 
seven  oblique  rows. 

The  specimens  preserved  in  spirits  have  a  bright  brazen  color,  tinged  on  the 
back  with  olivaceous.  Along  the  sides  are  seven  very  distinct  longitudinal 
black  bands,  through  the  fourth  of  which  the  lateral  line  runs  for  its  entire 
length.  The  continuity  of  the  bands  below  the  lateral  line  is  interrupted  at 
the  posterior  half  of  their  length,  and  they  there  alternate  with  their  anterior 
parts. 

The  dorsal  fins  are  tinged  with  purple,  and  the  margin  of  the  spinous  one  is 
dark.  The  anal  is  of  a  darker  purple  towards  its  anterior  angle.  The  caudal, 
especially  posteriorly  and  at  its  middle,  is  purple.  The  rays  of  the  pectoral 
and  ventral  fins  are  yellowish,  while  the  membrane  of  the  former  is  hyaline, 
and  of  the  latter  sometimes  minutely  dotted. 

This  species,  as  will  be  observed  by  reference  to  the  synonymy,  has  been 
described  by  Dr.  Charles  Girard,  under  the  name  of  Labrax  chrysops  Grd. 
(Perca  or  Lepibema  chrysops  Raf.),  to  which  is  also  referred  as  a  syno- 
nyme,  the  Labrax  multilineatus  of  Cuvier  and  Valenciennes,  Kirtland, 
Dekay  and  Storer.  From  that  species,  it  is  very  distinct,  and  even  belongs  to 
a  different  genus.  Cuvier  described  the  ground  color  as  a  greenish-gray 
on  the  back  and  silvery  on  the  belly.  This  is  not  the  color  of  Morone  inter- 
rupta,  and  that  species  must  be  therefore  distinct  from  Labrax  multi- 
lineatus, nor  can  it  be  the  Perca  chrysops  of  Rafinesque,  which  is 
said  to  be  "  silvery  with  five  longitudinal  brownish  stripes  on  each  side,"  and 
have  the  "head  brown  above."  This  description,  though  erroneous  in  most 
respects,  is  as  accurate  as  Rafinesque's  generally  are,  and  agrees  sufficiently 
well  with  Kirtland's  Labrax  multilineatus,  which  is  doubtless  identical 
with  the  Cuvieran  species.  Even  such  an  observer  as  Rafinesque  would  have 
noticed  the  deep  brazen  hue  of  Morone  interrupta,  and  would  not  have 
overlooked  two  of  the  seven  very  distinct  black  bands  that  run  along  the  sides. 

Dr.  Girard  has  stated  that  there  are  but  six  branchiostegal  rays  in  his  species, 
but  I  am  able  to  say,  from  an  examination  of  the  specimens  used  by  Dr.  Girard 
himself,  for  description,  that  it  agrees  with  all  allied  species,  in  having  the 
normal  number  of  seven,  and  which  are  developed  as  in  Morone  americana. 

There  are  preserved  in  the  Museum  of  the  Smithsonian  Institution,  three 
specimens  of  the  Morone  interrupta,  one  of  which  was  obtained  by 
Lieutenant  Couch,  at  New  Orleans,  and  two  larger  ones  were  found  at  St.  Louis, 
Missouri,  by  Dr.  George  Engelman.  The  small  specimen  from  New  Orleans 
differs  from  the  two  Missouri  specimens  by  the  larger  second  spine  of  the  anal 
fin,  but  in  every  other  respect  they  are  similar. 


I860.] 


120  PROCEEDINGS   OF   THE   ACADEMY    OF 

Monograph  of  the  Philypni. 
BY    THEO.    GILL. 

I.  In  the  year  1837,  M.  Valenciennes  has  for  the  first  time  separated  from 
the  genus  Eleotris  of  Gronovius,  a  fish  which  had  been  previously  referred  by 
Schneider,  Lacepede  and  by  Cuvier,  to  genera  to  which  it  did  not  naturally 
belong. 

This  species  was  first  named  Platycephalus  dormitator,  in  Schneider's 
posthumous  edition  of  the  "  Systema  Ichthyologise  "  of  Bloch,  from  the  figure 
and  manuscript  description  of  the  Father  Plumier. 

Shortly  after,  M.  Lacepede,  upon  the  same  documents,  established  his 
Gobioniore  d  o  r  m  e  u  r .  The  genus  to  which  it  was  referred  was  distinguished 
by  M.  Lacepede  from  the  genus  Gobius,  by  the  separation  of  the  ventral  fins. 
The  group  was  thus  established  on  the  same  characters  as  those  by  which 
Cuvier  afterwards  separated  the  species  under  the  Gronovian  name  of  Eleotris, 
but  the  homogeneousness  of  the  group  was  destroyed  by  the  introduction  of 
species  which  had  no  affinity  to  the  Eleotroids. 

Subsequently,  Cuvier,  in  his  "  Regne  Animal,"  revised  the  characters  of 
the  genus  Eleotris,  and  introduced  among  true  species  of  the  genus,  the  Eleo- 
tris dormitatrix,  which  is  the  same  as  the  above  mentioned  species  of 
Bloch  and  of  Lacepede. 

No  additional  information  was  communicated  respecting  this  species  until 
the  year  1S37.  At  that  time,  M.  de  Valenciennes,  in  his  monograph  of  the 
Gobioids  contained  in  the  twelfth  volume  of  the  "  Histoire  Naturelle  des  Pois- 
sons,"  revised  the  characters  of  the  genus  Eleotris,  and  in  addition  to  those 
by  which  Cuvier  distinguished  it,  referred  to  the  presence  of  teeth  only  on  the 
jaws.  From  the  genus,  as  thus  constituted,  he  has  separated  the  Platycepha- 
lus dormitator  of  Schneider,  or  the  Eleotris  dormitatrix  of  Cuvier, 
on  account  of  the  presence  of  teeth  on  the  front  of  the  vomer.  Valenciennes 
has  taken  the  species  as  the  type  of  a  new  genus,  which  he  has  called  Philyp- 
nus,  and  the  presence  of  vomerine  teeth  is  the  only  character  by  which  he 
distinguishes  it  from  his  Eleotris;  he  has  called  the  species  Philypnus  dor- 
mitator, and  has  given  an  extended  description  of  it.  He  had  examined 
specimens  from  the  islands  of  Martinique  and  Porto  Rico,  and  has  signalized  its 
presence  in  Saint  Domingo.  The  species  thus  described  is  the  only  one  which 
he  has  referred  to  the  genus. 

But  in  the  same  volume  as  that  in  which  he  has  introduced  the  genus  Phi- 
lypnus, Valenciennes  has  placed  in  the  genus  Gobius,  a  Chinese  fish  which 
Lacepede  has  described  under  the  name  of  Bostryche  chinois.  This  fish, 
^as  will  afterwards  be  shown,  is  nearly  allied  to  the  species  of  the  genus  Phi- 
ypnus. 

II.  The  Bostryche  chinois  or  Bostrychus  sinensis,  was  first  intro- 
duced into  Systematic  Nomenclature  by  Lacepede,  who  founded  the  species 
only  on  a  Chinese  drawing.  The  genus  Bostrychus  was  formed  for  its  recep- 
tion, and  was  characterized  by  its  "elongated  and  serpentiform  body,  two 
dorsal  fins,  the  second  of  which  is  separated  from  the  caudal  fin,  two  barbels 
at  the  upper  jaw,  and  the  eyes  quite  large  and  without  a  lid."  As  a  second 
species  of  the  genus  so  defined,  Lacepede  has  placed  a  species  which  was 
ascertained  by  Valenciennes  to  be  a  species  of  Ophicephalus,  a  genus  belonging 
to  an  entirely  different  family  from  the  Bostrychus  sinensis,  and  which 
possesses  a  single  long  continuous  dorsal.  Notwithstanding  this  rather  im- 
portant variation  from  Bostrychus  sinensis,  Lacepede  chiefly  distinguishes 
his  second  species  by  a  difference  of  color,  the  former  being  described  as  brown, 
and  the  latter  as  spotted  with  green ;  from  the  latter  character  the  name  of 
R.  maculatus  was  conferred  on  it.  The  B.  maculatus,  like  the  B. 
sinensis,  was  only  known  from  a  Chinese  drawing.     As  Valenciennes  has 

[April, 


NATURAL   SCIENCES   OF   PHILADELPHIA.  121 

already  remarked,  it  should  properly  have  been  referred  by  Lacepede  to  his 
genus  Bostry choides,  which  was  distinguished  from  his  Bostrychus  by  the  pre- 
sence of  only  one  dorsal  fin. 

In  180(5,  M.  Dumeril  published  his  "  Zoologie  Analytique,  ou  Methode 
Naturelle  de  Classification  des  Animaux."  In  the  ichthyological  portion  of 
the  volume,  the  genera  of  Lacepede  are  adopted,  but  the  name  of  Bostrychusis 
abolished  on  account  of  its  previous  application  by  Geoffrey  to  a  genus  of 
coleopterous  insects,  and  that  of  Bostrichtes  or  Bostrichthys  is  substituted  in  its 
stead.     The  characters  given  to  the  genus  are  the  same  as  those  of  Lacepede. 

In  1815,  Rafinesque  published  his  "  Analyse  de  la  Nature,  ou  Tableau  de 
l'Univers."  In  this  volume  there  is  first  introduced  into  the  seventh  family 
of  the  system  {Petalomia,)  and  into  the  first  sub-family  (Cepolidia)  the  Bos- 
trychus of  Lacepede  under  the  name  of  Bostrictis,  and  the  Bostrychoides  under 
the  name  of  Pterops,  and  these  are  interposed  between  Cepola  and  Trachypte- 
rus  on  the  one  hand,  and  on  the  other  Tasica  Raf.,  and  Lepodopus,  while  Gym- 
netrus  and  a  number  of  genera  founded  on  more  or  less  perfect  specimens  of 
Trachypterus  are  placed  in  a  second  family  called  Gymnetria.  Again  the  Bos- 
trijchi  and  Bostrychoides  are  introduced  under  the  new  name  of  Ictiopogon  for 
Bostrychus,  and  Pterops  for  Bostrychoides  into  a  twenty-third  family  called  Pan- 
topteria,  and  into  a  third  sub-family  (Anguillinia).  The  family  and  sub- families 
contain  a  singular  and  most  unnatural  reunion  of  the  most  widely  distinct 
types ;  apodal  Scombroids  and  Xiphioids  are  mingled  with  apodal  Blennoids 
and  Comephorus  and  Mastacembelus  Gron,  Ammodyles  L.,  Ophidium  L.,  and  An- 
guilla  are  thrown  together  in  the  same  family.  Rafinesque  doubtless  derived 
the  idea  of  placing  the  last  named  genera  in  the  family  of  "Pantopteria  "  ot 
apodal  fishes  from  a  remark  of  Lacepede,  who  saw  no  ventrals  represented 
in  the  figures  of  his  Bostrychi,  and  therefore  suggested  that  none  might  exist. 

Thus,  on  the  authority  of  the  figure  of  a  Chinese  painter,  unacquainted  with 
Ichthyology,  three  distinct  generic  names,  besides  orthographical  modifications 
of  two  of  them,  had  been  formed  for  a  fish  which  no  naturalist  had  ever  seen. 
"Without  criticism  and  without  judgment,  it  had  been  referred  to  the  systems 
of  the  various  authors,  and  one  of  them  had  placed  it  in  two  distinct  orders  in 
the  same  work.  After  the  last  of  these  works,  the  problematical  genus  was 
allowed  to  rest,  and  no  naturalist  has  since  paid  attention  to  it. 

The  first  critical  ichthyologist  who  examined  the  grounds  on  which  the 
species  was  founded,  was  M.  Valenciennes.  That  excellent  naturalist,  like 
his  predecessors,  only  knew  the  species  by  the  Chinese  painting.  Judging 
from  this  alone,  he  recognized  its  affinity  to  the  Gobioids,  and  expressed  the 
belief,  from  its  form,  that  it  was  certainly  a  Gobius,  and  therefore  called  it 
Gobius  sinensis,  but  was  careful  to  observe  that  he  could  neither  see  the 
ventral  fins,  nor  count  the  rays  of  the  others. 

The  first  ichthyologist  by  whom  the  species  was  seen  and  described  from 
nature  was  Sir  John  Richardson.  That  gentlemen,  in  the  Ichthyology  of  the 
Voyage  of  H.  M.  S.  the  Sulphur,  gave  a  description  of  it,  referring  it,  as  a  new 
species,  to  the  genus  Philypnus,  under  the  name  of  P.  ocellicauda.  He  after- 
wards, in  the  same  work,  published  his  belief  of  its  identity  with  the  Bostry- 
chus sinensis  of  Lacepede,  and  adopting  the  specific  name  of  that  author, 
called  it  Philypnus  sinensis.  In  the  same  part,  he  has  given  a  very  good 
figure  of  the  species. 

Subsequently,  Dr.  Bleeker,  in  his  monograph  of  the  Gobioids  and  Blennoids 
of  the  Sundamulluccan  Archipelago,  described  a  fish,  which  he  called  Philyp- 
nus ophicephalus,  at  the  same  time  doubtfully  placing  as  a  synonyme, 
the  Philypnus  ocellicauda  of  Richardson.  He  afterwards  appeared  to  have 
become  satisfied  of  the  identity  of  the  two  species,  and  adopting  the  older  name 
of  Richardson,  quoted  his  own  as  a  synonyme. 

Although  this  sj)ecies  is  nearly  allied  to  the  true  Phi lypni,  it  differs  too  much 
from  those  species  to  be  a  natural  member  of  the  same  genus.     It  has  therefore 

I860.] 


122  PROCEEDINGS  OP  THE  ACADEMY  OF 

been  now  placed  in  a  separate  one,  for  which,  the  name  of  Bostrichthys  is 
retained.  The  two  genera,  Philypnus  and  Bostrichthys,  form  a  distinct  group, 
characterized  chiefly  by  the  presence  of  vomerine  teeth.  To  this  group,  the 
name  of  Philypni  may  be  given  :  ultimately  it  may  be  found  to  be  a  separate 
sub-family. 

Philypni  Gill. 

The  form  of  the  body  is  similar  to  that  of  the  typical  Eleotroids,  anteriorly 
subcylindrical,  becoming  compressed,  and  slightly  decreasing  in  height  towards 
the  caudal  fin. 

The  head  is  elongated  and  depressed  above,  the  mouth  ample,  the  teeth 
villiform  on  both  the  jaws  and  the  front  of  the  vomer. 

The  branchial  apertures  are  more  or  less  extended  forwards,  but  separated 
from  each  other  by  an  isthmus. 

There  are  sis  branchiostegal  rays,  the  four  exterior  of  which  are  well  devel- 
oped, curved  and  compressed,  the  two  internal  are  small  and  slender. 

The  dorsal  fins  are  separated  by  a  considerable  interval ;  the  ventrals  ap- 
proximated, but  entirely  disconnected. 

The  above  characters  apply  to  the  only  two  known  genera.  Subsequent 
discoveries  may  necessitate  their  revision.  The  group  as  thus  constituted, 
differs  from  the  Eleotroids  by  the  presence  of  vomerine  teeth,  and  the  distance 
of  the  dorsal  fins  from  each  other.  If  these  characters  are  persistent,  it  would 
seem  proper  to  retain  the  group  as  a  distinct  sub-family. 

The  only  known  genera  are  Philypnus  Val.,  and  Bostrichthys.  Philypnus  is 
an  American  form,  and  Bostrichthys  an  Asiatic  form.  The  characters  of  these 
will  be  now  given  : 

Philypnus  Val. 
Synonymy, 

Philypnus  Val.,  Hist.  Nat.  des  Poissons,  vol.  xii.  p.  255,  1837. 
Platycephalus  sp.  Bl.  Schneid.,  Systema  Icthyologise,  1801. 
Gobiomorus  sp.  Lac,  Hist.  Nat.  des  Poissons. 
Eleotris  sp.  Cuv.,  Regne  Animal,  ed.  ii. 

Head  elongated,  subconical  in  profile,  depressed  above  ;  mouth  large,  lower 
jaw  projecting  beyond  the  upper;  nostrils  with  raised  margins,  between  the 
eyes  and  upper  jaw  ;  the  distance  between  each  nearly  equal  to  that  of  the 
anterior  nostrils  from  the  upper  jaw,  and  of  the  posterior  from  the  eyes. 
Branchial  apertures  extending  anteriorly  nearly  to  the  angles  of  the  mouth 
and  separated  from  each  other  by  a  very  narrow  isthmus.  Scales  ctenoid, 
moderate,  extending  on  the  forehead,  opercula  and  cheeks ;  pectinations  of 
those  on  the  forehead  and  cheeks  frequently  obsolete. 

All  of  the  scales  on  the  body  of  the  species  of  Philypnus  are  more  or  less 
angulated  posteriorly,  and  have  the  nucleus  near  the  angle  ;  from  this  angle 
radiating  grooves  and  ridges  diverge  towards  the  anterior  margin  of  the  scales, 
and  are  crossed  by  concentric  strise,  which  terminate  at  the  posterior  borders  in 
pectinations  that  are  often  obsolete  ;  in  other  scales,  especially  on  the  fore- 
head, the  concentric  striae  surround  a  subcentral  nucleus,  and  give  to  the 
scales  a  pseudocycloid  appearance.  In  young  individuals  the  scales  are  much 
more  distinctly  pectinated  than  in  the  adnlt. 

Philypnus  dormitator  Val. 
Synonymy. 
Cephalus  seu  asellus  palustris,  vulgo  le  dormeur,  Plummer,  MSS.  fide  Val. 
Platycephalus  dormitator  Sloch,  Systema?  Ichthyologise,  ed.  Schneid. 
Gobiomore  dormeur  Lacepede,  Hist.  Nat.  des  Poissons,  vol.  ii.  p.  599. 
Gobiomore  dormeur  Descourtilz,  Voyages  d'un  Naturaliste. 

[April, 


NATURAL    SCIENCES    OF   PHILADELPHIA.  123 

Elcotris  dormitatrix  Cuv.,  Regne  Animal,  vol.  ii. 

Eleotris  dormitatrix  Guerin,  Iconographie  du  Regne  Animal. 

Philypnus  dormitator  Val.,  Hist.  Nat.  des  Poissons,  vol.  xii.  p.  255. 

Philypnus  dormitator  Storer,  Synopsis  Fishes  of  North  America,  ib.  in  Me- 
moirs of  American  Acad.,  vol.  ii. 

Philypnus  dormitator  Girard,  United  States  and  Mexican  Boundary  Survey, 
Icthyology,  p.  29,  pi.  xii.  fig.  13. 

This  species  has  been  very  fully  described  by  Valenciennes.  He  had  ex- 
amined specimens  from  Porto  Rico,  St.  Domingo  and  Martinique.  It  has  also 
been  found  at  Mexico. 

Dr.  Girard  has  given  a  figure  of  a  very  small  species  of  this  genus  under  the 
name  of  Philypnus  dormitator.  It  is  very  probable  the  young  of  that 
species,  but  as  the  only  specimen  in  the  Museum  is  one  of  fifteen  inches  in 
length,  obtained  by  the  author  at  the  junction  of  the  Arouca  and  Caroni  rivers, 
in  the  island  of  Trinidad,  there  is  no  means  of  comparison.  The  specimen 
described  by  Dr.  Girard  has  very  large  eyes,  and  other  characters  of  an  ex- 
tremely young  fish.  It  was  obtained  at  the  mouth  of  the  Rio  Grande  by  Mr. 
John  H.  Clarke,  the  Naturalist  of  the  "  United  States  and  Mexican  Boundary 
Survey,"  and  is  preserved  in  the  Smithsonian  Museum. 

Philypnus  lateralis  Gill. 

In  general  outline  of  form,  this  species  has  considerable  resemblance  to  the 
Philypnus  dormitator.  The  dorsal  outline  ascends  in  almost  a  straight 
line  from  the  snout  to  the  front  of  the  dorsal  fin,  the  chief  variation  existing 
between  the  eyes,  where  there  is  a  slight  depression.  The  back  under  the 
first  dorsal  is  straight ;  at  the  second,  it  declines  very  little  and  in  almost  a 
straight  line  to  the  base  of  the  caudal  fin.  The  abdominal  outline  from  the 
ventrals  to  the  caudal  fin  converges  in  nearly  the  same  proportion  as  the  dor- 
sal. The  greatest  height  of  the  body,  at  the  first  dorsal  ray,  is  equal  to  about 
one-fifth  of  the  total  length,  inclusive  of  the  head  and  caudal  fin  ;  the  least 
height  at  the  base  of  the  caudal  is  half  of  the  greatest. 

The  head,  in  profile,  is  conical  or  elongated  triangular  ;  it  forms  three-tenths 
of  the  total  length.  Its  dorsal  and  inferior  surfaces  regularly  converge  towards 
the  tip  of  the  lower  jaw,  and  the  declension  of  the  former  is  about  twice  as 
great  as  the  ascension  of  the  latter.  The  dorsal  surface  over  the  operculum 
is  rounded,  and  the  degree  of  convexity  becomes  less  towards  the  eyes,  be- 
tween which  it  is  flat.  The  breadth  at  the  operculum  equals  about  half  the 
length  of  the  head,  and  under  the  eyes  it  is  between  one-fourth  and  one-fifth 
less.  The  interocular  space  is  somewhat  less  than  half  of  the  breadth  at  the 
opercula.     The  outlines  of  the  jaws  are  semi-elliptical. 

The  eyes  are  longitudinally  oval,  and  are  at  the  third  sixth  of  the  head's 
length. 

The  preoperculum  in  its  declination  recedes  considerably  backwards,  and 
is  thence  broadly  curved  forwards.  The  distance  from  the  orbit  to  the  pre- 
opercular  angle,  equals  the  distance  from  the  posterior  border  of  the  orbit  to 
its  horizon  behind  the  intermaxillaries.  The  operculum  declines  obliquely 
downwards  from  its  membranous  point,  and  its  greatest  length,  in  an  oblique 
direction,  slightly  surpasses  the  interval  between  the  orbit  and  the  angle  of 
the  preoperculum.  The  oculo-humeral  groove  is  shallow  and  scarcely  ascend- 
ing. 

The  mouth  is  oblique  and  large,  the  maxillaries  extending  backwards  to 
the  vertical  of  the  eyes. 

The  teeth  on  the  jaws  do  not  much  differ  from  those  of  the  Philypnus  dor- 
mitator. The  vomerine  patch  is  narrowed  towards  its  ends,  and  its  teeth 
are  much  smaller  than  those  of  the  jaws,  especially  anteriorly. 

The  scales  on  the  sides  of  the  body  are  of  an  oblong  form  and  hexagonal 
outline,  with  the  nucleus  at  the  posterior  angle  and  with  about  eight  radiating 

I860.] 


124  PROCEEDINGS  OP  THE  ACADEMY  OP 

ridges,  some  of  which  are  bifurcate  ;  the  ridges  are  separated  into  two  portions 
by  the  median  line.  The  free  margin  is  delicately  pectinated.  The  scales  are 
of  moderate  size,  there  being  about  fifty-four  in  a  row  behind  the  pectoral  fins. 
Before  the  dorsal  fin,  and  especially  on  the  forehead,  the  nucleus  is  subcentral, 
and  with  numerous  radiating  grooves  sometimes  advancing  even  to  the  lateral 
margins.  On  the  operculum  they  are  often  higher  than  wide,  with  the  nu- 
cleus subterminal  to  subcentral,  with  the  posterior  margin  angulated  and  pec- 
tiniform  ;  on  the  preoperculum  they  are  smaller  and  almost  square,  with  more 
or  less  subcentral  nuclei,  and  with  the  pectinations  generally  obsolete. 

The  first  dorsal  fin  commences  some  distance  behind  the  vertical  of  the  bases 
of  the  pectorals,  and  has  the  arrangement  of  the  rays  normal  in  the  Gobin^ 
and  Eleotrina?.  The  rays  in  length  have  the  following  relation  to  each 
other;  2,  3,  1,  4.  The  second  dorsal  is  oblong  and  commences  behind  the  ver- 
tical of  the  anus. 

The  caudal  fin  is  posteriorly  rounded,  and  its  longest  rays  form  a  fifth  of  the 
length  of  the  fish. 

The  pectorals  are  rounded  and  equal  in  length  to  the  interval  between  the 
orbit  and  the  margin  of  the  operculum.  The  ventrals  are  also  rounded,  and 
the  third  and  fourth  branched  rays  are  the  longest. 

The  radial  formula  is  as  follows  : — 
1  1 

D  vi— I,  8  —  ;  A  I,  1,  8  — ;  C  5,  6,  5,  5  ;  P  2,  13  ;   V  I,  5. 
1  1 

The  color  is  dark  purplish  brown,  lighter  on  the  abdomen.  Along  the  sides 
a  black  band  runs  from  behind  the  upper  part  of  the  pectoral  to  the  base  of 
the  caudal  fin,  dividing  about  nine  vertical  light  bands,  which  project  a  little 
above  and  below  the  band.  At  the  base  of  the  caudal,  the  lateral  band  some- 
what enlarges,  and  is  sometimes  partly  surrounded  by  a  light  margin.  The 
vertical  and  ventral  fins  are  sometimes  immaculate,  but  generally  spotted 
with  white  and  black.  The  pectorals  have  a  black  spot  at  the  upper  axilla, 
and  a  blackish  basal  band,  bordered  on  each  side  by  whitish.  The  head  is 
of  the  color  of  the  back,  with  vertical  dark  bar  from  the  eye  to  the  angle  of 
the  jaw,  another  from  the  inferior  corner  of  the  eye  to  the  extremity  of  the 
operculum,  and  another  horizontal  one  from  the  orbit  to  the  upper  jaw. 

This  species  was  obtained  in  considerable  numbers  by  Mr.  John  Xantus,  of 
the  United  States  Coast  Survey,  at  Cape  St.  Lucas,  Lower  California.  It  adds 
another  proof  of  the  similarity  of  the  Fauna  of  the  Gulf  of  California  to  that  of 
the  West  Indies. 

The  specimens  collected  by  Mr.  Xantus  are  in  the  Museum  of  the  Smith- 
sonian Institution,  and  are  numbered  in  the  catalogue  of  the  Ichthyological 
collection  from  number  2435  to  2442. 

This  species  differs  from  its  West  Indian  congener  chiefly  in  its  proportions, 
the  smaller  vomerine  band  of  teeth  and  in  color. 

Bostrichthys  (Dum.)  Gill. 
Synonymy. 
Bostri/chus  fkacepede,  Hist.  Nat.  des  Poissons,  vol.  iii.  p.  141. 
.Bos1r/cJ%s}Dum->  Zoolo?ie  Analytique,  &c,  p.  120,  1806. 

Ictiopogon  }  Raf*'  Analyse  de  la  Nature>  &cv  1815- 
Philypnus  sp.  Rich. 

Head  elongated  subconical  in  profile,  oblong  and  depressed  above.  Nostrils 
distant :  the  anterior  elongated-tubular,  and  immediately  behind  the   niaxil- 

[April, 


NATURAL   SCIENCES   OF   PHILADELPHIA.  125 

laries  ;  the  posterior  subtubular  and  immediately  in  front  of  the  antero- 
superior  border  of  the  eye.  Branchial  apertures  extending  forwards  consider- 
ably beyond  the  posterior  margins  of  the  preopercles,  and  separated  from  each 
other  by  a  wide  isthmus.  Scales  cycloid,  small,  especially  anteriorly,  and 
extending  on  the  opercula,  cheeks  and  forehead. 

The  name  of  Bostrychus,  which  was  applied  to  this  genus  by  Lacepede,  had 
been  previously  used  by  Geoffrey,  who,  in  the  year  1764,  applied  the  name, 
incorrectly  spelled  Bostrichus,  to  a  genus  of  coleopterous  insects.  The  name 
applied  to  that  group  has  been  universally  adopted  by  Entomologists,  and  the 
name  of  Bostrychus,  as  applied  to  the  piscine  genus,  must  be  replaced  by 
another.  The  name  of  Bostrichthys  was  proposed  as  a  substitute  by  Mr.  Du- 
meril,  and  this  is  accepted. 

It  would  be  questionable  to  some  whether  a  genus  founded  on  the  evidence 
that  Bostrychus  was  by  Lacepede,  and  founded,  at  the  same  time,  on  errone- 
ous ideas,  should  be  adopted.  Bleeker  has  adopted  Richardson's  first  specific 
name,  and  on  the  same  principle,  the  generic  name  of  Lacepede  would  also 
have  been  probably  ignored  by  him.  The  same  objections  that  exist  against 
Lacepede's  name  would,  of  course,  militate  against  the  adoption  of  those  of 
Dumeril  and  Rafinesque,  which  were  only  intended  by  their  authors  to  super- 
sede his.  Believing,  however,  that  the  laws  of  priority  are  imperative,  and 
require  the  adoption  of  the  first  given  name,  when  the  object  to  which  it  was 
given  can  be  identified,  and  unless  entirely  founded  on  false  characters,  the 
name  of  Bostrichthys  is  now  accepted.  Against  the  name,  however,  there  exist 
the  objections  of  an  erroneous  formation,  and  of  a  reference  to  a  false  charac- 
ter. The  name,  in  accordance  with  the  composition,  should  be  written  Bos- 
trychichthys,  but  the  erroneous  name  is  more  euphonius  than  the  correct  one. 
The  name  itself  would  imply  the  presence  of  cirrhi  or  barbels,  but  none  exist ; 
the  objects  that  were  taken  for  such  by  Lacepede  are  the  prolonged  nasal 
tubes.  These  objections  do  not  appear  to  be  of  sufficient  weight  to  authorize 
a  change  of  name. 

The  zoological  characters  by  which  Bostrichthys  is  distinguished  from  Philyp- 
nus are  found  chiefly  in  the  difference  of  the  extent  of  the  branchial  apertures, 
the  cycloid  structure  of  the  scales,  the  distant  nasal  apertures,  and  the  tubu- 
lar form  of  the  anterior  ones.  The  smaller  size  of  the  scales,  especially  on  the 
anterior  portion  of  the  back,  where  they  are  imbedded  in  the  skin,  perhaps 
offers  another  distinguishing  character  of  Bostrichthys. 

Bostrichthys  sinensis   Gill. 
Synonymy. 

p  V     ,'       .        •   {■  Lacepede,  Hist.  Nat.  des  Poissons,  vol.  iii.  p.  141. 

Bostrychus  sinensis  )  *       '  '  r 

Le   Gobie  chinois)Y&l     ffigt>  Nat-deg  poissons    voi.  sii.  p.  94> 

Gobi  us  sinensis      )  * 

Philypnus  ocellicauda  Rich.,  Voyage  of  the  Sulphur,  Zoology,  p.  59. 

Philypnus  sinensis  Rich.,  loc.  cit.,  p.  149,  pi.  56,  fig.  15,  16. 

Philypnus  sinensis  Rich.,  Fifteenth  Annual  Report  of  the  British  Association 
A.  S.,  p.  210. 

Philypnus  ophicephalus  Blkr.,  Verhandelingen  v.  Batav.  Genootschap,  vol. 
xxii.,  Blennoiden  en  Gobioiden,  p.  20. 

Philypnus  ocellicauda  Blkr.,  Verhandelingen  v.  Batav.  Genootschap,  vol. 
xxvi.,  Index  sp.  Piscium,  p.  10. 

There  can  scarcely  be  a  doubt  that  this  is  the  Bostrychus  s  i  n  e  n  s  i  s  of  Lace- 
pede, as  there  is  no  other  fish  of  the  Chinese  waters  known  which  has  any 
thing  like  "two  barbels  at  the  upper  jaw,"  and  an  ocellus  near  the  dorsal 
region  of  the  peduncle.     The  first  specific  name,  P.  ocellicauda,  which  has 

18G0.] 


126  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  ACADEMY  OP 

been  proposed  by  Richardson,  and  adopted  by  Bleeker,  must  therefore  be  re- 
linquished for  the  prior  one  of  Lacepede. 

As  this  species  has  been  fully  described  by  Richardson  and  Bleeker,  and 
also  figured  by  the  former,  no  further  description  is  necessary,  this  being  the 
only  known  species  of  the  genus. 

Specimens  have  been  obtained  by  Dr.  William  Stimpson,  the  Naturalist  of 
the  North  Pacific  Exploring  Expedition,  under  Commodore  Rodgers,  at  the 
market  of  Hong  Kong,  China. 


Notice  of  Geological  Discoveries,  made  by  Capt.  J.  H.  Simpson,  Topographical 
Engineers,  V.  S.  Army,  in  his  recent  Explorations  across  the  Continent. 

Washington  City,  Aprildth,  1860. 
Anticipatory  of  discoveries  of  a  geological  character  which  might  be  made 
and  published  of  date  subsequent  to  those  of  my  Explorations,  in  1858  and  '59, 
across  the  Continent,  with  the  sanction  of  the  Hon.  John  B.  Floyd,  Secretary  of 
War,  under  whose  authority  the  Explorations  were  made,  I  present  in  advance 
of  my  final  and  detailed  official  report,  the  following  communication  from 
Messrs.  F.  B.  Meek  and  H.  Engelmann,  in  reference  to  the  fossil  remains  which 
they  found,  and  the  geological  epochs  to  which  they  point.  As  a  large  portion 
relates  to  a  region  of  country,  The  Great  Basin, — so  called  by  Fremont — lying 
between  the  Wahsatch  range  of  mountains  on  its  east,  and  the  Sierra  Nevada  on 
its  west,  which  never  before  was  traversed  by  a  white  man,  not  even  by  a 
trapper,  so  far  as  is  known,  the  publication  of  this  paper  cannot  be  unacceptable 
to  the  scientific  world,  and  I  therefore  take  pleasure  in  submitting  it  to  be  read 
before  the  Academy. 

J.  H.  Simpson, 
Capt.  Top.  Engineers,  U.  S.  Army. 

Smithsonian  Institution,      ) 
Washington,  D.  C,  April  2d,  1860.  ) 
Capt.  J.  H.  SimpsoD,  Topographical  Engineers,  U.  S.  Army : 

Dear  Sir, — In  accordance  with  your  instructions  we  give  below  a  brief  state- 
ment of  some  of  the  conclusions  arrived  at  from  a  hasty  examination  of  the 
fossils  collected  during  your  late  explorations  in  Utah.  Although  the  time 
yet  devoted  to  the  study  of  these  specimens  is  not  sufficient  to  enable  us  to 
enter  into  details,  enough  has  been  determined  to  warrant  the  conclusion  that 
they  are  of  considerable  interest,  and  establish  the  existence  there  of  geological 
formations  not  hitherto  known  at  such  remote  western  localities. 

As  a  more  extended  sketch  of  the  general  geology  of  the  country,  including  a 
full  account  of  the  igneous  and  metamorphic  rocks,  together  with  figures  and 
descriptions  of  the  new  organic  remains,  are  to  appear  in  your  final  report,  it  is 
unnecessary  for  us  to  do  more  here  than  to  give  merely  some  of  the  leading 
facts  determined  from  the  fossils  collected  from  the  various  formations  exposed 
along  the  line  of  survey.  In  doing  this  it  will  be  most  convenient  to  speak  of 
the  formations  in  the  order  of  their  succession  in  point  of  time,  beginning  with 
the  most  ancient,  instead  of  referring  to  them  in  the  order  in  which  they  were 
observed  in  traversing  the  country. 

Devonian  Rocks. 

The  oldest  deposits  from  which  fossils  in  a  condition  to  be  determined  were 
collected,  occur  in  the  vicinity  of  the  Humboldt  Mountains,  at  the  follow- 
ing points,  viz.:  Long.  114°45/  west,  Lat.  39°  45'  north,— Long.  115°  58'  west, 
Lat.  39°  33'  north,  and  Long.  115°  36'  west,  Lat.  39"  30'  north.  At  the  first 
of  these,  localities  fragments  of  Trilobites  belonging  as  near  as  can  be  deter- 
mined to  the  genera  Calymene,  Homalonotus  and  Proctus,  were  collected  from  a 
hard,  bluish  limestone.     The  specimens  are  too  imperfect  to  warrant  a  posi- 

[  April. 


NATURAL    SCIENCES    OP   PHILADELPHIA.  127 

tive  opinion  whether  they  are  Upper  Silurian  or  Devonian  forms,  though 
they  evidently  belong  to  one  or  the  other  of  these  epochs,  and  closely  resem- 
ble Hamilton  Group  forms. 

At  the  other  localities  mentioned  above,  a  group  of  fossils  of  decided  Devo- 
nian type  were  found.  They  consist  of  Atrypa  reticularis,  A.  aspera,  or  a 
closely  allied  species,  a  small  Productus,  and  three  new  species  of  Spirifer.  The 
first  of  these  species  has  so  great  a  vertical  range,  that  taken  alone,  it  would 
only  indicate  that  the  rock  from  which  it  was  obtained  holds  a  position  some- 
where between  the  Upper  Silurian  and  the  middle  or  higher  portions  of  the 
Devonian.  A.  aspera  is  a  common  Devonian  fossil,  but  is  also  said  to  occur  in 
the  upper  Silurian  of  the  old  world  while  the  genus  Productus  is  now  generally 
regarded  as  not  dating  farther  back  than  the  Devonian.*  These  facts  taken  in 
connection  with  the  close  analogy  of  the  small  Productus  mentioned  above,  and 
the  associated  Spirifers,  to  forms  characterizing  the  Hamilton  Group  of  the  New 
York  Devonian  series,  leave  little  room  to  doubt  that  the  rock  in  which  these 
fossils  were  found  is  of  Devonian  age,  and  that  it  most  probably  belongs  to  about 
the  horizon  of  the  Hamilton  Group. 

The  discovery  of  these  fossils  at  this  distant  locality  cannot  fail  to  be 
regarded  as  an  interesting  addition  to  our  knowledge  of  the  geology  of  the 
great  West,  especially  when  it  is  borne  in  mind  that  they  were  obtained  near 
twelve  hundred  miles  farther  westward  than  such  forms,  so  far  as  is  known  to 
us,  have  hitherto  been  found  in  situ,  within  the  limits  of  the  territory  of  the 
United  States. f 

Carboniferous  Rocks. 

Following  up  the  sequence  of  the  formations,  we  pass  eastward  to  the  vicin- 
ity of  Camp  Floyd,  which  is  in  Long.  112°  8'  west,  Lat.  40°  13'  north.  Here 
on  the  west  side  of  Lake  Utah,  extensive  deposits  of  a  dark,  very  hard,  silicious 
limestone  of  Carboniferous  age  occur.  The  fossils  collected  from  these  beds 
here,  and  for  a  long  distance  west  of  this,  are  in  so  bad  a  state  of  preservation 
that  the  specific  characters  of  most  of  them  are  much  obscured.  It  is  believed 
however,  that  we  have  from  this  rock  Orthis  Michelini,  and  0.  umbraculum, 
though  they  may  be  only  allied  representative  species.  There  are  also  along 
with  these  a  species  of  Arthyris  or  Terebratula,  one  or  two  of  Spirifer.  and  the 
spiral  axis  of  an  Archimedes,^  with  fragments  of  other  Polyzoa  and  Corals. 
As  the  genus,  or  subgenus  Archimedes,  has  not  jret,  so  far  as  we  know,  been  found 
as  high  in  the  Carboniferous  system  as  the  Coal  Measures,  and  there  are  ap- 
parently no  decided  Coal  Measure  forms  in  the  collections  from  this  rock,  we 
are  inclined  to  regard  it  as  belonging  to  the  Lower  Carboniferous  series. 

Carboniferous  formations   also  extend  westward  from  Camp  Floyd  to  the 


*  Some  two  or  three  species  were  formerly  supposed  to  occur  in  the  Upper  Silurian 
rocks  of  the  Old  World,  but  the  correctness  of  this  conclusion  is  questioned  by  most  of 
the  best  English  and  Continental  auihorities. 

tA  few  fossils  belonging  to  the  genera  Spirifer,  Conocardium,  &c,  collected  on  a 
former  expedition  by  one  of  the  writers  (H.  L\)  near  Medicine  Bow  Butte,  Long.  106°  30' 
west,  Lat.  41°  38'  north,  were  regarded  by  Dr.  Shumard  as  probably  of  Devonian  age, 
though  none  of  the  species  were  positively  identified  with  Devonian  forms,  and  they 
were  obtained  from  an  erratic  mass,  the  exact  original  position  of  which  is  unknown. 

It  is  also  stated  in  Capt.  Stansbury's  report  that  at  a  locality  three  or  four  days'  march 
eyond  Fort  Laramie,  an  outcrop  from  which  some  imperfect  specimens  of  gasteropoda 
and  a  shell  resembling  a  Monotis  were  obtained,  is  probably  of  Devonian  age.  The  expo- 
sure here  alluded  to,  however,  is  now  known  to  be  composed  of  Jurassic  and  proba- 
bly Triassic  rocks.  The  genus  Monotis  is  unknown  below  the  upper  Coal  Measures,  in 
this  country,  and  the  Permian  in  the  Old  World,  though  it  ranges  above  on  both  sides  of 
the  Atlantic. 

tWe  believe  this  to  be  the  first  specimen  of  this  curious  fossil  yet  found  in  the  region  of 
the  Rocky  Mountains. 

I860.] 


128  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  ACADEMY  OF 

Devonian  localities  alluded  to  above,  interrupted  at  places  by  outbursts  of  ig- 
neous rocks.  It  is  likewise  probable  there  may  be  in  this  interval  both  Devo- 
nian and  Silurian  strata,  but  the  collections  yet  obtained  are  not  sufficient  to 
enable  us  to  speak  with  confidence  on  this  point. 

Between  Long.  115°  and  115°  30',  Lat.  40°  10'  and  Lat.  39°  20',  there  is  a  se- 
ries of  hills  or  mountains,  trending  nearly  north  and  south,  to  unknown  distances 
beyond  the  field  of  these  explorations,  which  seem  to  be  mainly  made  up  of 
lio-ht  yellowish  gray,  more  or  less  argillaceous,  and  arenaceous  subcrystalline 
limestones,  and  slates.  This  formation  belongs  to  the  Carboniferous  system, 
but  is  more  recent  than  the  dark  colored  limestone  at  Camp  Floyd.  The 
fossils  collected  from  it  are  for  the  most  part  new,  and  consist  of  three  species 
of  Productus,  one  of  which  resembles  P.  Rogersi,  Norwood  and  Pratten,  two 
new  species  of  Spirifer,  and  another  apparently  identical  with  S.  cameratus,  but 
more  robust,  and  having  stronger  costae  than  is  common  in  that  species.  Along 
with  these  there  are  also  specimens  of  Athyris  sublilita,  and  a  new  species  of 
Chonetes,  closely  allied  to  C.  Verneuiliana,  Norwood  and  Pratten,  from  the  Western 
Coal  Measures.  From  the  affinities  of  this  group  of  fossils,  we  have  little  hesita- 
tion in  referring  this  rock  to  the  Upper  Carboniferous  series,  though  in  its 
lithological  characters  it  is  entirely  unlike  strata  of  that  age  in  the  Middle  and 
Western  States. 

There  were  also  seen  at  a  few  places  near  here,  some  outcrops  of  dark  grayish 
colored  limestones,  containing  Productus,  Spirifer,  &c.  These  were  not  ob- 
served in  contact  with  the  light  colored  beds  mentioned  above,  but  under 
circumstances  indicating  that  they  hold  a  lower  position,  from  which  it  is 
inferred  they  are  probably  of  lower  carboniferous  age. 

The  occurrence  here,  as  far  west  as  Long.  115°,  of  extensive  Carboniferous 
formations,  is  another  interesting  fact  in  the  geology  of  this  distant  region  not 
known  previous  to  these  explorations, — no  rocks  of  this  age  being  represented 
on  any  of  the  most  recent  and  carefully  compiled  geological  maps,  from  near 
Camp  Floyd  and  the  Salt  Lake  to  the  Pacific  Ocean. 

Deposits,  probably  of  the  age  of  the  Coal  Measures  and  of  great  thickness, 
were  also  observed  in  the  Wahsatch  Mountains  east  of  Lake  Utah,  along  Tim- 
panogns  Canon.  The  strata  here,  however,  consist  mainly  of  dark  colored  and 
bluish  impure  limestones,  slates,  and  argillaceous  shales,  the  latter  containing 
at  a  few  places  fragments  of  carbonaceous  matter, — the  whole  being  upheaved 
and  greatly  distorted,  apparently  by  violent  forces  acting  from  beneath.  The 
fossils  collected  from  these  beds  all  differ  specifically  from  those  found  in  the 
light  colored  limestone  at  the  localities  near  Long.  115°  west,  and  we  have  no 
means  of  determining  which  of  these  is  the  older  rock.  The  specimens  from 
the  dark  colored  beds  in  the  Caiion,  consist  of  one  new  or  undetermined  Spirifer, 
two  of  Productus,  and  two  of  Athyris,  together  with  fragments  of  a  small 
Lepidodendron. 

The  indications  of  Coal  of  true  Carboniferous  date,  seem  to  be  more  favorable 
here  than  at  any  other  point  examined  along  the  route  explored,  though  no  beds 
of  it  were  seen.  Good  coal  has,  however,  been  found  in  the  same  mountain 
range  140  miles  south  of  this,  but  as  yet  little  is  positively  known  in  regard  to 
its  age. 

Several  miles  above  this  on  Timpanogos  River,  and  at  a  higher  geological 
horizoD,  outcrops  of  light  colored,  and  yellowish  sandstones  and  silicious  lime- 
stones, with  red  shales,  were  seen.  At  one  place  in  this  formation  a  few  speci- 
mens of  very  hard,  light  gray,  highly  silicious  rock  were  obtained,  containing 
great  numbers  of  small  bivalves,  in  a  broken  condition.  As, near  as  could  be 
determined  these  are  very  much  like  Bakevellias,  while  another  of  these  speci- 
mens contains  a  fragment  resembling  closely  a  Phyllipora.  Both  these  fossils 
are  quite  similar  to  Permian  forms,  but  it  would  be  unsafe  without  other  evi- 
dence to  refer  the  rock  to  that  epoch. 

[April, 


NATURAL   SCIENCES   OF    PHILADELPHIA.  129 

Triassic  Rocks. 

At  several  localities  east  of  Lake  Utah,  near  the  tributaries  of  Uintah  River, 
extensive  deposits  of  fine  red,  more  or  less  arenaceous  material  were  seen  oc- 
cupying considerable  areas,  and  from  the  accounts  of  various  explorers,  this 
formation  is  greatly  developed  along  the  Wahsatch  Mountains  south  of  Lake 
Utah.  At  these  latter  localities  we  have  accounts  of  numerous  beds  of  gypsum, 
and  deposits  of  rock  salt.  These  beds  where  seen  near  Uintah  River  are  not 
known  to  contain  gypsum  or  salt,  but  from  the  occurrence  of  gypsum  in  similar 
formations  a  little  farther  south,  and  their  proximity  and  relations  to  Jurassic 
strata  to  be  mentioned  hereafter,  there  is  little  room  for  doubting  that  they 
are  the  same  red  gypsum-bearing  deposit  seen  by  Dr.  Hayden  beneath  Jurassic 
rocks  at  the  Black  Hills.  (See  paper  by  Meek  &  Hayden,  Proceed.  Acad.  Nat. 
Sci.,  Phil'a,  March,  1858,  p.  44.) 

From  the  statement  of  Mr.  Marcon,  Dr.  George  Shumard,  Mr.  Blake,  and 
more  recently  of  Dr.  J.  S.  Newberry,  it  is  evident  this  formation  is  developed  on 
a  grand  scale  in  New  Mexico.  The  only  organic  remains  yet  found  in  it,  so  far 
as  we  know,  were  some  plants  (Zamites,  Pterophyllum,  §c.)  and  Saurian  bones, 
discovered  by  Dr.  Newberry  during  his  important  investigations  in  the  South- 
West,  as  geologist  of  the  exploring  expeditions  under  the  command  of  Lieut. 
Ives,  in  1858,  and  Capt.  M'Comb,  Top.  Engrs.,  U.  S.  Army,  in  1859.  These 
fossils  led  Dr.  N.  to  refer  this  series  to  the  New  Red  or  Triassic  epoch,*  which 
view  was  also  maintained  by  Mr.  Marcon,  though  the  latter  gentleman  seems 
not  to  have  had  a  very  clear  idea  of  its  limits,  since  he  included  other  rocks 
in  the  Trias  as  defined  by  him. 

This  formation  is  well  exposed  on  the  North  Platte  at  Red  Butte,  above  Fort 
Laramie,  where  it  also  contains  several  beds  of  gypsum,  and  again  on  La- 
Bonte  Creek,  nearer  Fort  Laramie.  It  likewise  occurs  on  Smoky  Hill  River, 
and  at  other  localities  in  Kansas,  where  it  has  been  referred  (along  with  some 
lower  Cretaceous  rocks,  and  possibly  some  Jurassic  strata)  to  the  Trias,  by  Mr. 
F.  Hawn.  All  the  facts  that  have  been  accumulating  for  some  time  past,  seem 
to  render  it  more  than  probable  that  this  series  really  represents  the  Trias  of 
the  Old  World. 

Jurassic  Rocks. 

At  the  localities  already  mentioned  where  the  red  beds  were  seen  near 
Duchesne  River,  a  tributary  of  Uintah  River,  heavy  deposits  were  also  observed 
of  grayish  and  whitish  calcareous  rock,  and  light,  red  and  whitish  sandstones 
and  shales.  Some  portions  of  the  same  formation  were  also  met  with  further 
to  the  north-west  on  the  east  branch  of  Weber  River.  At  both  of  these  places 
in  the  calcareous  beds,  fragments  of  Peclen,  Ostrea  and  portions  of  the  columns  of 
Pentacrinus,  undistinguishable  from  those  of  the  Jurassic  species  P.  asteriscus, 
Meek  and  Hayden,  were  found.  From  the  presence  of  these  fossils,  taken  together 
with  all  the  other  circumstances,  we  have  scarcely  room  to  doubt  that  these 
deposits  are  of  Jurassic  age. 

Well  marked  Jurassic  strata  occur  at  Red  Buttes,  on  the  North  Platte, — at 
the  same  locality  already  referred  to  in  speaking  of  the  red  gypsum  bearing 
rocks.  They  were  not  seen  in  direct  contact  with  the  gypsum  formations,  but 
under  circumstances  showing  that  they  must  hold  a  higher  stratigraphical 
position.  Here  they  consist  of  sandstones,  shales  and  slates,  more  or  less  lam- 
inated calcareous  sandstones,  and  gritty  limestones  of  various  colors,  altogether 
of  considerable  thickness.  Some  of  the  lower  of  these  beds  are  quite  fossilifer- 
ous.  The  specimens  collected  consist  of  Pentacrinus  asteriscus,  Meek  and  Hayden, 
a  Gryphaa  probably  identical  with  G.  calceola,  Quenstredt,  a  plicated  oyster. 

*See  Am.  Journ.,  vol.  28,  2d  ser.,  p.  299: 

I860.]  8 


130  PROCEEDINGS   OP   THE   ACADEMY   OP 

closely  allied  to  0.  Marshii,*  a  Pecten  scarcely  distinguishable  from  P.  lens  of 
Sowerby,  a  small  Dentalium,  and  Belemnites  densus,  Meek  and  Hayden.  From 
the  identity  of  some  of  these  species  with  forms  collected  by  Dr.  Hayden  at  the 
Black  Hills,  from  beds  overlying  the  red  gypsum  bearing  strata  of  that  region, 
and  associated  with  other  well  marked  Jurassic  types,  as  well  as  from  the 
affinities  of  the  new  species  discovered  at  the  locality  under  consideration  on 
the  North  Platte,  we  have  no  hesitation  in  referring  these  deposits  to  the 
Jurassic  system,  in  accordance  with  the  views  of  Dr.  Hayden  and  one  of  the 
writers  (F.  B.  M.)  expressed  in  regard  to  the  beds  alluded  to  at  the  Black  Hills. 
(See  Proceed.  Acad.  Nat.  Sci.,  Philad'a,  March,  1858.) 

Cretaceous  Rocks. 

Returning  south-westward  again  to  Weber  river,  in  order  to  follow  up  the 
succession  of  the  formations,  we  find  that  at  a  point  nearly  due  east  of  Salt 
Lake  City,  on  that  stream,  and  but  a  short  distance  north  of  the  locality,  where 
it  has  already  been  mentioned  that  Jurassic  bed3  with  Pentacrinus  occur,  out- 
crops of  a  Whitish  Sandstone  were  seen,  containing  in  an  imperfect  condition 
an  Oyster,  agreeing  in  all  respects,  as  far  as  could  be  determined,  with  0. 
glabra  of  Meek  and  Hayden.  This  rock,  with  the  same  oyster,  was  also  seen 
some  eight  or  nine  miles  farther  down  Weber  River;  also,  on  White  Clay  Creek, 
a  tributary  of  Weber  River,  and  some  fifty  miles  farther  east  on  Sulphur  Creek, 
a  tributary  of  Bear  River.  At  the  latter  locality  a  small  Anomia  was  also 
found  with  the  same  Oyster  ;  and  in  a  more  yellowish  portion  of  the  same  for- 
mation several  specimens  of  Inoceramus,  closely  allied  to  the  Western  species 
usually  referred  to  /.  problematicus.  Judging  from  the  Oyster  occurring  in 
this  rock,  and  from  its  lithological  characters,  it  would  seem  to  be  of 
the  same  age  as  some  older  Cretaceous  strata,  at  the  mouth  of  Judith  River,  on 
the  Upper  Missouri,  which  have  been  referred  by  Dr.  Hayden  and  one  of  the 
writers;  provisionally  to  No.  1,  of  the  Nebraska  section. 

At  several  of  the  localities  rather  extensive  beds  of  excellent  brown  coal, 
with  some  shale,  were  seen  in  immediate  contact  with  this  Oyster  Sandstone, 
and  apparently  dipping  at  the  same  angle,  so  as  to  give  the  impression,  when 
examined,  that  it  belongs  to  the  same  epoch. 

Well  marked  Cretaceous  rocks  were  seen  at  a  point  on  the  Platte  below 
the  Red  Buttes,  near  the  Platte  Bridge.  The  beds  consist  of  gray  shales  and 
slates.  The  fossils  found  here  are  a  large  new  species  of  Inoceramus,  a 
fragment  of  a  much  compressed  Baculite  and  Ostrea  congexta  of  Conrad.  From 
the  presence  of  the  latter  fossil,  it  is  more  than  prabable  these  beds  are  on  a 
parallel  with  No.  2  or  3  of  the  Nebraska  Cretaceous  series. 

Tertiary  Rocks. 

Tertiary  formations  occur  over  a  large  area  in  the  region  of  Fort  Bridger. 
They  seem  to  belong  to  two  distinct  epochs,  the  older  of  which  was  seen  on 
Bear  River,  near  the  mouth  of  Sulphur  Creek,  about  30  miles  west  of  Fort 
Bridger,  and  but  a  short  distance  from  the  locality,  already  mentioned,  where 
the  Oyster  and  Inoceramus  occur  in  a  yellow  sandstone.  The  outcrop  seen 
here  consists  of  light  colored  and  gray  argillaceous  shale,  with  coarse  dark  and 
light  colored  limestones,  all  of  which  dip  at  a  high  angle.  The  fossils  collected 
from  these  beds  consist  of  one  new  species  of  Unio,  three  of  Corbula  (Potarno- 
i.iya),  three  species  of  Melanin,  three  or  four  of  Paludina,  and  one  of  Melampus. 

This  is  an  exceedingly  interesting  deposit,  which  is  undoubtedly  of  brackish- 
water  origin,  the  fossils  belonging  to  just  such  a  group  of  genera  as  we  would 
expect  to  find  in  an  estuary  deposit,  without  any  strictly  marine   forms.     One 

*The  oyster  here  alluded  to,  is  distinct  from  the  species  referred  by  Mr.  Marcon  to 
O.  Marshii.    The  O.  Marsha  of  Marcon  holds  a  much  higher  stratigraphic  position  than 
.  the  above  mentioned  species. 

[April, 


NATURAL   SCIENCES    OP   PHILADELPHIA.  131 

of  the  species  of  Melania  appears  to  be  identical  with  Cerithium  tenerum  of  Hall, 
(Fremont's  Report,  pi.  3,  fig.  6,)  and  a  small  Paludina  agrees  very  closely  with 
Natica?  accidentalk,  while  a  third  is  equally  as  near  Turbo  paludinceformis,  of  the 
same  report.  All  the  other  species  are  new  excepting  one  Paludina,  which  is 
identical  with  P.  Conradl  of  Meek  and  Hayden,  from  the  estuary  beds  at  the 
mouth  of  Judith  River,  on  the  Upper  Missouri.  All  the  facts  point  to  the  con- 
clusion that  this  formation  holds  a  low  position  in  the  Tertiary  System,  or,  in 
other  words,  is  probably  of  Eocene  age. 

The  succeeding  more  recent  Tertiary  beds  of  this  region,  are  extensively 
developed  along  the  route  traversed,  from  near  the  last  mentioned  locality  to 
Fort  Bridger,  and  thence  towards  the  South  Pass.  They  differ  materially  in 
their  lithological  character  from  the  older  deposits  just  described,  and  are 
characterized  by  an  entirely  different  group  of  fossils.  The  upper  part  of  this 
series  consists  of  greenish  sandstones  and  arenaceous  shales,  interstratified  with 
sandy  and  calcareous  slates  altogether  estimated  at  from  two  to  three  hundred 
feet  in  thickness,  and  apparently  destitute  of  fossils.  Then  comes,  (descending,) 
light  colored  argillaceous  and  pure  limestones,  with  at  places  great  numbers  of 
fossils,  all  of  which  are  strictly  fresh  water  forms,  belonging  to  a  few  species. 
Those  collected  consist  of  two  new  species  of  Melania,  two  of  Limnea,  one  of 
Unio  and  two  or  three  of  Planorbls.  There  is  also  at  the  junction  of  the  lower 
light  colored  more  calcareous  deposits  with  those  above,  at  many  places,  a 
band  of  dark  shaly,  more  or  less  carbonaceous  material,  containing  many  im- 
pressions of  fern  and  other  leaves. 

As  all  the  fossils  found  in  the  foregoing  series  are  distinct  from  those  yet 
discovered  in  known  horizons,  in  the  other  Tertiary  basins  of  the  North- West, 
we  have  no  means  of  drawing  parallels,  though  they  are  probably  miocene. 
Whether  the  extensive  lignite  beds  on  Bitter  Muddy  Creeks,  east  and  north  of 
Fort  Bridger,  belong  to  this  series  or  to  the  horizon  of  the  older  Sulphur  Creek 
coal  is  unknown,  these  localities  being  too  remote  from  the  route  to  be  examined. 

The  more  modern  group  described  above  was  never  seen  in  an  upheaved  or 
inclined  condition,  like  the  estuary  beds  on  Bear  River,  though  it  is  manifest 
that  the  general  contour  of  the  country  has  been  considerably  modified  since  its 
deposition,  as  this  formation  was  often  seen  occupying  some  of  the  most 
elevated  positions.  , 

Beneath  this  series  heavy  deposits  were  observed  at  several  places,  consisting 
of  light  and  whitish  fine  grained  sandstone  in  thick  layers,  interstratified  with 
bright  red,  areno-argillaceous  shales.  Although  these  beds  appeared  to  be 
conformable  with  the  superimposed  Tertiary,  as  no  organic  remains  were  found 
in  them,  their  age  must  be  regarded  as  doubtful. 

From  the  foregoing  remarks  it  will  be  seen  that  these  collections  furnish  no 
evidence  of  the  existence  of  strictly  marine  Tertiary  deposits  in  the  Green  River 
Basin,  but  like  all  those  yet  obtained  in  Nebraska,  point  to  the  conclusion  that 
the  Tertiary  strata  of  this  central  portion  of  the  Continent  were  deposited  in 
brackish  and  fresh  waters.  The  oldest  of  these  formations,  so  far  as  known, 
contain  a  group  of  mollusca  indicating  brackish  waters,  while  all  the  subsequent 
formations  are  of  strictly  fresh  water  origin. 

Another  fact  worthy  of  note  is,  that  all  the  secondary  and  Tertiary  fossils 
collected  during  the  survey  came  from  localities  east  of  the  Wahsatch  range  of 
mountains,  while  all  the  specimens  collected  west  of  that  range  of  mountains, 
in  the  Great  Basin,  came  from  Palaeozoic  rocks. 

In  the  ranges  of  mountains  west  of  the  116th  degree  of  longitude,  to  the 
Sierra  Nevada,  near  lat.  39°,  igneous  rocks  predominate,  and  only  few  traces  of 
stratified  rock  were  found  in  that  district,  in  none  of  which  any  organic  remains 
were  observed. 

F.  B.  Meek  and  H.  Engelmann. 

1890.] 


132  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  ACADEMY  OF 


Catalogue  of  Birds  collected  during  a  survey  of  a  route  for  a  ship  Canal  across, 
the  Isthmus  of  Darien,  by  order  of  the  Government  of  the  United  States, 
made  by  Lieut.  N.  Michler,  of  the  U.S.  Topographical  Engineers,  with  notes 
and  descriptions  of  new  species. 

BY  JOHN    CASSIN. 

The  route  surveyed  by  Lieut.  Michler,  for  the  purpose  of  ascertaining  the 
practicability  of  establishing  communication  by  water,  between  the  Atlantic 
and  Pacific  Oceans,  was  mainly  by  way  of  the  river  Atrato  and  its  tributaries, 
the  Truando  and  the  Nercua.  In  the  performance  of  this  duty,  the  Atrato  was 
ascended  for  a  distance  of  about  ninety  miles,  to  the  mouth  of  the  Truando, 
and  then  a  southwesterly  route  pursued  along  the  latter  towards  the  Pacific  Ocean. 
The  Nercua  is  a  tributary  of  the  Truando  at  a  distance  of  thirty-six  miles  from 
the  union  of  the  latter  with  the  Atrato. 

The  most  interesting  localities  mentioned  in  the  present  catalogue  are  on 
those  two  rivers,  especially  after  the  Truando  reaches  the  Cordilleras,  in  which 
in  a  great  measure  it  and  the  Nercua  have  their  course.  These  localities  have 
been  but  very  partially  explored  by  naturalists.  Another  locality  frequently 
mentioned  is  Turbo,  which  is  a  small  village  on  the  Atlantic,  directly  on  the 
eastern  side  of  the  Gulf  of  Uraba  or  Darien,  and  nearly  opposite  to  the  mouths 
or  delta  of  the  Atrato. 

This  collection  was  made  by  Mr.  William  S.  Wood,  Jr.  and  Mr.  Charles  J. 
Wood  of  Philadelphia,  who  accompanied  the  Expedition,  and  were  of  course 
under  the  immediate  direction  of  the  chief  officer  of  the  Expedition,  Lieut.  N. 
Michler,  of  the  U.  S.  Topographical  Engineers.  This  accomplished  officer  and 
gentleman  encouraged  in  the  fullest  degree  investigations  in  Natural  History 
throughout  the  route,  whenever  consistent  with  other  duties,  and  as  opportu- 
nity presented.  To  his  enlightened  views  and  evident  appreciation  of  the  in- 
teresting character  of  the  zoology  of  the  country  traversed  by  the  Expedition, 
science  in  America  is  indebted  for  the  present  valuable  collection,  including 
several  birds  never  before  known,  and  other  valuable  additions  to  the  zoology 
of  this  continent. 

1.  Htpoteiorchis  FEMORALis,(Temminck). 

Falco  fercoralis,  Temm.,  PI.  Col.  i.  liv.  21. 
Temm.  PI.  Col.  121,  343,  U.  S.  Pacific  R.  R.  Reports,  x.  pi.  1. 
From  Carthagena. 

2.  Moephnus  guianensis,  (Daudin)? 

Falco  guianensis,  Daud.  Tr.  d'Orn.  ii.  p.  78  ? 
Lesson.  Traite  d'Orn.  ii.  pi.  11  ? 

From  the  river  Truando.  One  specimen  only,  not  adult,  and  in  bad  con- 
dition, appears  to  be  this  or  a  nearly  allied  species. 

"  Observed  once  only,  in  the  Rio  Truando,  at  the  first  camp,  after  leaving  the 
Atrato.  I  noticed  this  eagle  at  first  perched  in  a  high  tree,  but  after  I  had 
fired  at  a  small  bird,  he  immediately  flew  very  rapidly  and  fiercely  directly 
towards  the  spot  where  I  was  standing,  as  though  he  intended  to  pounce  upon 
me.  He  approached  vvithin  a  few  feet,  when  I  shot  him  with  small  bird  shot." 
(Mr.  C.  J.  Wood.) 

3.  Asturina  magnirostris,  (Gmelin). 

Falco  magnirostris,  Gm.  Syst.  Nat.,  i.  p.  282,  (1788.) 
Temm.  PI.  Col.  86,  Buff.  PI.  Enl.  464. 
From  Turbo. 

4.  Buteogallus  nigricollis,  (Latham) 

Falco  nigricollis,  Lath.,  Ind.  Orn.  i.  p.  35,  (1790). 

[March 


NATURAL   SCIENCES   OF  PHILADELPHIA.  13o 

Aquila  milvoides,  Spix  ? 

Spix,  Av.  Bras.  i.  pi.  1,  d  ?     Le  Vaill,  Ois.  d'Afr.i.  pi.  20. 
From  the  river  Truando.     "Only  observed  in  trees  on  the  Rio  Truando,  about 
40  or  50  miles  from  the  Cordilleras."     (Mr.  C.  J.   Wood). 

5.  Urubitinga  mexicana,  Du  Bus. 

Morphnus  mexicanus,  Du  Bus,  Bull.  Acad.  Brussels,  1847,  p.  102. 
From  the  delta  of  the  Atrato.     Specimens  of  this  little  known  species  are 
quite  identical  with  others  from  Mexico  in  the  museum  of  this  Academy.     It  is 
accurately  described  by  the  Viscount  Du  Bus  as  above  cited. 

6.  Ibycter  aquilin0s,  (Gmelin). 

Falco  aquilinus,  6m.  Syst.  Nat.  i.  p.  280,  (1788). 
Buff.  PI.  Enl.  417,  Vieill.  Gal.  i.  pi.  6. 
From  Turbo,  on  the  Atlantic,  and  the  river  Truando,  near  the  Cordilleras. 
"  Abundant  in  the  vicinity  of  the  village  of  Turbo,  but  less  numerous  in  the 
interior.     Always  seen  in  trees,  and  utters  a  very  disagreeable  note  bearing 
some  resemblance  to  the  gobble  of  the  male  Turkey."     (Mr.  C.  J.  Wood). 

7.  Nyctidromus  guianensis,  (Gmelin). 

Caprimulgus  guianensis,  Gm.  Syst.  Nat.  ii.  p.  1030,  (1788). 
Caprimulgus  albicollis,  Lath.   Ind.  Orn.   ii.  p.  585,  (1790). 
Buff.  PI.  Enl.  733. 
From  Turbo. 
Smaller  than  N.  americanus,  but  much  resembling  that  species. 

8.  Progne  chalybea,  (Gmelin)? 

Hirundo  chalybea,  Gm.  Syst.  Nat.  i.  p.  1026,  (1788)? 
Young  birds  from  Carthagena,  very  difficult  to  recognize,  but  much  resem- 
bling the  species  I  understand  to  be  as  here  given. 

9.  COTYLE  FLAVIGASTRA,    (Vieillot). 

Hirundo  flavigastra,  Vieill.  Nouv.  Diet.  xiv.  p.  534,  (1817). 
Hirundo  jugularis,  De  Wied. 
Temm.  PI.  Col.  161,  fig.  2. 
From  Carthagena  and  the  river  Truando. 

10.  Ceryle  torquata,  (Linnaeus). 

Alcedo  torquata,  Linn.  Syst.  Nat.  i.  p.  180,  (1766). 
Buff.  PI.  Enl.  284. 
From  the  rivers  Atrato  and  Truando. 

Numerous  specimens  in  the  collection  of  the  Expedition,  which  are  exclusive- 
ly adults,  in  fine  plumage. 

"  Very  abundant  in  the  immense  swamps  on  the  Atrato  and  Truando,  alight- 
ing on  the  low  trees,  and  uttering  a  loud  shrill  note.  Catches  small  fishes 
apparently  very  easily,  on  account  of  their  abundance,  and  returns  to  the  tree." 
(Mr.  C.  J.  Wood). 

11.  Ceryle  amazona,  (Latham). 

Alcedo  amazona,  Lath.  Ind.  Orn.   i.  p.  257,  (1790). 
Alcedo  vestita,  Dumont. 
Du  Bois,  Orn.  Gal.  pi.  85. 
From  the  river  Nercua. 

12.  Ceryle  inda,  (Linnaeus). 

Alcedo  inda,  Linn.  Syst.  Nat.  i.  p.  179,  (1766). 

Alcedo  viridirufa,  Bodd.  Tab.  PI.  Enl.  p.  36,  (1783). 

Alcedo  bicolor,  Gm.  Syst.  Nat.  i.   p.  451,  (1788). 
Edwards,  Glean,  vii.  pi.  355.    Buff.  PI.  Enl.  592. 
From  Turbo. 
Common  enough  in  South  American  collections,  but  never  quite   correctly 

I860.] 


134  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  ACADEMY  OF 

named  in  catalogues,  nor  hardly  elsewhere.  Naturalists  evidently  overlook 
the  solemn  fact  that  Linnaeus  gives  the  habitat  of  his  species  as  above  cited, 
"  in  India  occidentali"\  The  name  inda  seems  to  have  been  understood  to  mean 
a  far  distant  country,  beyond  the  Ganges,  and  evidently  misled  even  Boddsert 
and  Gmelin,  but  is  strictly  applicable  to  this  bird.  It  can  readily  be  recog- 
nized from  the  descriptions  and  Edwards'  figure  above  cited. 

"  One  specimen  seen  in  a  salt  water  marsh,  near  the  village  of  Turbo,  very 
quiet  and  easily  approached."     (Mr.  C.  J.  Wood). 

13.  Ceryle  superciliosa,  (Linnaeus). 

Alcedo  superciliosa,  Linn.  Syst.  Nat.  i.  p.  179,  (1766). 
Edwards,  Glean,  v.  pi.  245,  Buff.  PI.  Enl.  756,  fig.  2,  3. 
From  Turbo. 

"  In  a  salt  water  marsh,  almost  in  the  village  of  Turbo,  one  specimen  only 
seen  perched  in  a  bush,  which  was  obtained  without  difficulty,  being  very 
unsuspicious. "     (Mr.  C.  J.  Wood). 

14.  Jacamerops  grandis,  (Gmelin). 

Alcedo  grandis,  Gm.  Syst.  Nat.  i.  p.  458,  (1766.) 
Le  Vaill.    Jacamars,  pi.  54. 
From  the  river  Truando. 

"  First  camp  after  leaving  the  Atrato,  and  the  only  time  that  this  bird  was 
noticed.  Sits  in  a  tree  and  darts  after  insects  like  a  fly-catcher."  (Mr.  0.  J. 
Wood). 

15.  Galbula  ruficauda,  Cuvier. 

Galbula  ruficauda,  Cuv.  Reg.  An.  i.  p.  420,  (1817). 
Le  Vaill.  Jac.  pi.  50,  Vieill.  GaL  i.  pi.  29. 
From  the  river  Nercua. 

One  specimen  only,  in  bad  condition,  which  appears  to  be  this  species, 
but  is  darker  chestnut  brown  on  the  abdomen,  than  other  specimens  now  before 
me. 

16.  Bocco  ruficollis,  Lichtenstein. 

"  Bucco  ruficollis,  Licht."  Wagler,  Isis,  1829,  p.  658. 
Tamatia  bicincta,  Gould,  Proc.  Zool.  Soc.  London,  1836,  p.  80? 
Tamatia  gularis,  D'Orb.  et  Lafres.  Rev.  Zool.  1838,  p.  166  ? 
From  the  river  Truando. 

"  Seen  once  onlv,  at  the  first  camp  on  the  Truando,  after  leaving  the  Atrato." 
(Mr.  C.  J.  Wood),' 

For  all  that  I  can  see  this  is  the  young  of  B.  bicincta,  Gould,  as  above,  with 
which  B.  gularis,  D'Orb,  appears  to  be  synonymous. 

17.  Malacoptila  panamensis,  Lafresnaye. 

Malacoptila  panamensis,  Lafres.  Rev.  Zool.  1847,  p.  79. 
From  the  river  Truando. 

"  Very  quiet  and  inactive,  starting  out  occasionally  from  its  perch  to  capture 
an  insect,  and  then  returning."     (Mr.  C.  J.  Wood). 

18.  Monasa  pallescens,  nobis. 

Rather  larger  than  any  other  known  species  ;  wing  rather  long,  fifth  quill 
longest ;  tail  moderate,  with  the  feathers  wide.  Front  and  lores  white,  entire 
head,  quills,  upper  and  under  tail  coverts  black,  with  a  greenish  lustre,  (no 
white  on  the  chin  nor  throat),  upper  and  under  wing  coverts,  back,  rump  and 
under  parts  of  body  cinereous ;  very  light  on  upper  wing  coverts,  and  darker 
on  the  back ;  bill  red,  sexes  alike. 

Total  length  about  11  inches,  wing  5 J,  tail  5  inches. 

Hab.  Cordilleras  mountains  on  the  river  Truando,  New  Grenada.  In  Nation- 
al Museum  and  Mus.  Acad.  Philadelphia.  Discovered  by  Mr.  Chas.  J.  Wood 
and  Mr.  Wm.  S,  Wood,  Jr. 

[April, 


NATURAL    SCIENCES    OF  PHILADELPHIA.  135 

This  is  a  remarkable  and  apparently  new  species  of  Monasa,  strictly  of  the 
same  group,  and  related  to  M.  Morphotus  (==albifrons  and personata)  and  M.  pe- 
ruana. Like  those  species,  the  present  bird  has  a  conspicuous  white  frontal 
band,  which  reaches  very  nearly  from  one  eye  to  the  other,  but  it  differs  from 
those  species  in  being  without  any  white  whatever  on  the  throat.  It  is,  how- 
ever, easily  distinguished  from  all  known  species,  by  the  cinereous  color  of  the 
body  above  and  below  and  wing  coverts  ;  which  color  is  very  light,  and  in  some 
specimens  nearly  white  on  the  whole  of  the  upper  wing  coverts,  and  but  slightly 
darker  on  the  under  wing  coverts.  Several  specimens  labelled  as  both  sexes 
are  in  the  collection  from  the  river  Truando. 

Stated  by  Messrs.  W.  S.  and  C.  J.  Wood,  to  have  been  seen  once  only  in  the 
Cordilleras  on  the  river  Truando,  in  January,  1858.  A  party  of  eight  or  ten 
specimens  was  observed  sitting  very  quietly  in  a  tree  at  some  distance  from  the 
ground,  and  being  quite  regardless  of  the  gun  or  the  presence  of  man,  several 
were  obtained.  Specimens  labelled  as  females  are  slightly  larger  than  those 
stated  to  be  males.* 

19.  Trogon  Massena,  Gould. 

Trogon  Massena,  Gould,  Monog.  Trogonidse,  (1838). 
Gould.  Mon.  Trog.  pi.  16. 
From  the  Truando,  and  also  from  the  delta  of  the  Atrato. 
All  the  specimens  in  the  collection  are  of  young  birds  in  but  indifferent  con- 
dition, amongst  which  one  specimen  may  be  the  young  of  T.  macrourus. 

*  The  following  species  of  Monasa  are  in  the  Museum  of  this  Academy  : 

1.  Monasa  atRa,  (Boddaert). 

Cuculus  ater,  Bodd  Tab.  PI.  Enl.  p.  30,  (1783). 
Cuculus  tranquillus,  Gm.  Syst.  Nat.  i.  p.  417,  (1788). 
Bucco  cinereus,  Gm.  Syst.  Nat.  i.  p.  409,  (1788). 
Corvus  australis,  Gm.  Syst.  Nat.  i.  p.  377,  (1788). 
Bucco  calcaratus,  Lath.  Ind.  Orn.  i.  p.  206,  (1790). 
Corvus  affinis,  Shaw,  Gen.  Zool.  vii.  p.  381,  (1809). 
Buff.  PI.  Enl.  512,  Le  Vaill.  Barbels,  pi.  44,  45. 

2.  Monasa  morphoeus,  ( Wagler). 

Buceo  morphoeus,  Wagler,  Hahn's  Voegel,   Asien.  Africa,  &c.  pt.  xiv.  (1822). 
"Bucco  leucops,  111."  Licht.  Verz.  p.  8,  (1823). 
Bucco  albifrons,  Spix,  Av.  Bras.  i.  p  53,  (1824). 
Monasa  personata,  Vieill.  Gal.  i.  p.  23,  (1825). 
Hahn,  Voegel,  pt.  xiv.  pi.  2.  Spix.  Av.  Bras.  i.  pi.  41,  fig.  1,  Viedl.  Gal.  i.  pi.  36 
Swains.  B.  of  Braz.  pi.  12. 

3.  Monasa  nigrifrons,  (Spix). 

Bucco  nigrifrons,  Spix,  Av.  Bras.  i.  p.  53,  (1824). 
Lypornix  unicolor,  Wagler.  Syst.  Av.  (1827,  not  paged). 
Spix.  Av.  Bras.  i.  pi.  41,  fig.  2. 

4.  Monasa  axillaris,  (Lafresnaye). 

Monasa  axillaris,  Lafres.  Rev.  et  Mag.  Zool.  April,  1850,  p.  216. 
Monasa  flavirostris,  Strickland,  Jard.  Contr.  April,  1850. 
Jard.  Contr.  1850,  pi.  (not  numbered). 
It  would  require  nice  discrimination  to  determine  with  certainty  the  priority  of  either 
of  the  above  names.     My  impression  is  that  M.   Lafresnaye's  name  is  entitled  rather  to 
preference,  because  it  bears  an  unmistakeabledate,  which  the  other  does  not,  but  requires 
to  be  determined  by  examination  or  approximation. 

5.  Monasa  peruana,  Verreaux. 

"  Monasa  peruana,  Bp.  et  Verr."  label  on  spec,  from  M.  Verreaux. 

Monasa  peruana,  Sclater,  Proc.  Zool.  Soc.  London,  1855,  p.  194. 
This  is  very  closely  allied  lo  the  now  well  known   M.  morphoeus,  and  scarcely  dis- 
tinguishable without  specimens  of  both.     A  specimen  bearing  M.  Verreaux's  label  is  in 
the  Acad.  Coll.,  and  is  therefore  entirely  reliable  as  this  species. 

6.  Monasa  tallescens,  Cassin. 

I860.] 


136  PROCEEDINGS   OF   THE   ACADEMY   OF 

20.  Trogon  melanopterus,  Swainson. 

Trogon  melanopterus,  Sw.  Cab.  Cy.  p.  332,  (1838). 
Gould,  Mon.  pi.  10,  11. 
From  the  river  Truando. 
One  specimen  only  in  adult  plumage. 

21.  Trogon  atricollis,  Vieillot. 

Trogon  atricollis,  Vieill.  Nouv.  Diet.  viii.  p.  318,  (1817). 
Gould,  Mon.  pi.  8. 
Falls  of  the  Truando. 

"  In  the  Cordilleras  on  the  Rio  Truando.  Seen  once  only,  very  unsuspicious 
and  easily  shot."     (Mr.  C.  J.  Wood). 

22.  Momotus  Martii,  (Spix). 

Prionites  Martii,  Spix,  Av.  Bras.  i.   p.  64,  (1824). 
Momotus  semirufus,  Sclater,  Rev.  et  Mag.  Zool.  1853,  p.  489? 
Spix,  Av.  Bras.  i.  pi.  60. 
From  the  river  Nercua. 
One  specimen  in  adult  plumage,  labelled  as  a  male  bird. 

23.  Crypticus  platyrhynchus,  (Leadbeater). 

Momotus  platyrhynchus,  Leadb.  Trans.  Linn.  Soc.  Lond.  xvi.  p.  92,  (1829). 
Crypticus  Martii,  Bonap.  Proc.  Zool.  Soc.  London,  1837,  p.  119. 
Jard.  and  Selby,  111.  Orn.  iii.  pi.   106. 
From  the  Cordilleras  on  the  river  Nercua. 

In  adult  plumage,  and  in  colors  singularly  resembling  the  preceding,  but 
with  the  bill  differently  formed,  and  affording  strong  generic  distinctions. 
This  is  probably  the  first  time  that  these  two  birds,  which  have  much  per- 
plexed naturalists,  have  ever  occurred  in  the  same  collection.  Both  are 
labelled  as  from  the  same  locality,  and  I  am  informed  by  Mr.  C.  J.  Wood,  that 
they  inhabit  the  forests  on  the  river  Nercua,  on  the  western  side  of  the  Cor- 
dilleras. 

24.  Ramphastos  Tocardus,  Vieillot. 

Ramphastos  Tocard.  Vieill.  Nouv.  Diet,  xxxiv.  p.  280. 
Ramphastos  Swainsonii,  Gould.  Proc.  Zool.  Soc.  London,  1833,  p.  69. 
Gould,  Mon.  Ramph.  pi.  4. 
From  the  River  Nercua. 

25.  Ramphastos  carinatus,  Swainson. 

Ramphastos  carinatus,  Sw.  Zool.  111.  i.  p.  (pi.  45,  not  paged.) 
Gould,  Monog.  pi.  2. 
River  Nercua.     One  specimen  only,  in  mature  plumage,  from   the  western 
side  of  the  Cordilleras  on  the  River  Nercua. 

26.  Pteroglossus  erythropygius,  Gould. 

Pteroglossus  erythropygius,  Gould,  Proc.  Zool.  Soc.  London,  1843,  p.  15. 
Gould,  Monog.  pi.  21,  Zool.  Voy.  Sulphur,  pi.  28. 
From  the  River  Truando.     Specimens  labelled  as  both  sexes  are  in  the  col- 
lection.    The  females  are  smaller,  and  in  both  sexes  there  is  some  variation  in 
the  color  of  the  bill  as  noticed  by  Mr.  Gould,  the  white  being  in  these  specimens 
more  extended  in  the  females. 

27.  Selenidera  spectabilis,  Cassin. 

Selenidera  spectabilis,  Cass.  Proc.  Acad.  Philada.  1857,  p.  214. 
Jour.  Acad.  Philada.  iv.  pi.  1. 
From  the  falls  of  the  River  Truando. 

Both  sexes  of  this  species,  in  excellent  plumage  and  preservation  are  in  the 
collection  from  the  Cordilleras  on  the  River  Truando.  They  are,  however,  pre- 
cisely similar  to  Mr.  Mitchells  specimens  described  by  me  as  above  cited, 
though  the  occurrence  of  this  little-known  species  again,  and  at  another  locali- 
ty, is  a  point  of  interest. 

[April, 


NATURAL   SCIENCES   OP   PHILADELPHIA.  137 

28.  Ara  militaris,  (Linnaeus). 

Psittacus  militaris,  Linn.  Syst.  Nat.  i.  p.  139,  (1766). 
Le  Vaill.  Parrots,  pi.  6,  Edward's  Glean,  vii.  pi.  313. 
From  the  River  Nercua  in  the  Cordilleras  mountains. 

29.  Ara  ararauna,  (Linnaeus). 

Psittacus  ararauna,  Linn.  Syst.   Nat.  i.  p.  139,  (1766). 
Le  Vaill.  Parr.  pi.  3,  Lear,  Parr.  pi.  8. 
From  the  mouth  of  the  Atrato,  Gulph  of  Uraba. 

30.  Ara  severa,  (Linnaeus). 

Psittacus  severus,  Linn.  Syst.  Nat.  i.  p.  140,  (1766). 
Le  Vaill.  Parr.  pi.  8,  9,  16,  Edward's  Glean,  t.  pi.  229. 
Mouth  of  the  River  Nercua. 

31.  Conurus  pertinax,  (Linnceus). 

Psittacus  pertinax,  Linn.  Syst.  Nat.  i.  p.  142,  (1766). 
Le  Vaill.  Parr.  pi.  34,  Edw.  Glean,  v.  pi.  234. 
Carthagena. 

32.  Conurus  tovi,  (Gmelin). 

Psittacus  tovi,  Gm.  Syst.  Nat.  i.  p.  351,  (1788). 
Bourj.  St.  Hil.  Parr.  pi.  48. 
From  the  River  Atrato. 

33.  Psittacula  cyanoptera,  (Boddaert). 

Psittacus  cyanopterus,  Bodd.  Tab.  PI.  Enl.  p.  27,  (1783). 
Psittaculus  gregarius,  Spix.  Av.  Bras.  i.  p.  39,  (1824). 
Bourj.  St.  Hil.  Parr.  pi.  Spix.  Av.  Bras.  i.  pi.  34. 
Carthagena. 

34.  Drtocopds  Malherbei,  (G.  R.  Gray). 

Campephilus  Malherbii,  G.  R.  Gray,  Gen.  Birds,  ii.  p.  436,  pi.  108,  (1845). 
Malherbe,  Monog.  Picidae,  pi.  6. 
From  Turbo.     "  Occasionally  seen  in  the  forest  at  Turbo,  very  shy  and  diffi- 
cult to  approach."     (Mr.  C.  J.  Wood). 

35.  Dryocopus  albirostris,  (Vieillot). 

Picus  albirostris,  Vieill.  Nouv.  Diet.  xxvi.  p.  69,  (1818). 
Megapicus  albirostris,  (Vieill.)  Malherbe. 
Malherbe,  Monog.  Picidas,  pi.  4. 

36.  Celkus  mentalis,  nobis. 

About  the  size  of  O.  rufus,  occipital  feathers  somewhat  lengthened,  third  quill 
longest,  bill  rather  short.  Male,  with  a  large  space  on  the  chin  and  throat, 
bright  scarlet.  This  space  begins  nearly  on  a  line  with  the  commissure  of  the 
bill  on  each  side,  covering  the  chin  and  throat,  and  is  not  divided  in  the  mid- 
dle, but  is  integral. 

Head  and  upper  parts  of  body  dark  cinnamon,  many  feathers  having  semi- 
circular and  crescent  shaped  spots  of  black,  rump  and  upper  tail  coverts  lighter. 
Quills  brownish  black,  barred  with  dark  cinnamon,  tail  brownish  black,  all  the 
feathers  of  which  are  barred  with  dull  yellowish  cinnamon  color.  Underparts 
of  body  yellowish  cinnamon,  lighter  than  the  back  and  with  the  black  spot9 
much  more  numerous,  every  feather  havi  g  nearly  complete  semicircular  and 
crescent  shaped  bands  of  black.  Under  wing  coverts  uniform  dark  cinnamon, 
not  spotted,  axillaries  dark  cinnamon  with  a  few  imperfect  bands  of  deep  black. 
Bill  bluish  horn  color,  under  mandible  lighter.  Female,  much  like  the  male, 
but  having  no  red  patch  on  the  throat  and  the  black  spots  on  the  under  parts 
not  so  numerous. 

Total  length  about  8  inches,  wing  43,  tail  If  inches. 

Hab. — Turbo  and  Atrato  River,  New  Grenada.  Discovered  by  Messrs.  Wm. 
S.  and  Chas.  J.  Wood,  Spec,  in  Nat.  Mus.  Washington. 

I860.] 


138  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  ACADEMY  OF 

Of  this  Woodpecker,  I  have  found  no  description  nor  figure  which  seemed  to 
approach  it,  except  Picus  andatus  of  authors  figured  by  Edwards,  pi.  332.  It  is 
nearly  the  size  and  of  the  same  general  colors  as  that  species,  but  instead  of 
two  patches  of  red  on  the  cheeks  as  described  and  figured  in  P.  undatus,  the 
present  bird  has  a  single  large  patch  completely  enclosing  a  space  on  the 
throat  around  the  base  of  the  lower  mandible,  similar  to  that  in  the  common 
Picus  varius  of  the  United  States.  This  character  I  cannot  trace  in  any  other 
species  of  this  genus. 

This  bird  belongs  to  the  same  subgeneric  group  as  Celeus  rufus,  which  seems 
to  have  no  name,  though  readily  defined. 

37.  Crotophaga  major,  Brisson. 

Crotophaga  major,  Brisson,  iv.  p.  180,  (1760). 
Buff.  PI.  Enl.  102. 
From  the  River  Atrato. 

38.  Cyanocorax  pileatus,  (Temminck). 

Corvus  pileatus,  Temm.  PI.  Col.  (liv.  10.) 
Temm.  PI.  Col.  58. 
From  the  rivers  Truando  and  Nercua.     "  In  flocks  on  the   high  trees  on  the 
Truando  before  reaching  the  mountains.      Very  shy  and   noisy,  calling  out 
loudly  whenever  an  attempt  was  made  to  approach  them.     (Mr.  C.  J.  Wood). 

39.  Quiscalus  macrourus,  Swainson. 

Quiscalus  macrourus,  Sw.  Cab.  Cy.  p.  299,  (1838). 
Rept.  U.  S.  and  Mex.  Bound.  Survey,  Birds,  pi.  20. 
From  Turbo  and  Carthagena.     "  In  parties  of  ten  or  a  dozen  feeding  on  ber- 
ries along  the  sea  shore.     Abundant,  especially  at  Carthagena,  and  noisy,  but 
not  easily  shot."     (Mr.  C.  J.  Wood). 

40.  Ocyalus  Wagleri,  (G.  R.  Gray). 

Cacicus  Wagleri,  G.  R.  Gray,  Gen.  Birds,  ii.  p.  342,  (1845). 
Gray's  Genera,  ii.  pi.  85. 
From  the  rivers  Truando  and  Nercua.     Specimens  of  both  sexes   in  mature 
plumage,  the  females  being  much  the  smaller. 

41.  Ostinops  cristatus,  (Gmelin). 

Oriolus  cristatus,  Gm.  Syst.  Nat.  i.  p.  387,  (1788). 
Sw.  B.  of  Bras.  pi.  32,  Buff.  PI.  Enl.  328. 
From  Turbo  and  the  Atrato  River. 

"  In  company  with  smaller  species  along  the  Atrato,  and  seemed  to  be  feed- 
ing on  the  fruit  of  a  tree  which  grew  plentifully  on  the  edge  of  the  water. 
Unsuspicious  and  easily  approached."     (Mr.  C.  J.   Wood). 

42.  Ostinops  guatimozinus,  Bonaparte. 

Ostinops  guatimozinus,  Bonap.  Compte  Rend.,  1853,  p.  833'. 

Large,  resembling  O.  3Iontezumae  and  O.  bifaaciatus,  but  larger  than  either, 
darker  colored,  and  with  the  crest  feathers  much  longer  and  more  slender. 
Male. — Head,  under  parts  of  body  and  tibiae  brownish  black,  under  tail 
coverts  chestnut  brown,  same  as  the  back.  Entire  upper  parts  of  body,  wing 
coverts  and  outer  webs  of  quills  purplish  chestnut  brown.  Tail  graduated, 
two  middle  feathers  brownish  black,  all  others  yellow.  Naked  space  below 
the  eye  completely  divided  by  a  line  of  short  imbricated  feathers  nearly  on  a 
line  with  the  lower  edge  of  the  lower  mandible.  Crest  long  and  composed  of 
very  narrow  feathers.  Bill  wide  at  base  in  front,  high  and  compressed, 
pointed,  basal  two-thirds  black,  terminal  one-third  light  colored  (red  ?).  Total 
length  about  21 J  inches,  wing  10J,  tail  8£  inches.  Crest  feathers  3  inches,  bill 
from  gape  3£  inches. 

Hab. — River  Truando,  New  Granada. 

One  specimen,  labelled  as  a  male,  in  the  collection  of  the  Expedition  is  dis- 

[April, 


NATURAL   SCIENCES   OF   PHILADELPHIA.  139 

tinct  from  any  species  in  Acad.  Coll.  or  that  we  find  described,  except  as  above. 
It  is  nearly  allied  to  0.  Montezumae  of  Mexico  and  Central  America,  and  0. 
bifasciatus  of  Northern  Brazil,  both  of  which  are  in  the  Acad.  Coll.  and  are 
distinct  from  each  other. 

The  present  bird  differs  from  both  of  the  above  species  in  being  larger, 
darker  colored  and  having  a  lengthened  almost  filiform  crest.  The  bill  also  i3 
disproportionately  longer  and  wider  at  base,  with  a  rounded  termination  in 
front.  It  is  not  without  scruples  that  I  apply  the  name  above  to  this  bird  ;  the 
description  by  the  Prince  Bonaparte,  as  cited,  not  being  sufficient  for  the  recog- 
nition of  any  species  nearly  related  to  another.* 

"At  Camp  Abert,  on  the  Truando,  before  reaching  the  Cordilleras,  one 
specimen  only  seen,  which  was  shot;  it  was  very  shy  and  seemed  to  be  a  stranger." 
(Mr.  C.  J.  Wood.) 

43.  Cassicus  icteronotus,  Vieillot. 

Cassicus  icteronotus,  Vieill. 
Sw.  B.  of  Braz.,  pi.  3. 
From  Turbo  and  the  delta  of  the  Atrato  River.     "Very  abundant  at  Turbo, 
builds  many  nests  on  the  same  tree,  which  are  long  and  hanging,  and  entered 
from  the  top.     Always  seen  in  large  parties  and  very  noisy,  especially  in  the 
morning,  although  their  notes  are  rather  agreeable."     (Mr.  C.  J.  WoodJ. 

44.  Cassicus  chrysonotus,  Lafresnaye? 

Cassicus  chrysonotus,  Lafres. 
D'Orb.  Voy.  Am.  Mer.  Ois.  pi.  52  ? 
From  Turbo.     A  single  specimen  in  young  plumage  appears  to  be  this  species. 

45.  Cassicus  uropygialis,  Lafresnaye  ? 

Cassicus  uropygialis,  Lafr.  Rev.  Zool.  1843,  p.  290? 
Falls  of  the  River  Truando. 
Specimens  not  mature  nor  in  good  condition  appear  to  be  this  species. 


*The  three  nearly  allied  species  are  as  follows  : 

1.  OSTINOPS   B1FASCIATUS,  (Spix). 

Cassicus  bifasciatus,  Spix,  Av.  Bras.,  i.  p.  65  (1824). 
Spix,  Av.  Bras.,  i.  pi.  61. 
Naked  space  on  the  cheek,  integral  (not  divided  as  in  the  two  succeeding  species). 
Crest  feathers  rather  long,  not  so  narrow  nor  so  long  as  in  O.  guatimozinus,  but  longer 
than  in  O.  Montezumae.  Head  and  breast  brownish  black,  entire  upper  parts  of  body, 
abdomen,  under  tail  coverts  and  tibia  light  chestnut  brown,  tail  yellow,  central  two 
feathers  dark  brown.  Total  length,  male  18  to  20  inches.  Naked  space  on  cheek  pre- 
cisely as  figured  by  Spix  as  above  cited,  which  figure  is  sufficiently  accurate.  Two 
specimens  from  Para,  in  Acad.  Coll. 

2.  Ostinops  Montezumae,  (Lesson). 

Cacicus  Montezumae,  Less.  Cent.  Zool  p.  33,  (1830). 
Less.  Cent.  Zool.  pi.  7,Gervais,  Atlas  de  Zool.  pi.  33. 
Naked  space  on  the  cheek  partially  divided  by  a  line  of  short  imbricated  features 
above  the  lower  edge  of  the  lower  mandible.  Crest  feathers  short  and  inconspicuous, 
shorter  than  in  either  of  the  other  species  here  described.  Plumage  much  as  in  preced- 
ing, but  with  the  tibia  brownish  black.  Total  length,  male,  about  20  inches.  Naked  space 
on  cheek  accurately  represented  in  both  plates  above  cited,  which  are  otherwise  very 
accurate.  Nine  specimens  in  Acad.  Coll.  including  Lesson's  original  which  is  labelled  as 
from  Mexico,  others  are  from  Nicaragua. 

3.  Ostinops  guatimozinus,  Bonaparte. 

Osiinops  guatimozinus,  Bonap.  Compt.  Rend.  1853,  p.  833. 
Naked  space  on  cheek  completely  divided  by  a  line  of  short,  imbricated  feathers  nearly 
on  a  line  with  the  lower  edge  of  lower  mandible.  Crest  feathers  long  and  pendant, 
longer  than  in  either  of  the  preceding.  Plumage  generally  resembling  that  of  both  the 
preceding,  but  darker,  entire  under  parts  brownish  black,  tibia  black.  Total  length  21  to 
22  inches.    One  specimen  in  National  Museum,  Washington. 

I860.] 


140  PROCEEDINGS  OP  THE  ACADEMY  OF 


46.  Icterus  mesomelas  (Wagler). 

Psarocolius  mesomelas,  Wagl. 
Lesson,  Cent.  Zool.  pi.  22. 
From  the  River  Atrato. 

47.  Icterus  Giraudii,  Cassin. 

Icterus  Giraudii,  Cass.  Proc.  Acad.  Philad'a,  iii.  p.  332  (1847). 
Journ.  Acad.  Philad'a,  i.  pi.  17. 
From  the  Rivers  Truando  and  Nercua  and  the  "  Shores  of  the  Pacific." 
Several  specimens  differing  somewhat  in  size  are  from  the  Cordilleras  and 
the  western   coast,   until  quite  reaching  the  Pacific  Ocean.     One   specimen 
obtained  by  Mr.  W.  S.  Wood,  Jr.,  is  labelled  "  Shores  of  the  Pacific." 

"  In  bushes  and  low  trees  on  the  Truando,  and  has  very  pleasant  notes  of  the 
same  general  character  as  those  of  the  Baltimore  Oriole.  Solitary  and  rather 
wild."     (Mr.  C.  J.  Wood  J. 

48.  Xanthornus  affinis,  Lawrence. 

Xanthornus  affinis,  Lawr.  Am.  Lye.  New  York,  1851,  p.  113. 
From  the  Atrato.     A  single  specimen  in  adult  male  plumage. 

49.  Euspiza  Americana  (Gmelin). 

Emberiza  americana,  Gm.  Syst.  Nat.  i.  p.  872  (1788). 
Wilson,  Am.  Orn.  i.  pi.  3.  Aud.  B.  of  Am.  pi.  384,  Oct.  ed.  iii.  pi.  156. 
From  Turbo.     "In  flocks  early  in  April,  about  grassy  places  at  Turbo,  and 
seen  for  one  day  only."     (Mr.  C.  J.  Wood). 

50.  Pitylus  grossus  (Linnaeus). 

Loxia  grossa,  Linn.  Syst.  Nat.  i.  p.  307  (1766). 
Buff.  Pl.Enl.  154. 
From  the  Falls  of  the  River  Truando.     "In  the  mountains  and  seen  once 
only.     Has  a  loud,  musical  note  similar  to  that  of  the  Cardinal  bird  of  the 
United  States."     (Mr.  C.  J.  Wood). 

51.  Saltator  mutus,  Sclater? 

Saltator  mutus,  Sclater,  Proc.  Zool.  Soc,  London,  1856,  p.  72  ? 

Tanagra  superciliaris,  Spix,  Av.  Bras.  ii.  p.  44,  pi.  47? 
From  Cartbagena.     "  On  the  '  Popa'  mountain  at  Carthagena." 
Specimens  in  young  plumage  not  for  us  easily  identified. 

52.  Arremon  Schlegeli,  Bonaparte. 

Arremon  Schlegeli,  Bonap.  Consp.  Av.  i.  p.  488  (1850). 

From  Carthagena.  Very  fine  specimens  of  this  beautiful  little  bird,  in  adult 
plumage. 

"  In  the  high  grass  on  the  sea  shore  at  Carthagena  on  the  seed  of  which  it 
appeared  to  feed.  Notes  and  habits  generally  resembled  those  of  the  Sparrows 
of  the  United  States,  not  abundant  and  difficult  to  obtain."     (Mr.  C.  J.  Wood). 

53.  Pyranga  aestiva  (Gmelin). 

Tanagra  aestiva,  Gm.  Syst.  Nat.  i.  p.  889  (1788). 
Wilson,  Am.  Orn.  i.  pi.  6,  Aud.  B.  of  Am.  pi.  44,  Oct.  ed.  iii.  pi.  208. 
From  Turbo.     "In  the  forrest  at  Turbo,  early  in  April,  seen  once  only.'' 

54.  Orthogonys  olivaceus,  nobis. 

Form  short  and  robust,  bill  rather  wide  at  base,  upper  mandible  with  a  dis- 
tinct tooth-like  lobe  about  the  middle  of  its  cutting  edge,  wing  moderate, 
fourth  quill  slightly  longest,  tail  moderate  or  rather  short.  Male. — Front  and 
line  extending  over  and  around  the  eye  bright  yellow.  Throat,  middle  of 
abdomen,  edge  of  wing  at  shoulders  and  under  wing  coverts  greenish  yellow. 
Upper  parts  of  head  and  body  dark  olive  green,  under  parts  olive  green  tinged 
with  yellowish,  the  latter  color  more  apparent  in  the  middle,  under  tail  coverts 

[April, 


NATURAL   SCIENCES   OF    PHILADELPHIA.  141 

greenish  yellow.  Quills  brownish  black,  with  their  outer  webs  dark  olive, 
uniform  with  the  back,  tail  dark  olive,  inner  webs  of  outer  feathers  greenish 
brown.  The  yellow  on  the  throat  somewhat  striped  or  spotted  with  dark  olive. 
Bill  bluish  horn  color,  legs  lighter.     Sexes  similar. 

Total  length  about  6|  inches,  wing  3^,  tail  2\  inches. 

Hab. — Cordilleras  Mountains,  on  the  Kiver  Truando,New  Granada.  Discov- 
ered by  Mr.  W.  S.  Wood,  Jr.,  and  Mr.  C.  J.  Wood,  attached  to  U.  S.  Expedition 
for  surveying  the  River  Atrato,  in  command  of  Lieut.  N.  Michler,  U.  S.  Topog. 
Engineers.     Spec,  in  Nat.  Mus.,  Washington. 

This  is  a  curious  bird  and  has  not  a  little  puzzled  the  present  writer.  My 
impression  is  that  it  is  an  undescribed  genus  related  to  Icteria  and  more  so  to 
Orthogonys  and  not  unlike  some  species  of  Pyranga.  At  present  I  rate  it  as  an 
Orlhogonys  to  which  it  quite  as  much  belongs  as  Pyranga  cyanictera  of  authors 
at  least,  of  which  there  are  several  specimens  in  the  Academy  collection. 

Mr.  C.  J.  Wood  states  that  this  bird  inhabits  low  trees  and  bushes  in  the 
Cordilleras,  on  the  Rio  Truando,  and  could  be  constantly  heard  at  some  local- 
ities, though  not  so  easily  seen.  Its  notes  are  loud  and  much  varied,  bearing  a 
general  resemblance  to  those  of  the  Chat  of  North  America  {Icteria  viridis).  It 
appeared  to  be  very  active  and  lively,  constantly  flying  about  the  bushes  and 
changing  its  position. 

55.  Tanagra  cana,  Swainson. 

Tanagra  cana,  Sw.  B.  of  Braz.  p.  2,  (1841). 
Sw.  B.  of  Braz.  pi.  37. 
From  Turbo. 

"Abundant  in  the  orange  and  lime  trees  at  Turbo,  and  in  gardens  and 
other  cultivated  localities  at  Carthagena.  Note  only  a  single  chirp  and  very 
unsuspicious  and  easily  shot."     (Mr.  C.  J.  Wood). 

56.  Ramphocelus  icteronotus,  Bonaparte. 

Ramphocelus  icteronotus,  Bonap.  Proc.  Zool.  Soc.  London,  1836,  p.  121. 
Du  Bus,  Esq.  Orn.  pi.  15. 
From  Turbo  and  the  rivers  Atrato  and  Truando. 

"  Always  observed  frequenting  one  kind  of  tree,  that  grows  along  streams 
of  water,  on  the  fruit  of  which  it  feeds.  Abundant  on  the  Rio  Truando  in  the 
month  of  March."     (Mr.  C.  J.  Wood). 

57.  Ramphocelus  dimidiatus,  Lafresnaye. 

Ramphocelus  dimidiatus,  Lafres.  Mag.  Zool.  1837,  p.  (not  paged). 
Guerin's  Mag.  Zool.  1837,  pi.  81. 
From  Turbo. 

' '  Abundant  in  April  in  the  bushes  and  low  trees  in  the  drier  parts  of  the 
forest.  Solitary  but  constantly  seen,  and  heard  only  to  utter  a  single  chirp. 
(Mr.  C.  J.  Wood). 

58.  Eucometis  cristata,  (Du  Bus). 

Pipilopsis  cristata,  Du  Bus,  Bull.  Acad.  Brussels,  1855,  p.  154. 

From  the  river  Truando. 

"  At  the  first  camp  on  the  Truando  after  leaving  the  Atrato.  In  the  bushes 
and  low  trees,  very  shy,  and  seen  once  only  in  a  party  of  three  together. 
Sings  very  pleasantly,  and  very  loud  for  the  size  of  the  bird."  (Mr.  C.  J. 
Wood). 

59.  Tachyphonus  luctuosus,  D'Orb.  et  Lafres. 

Tachyphonus  luctuosus,  D'Orb.  et  Lafres.  Mag.  Zool.  1837,  p.  29. 
D'Orb.  Voy.  Am.  Mer.  Ois.  PL  20. 
From  the  Truando. 

"  Obtained  during  our  encampment  in  the  mountains,  on  the  Rio  Truando. 
In  the  high  trees,  and  rarely  seen,  and  very  shy  and  active.  Male  black, 
female  brown."     (Mr.  C.  J.Wood). 

I860.] 


142  PROCEEDINGS  OP  THE  ACADEMY  OP 

60.  Tachyphonus  De  Lattrei,  Lafresnaye. 

Tachyphonus  De  Lattrei,  Lafres.  Rev.  Zool.  1847,  p.  72. 

Falls  of  the  Truando. 

"  Seen  once  only,  in  the  bushes  on  the  hank  of  the  Rio  Truando,  in  the 
month  of  March.  About  twenty  specimens  which  seemed  to  be  in  company, 
were  noticed  and  several  obtained,  though  they  were  very  shy  arid  not  easily 
approached.  All  chattered  together  like  a  flock  of  blackbirds,  and  appeared 
to  be  feeding  on  a  berry  that  was  abundant."     (Mr.  C.  J.  Wood). 

61.  Tachyphonus  xanthopyghjs,  Sclater. 

Tachyphonus xanthopygius,  Sclater,  Proc.  Zool.  Soc.  Lond.  1354,  p.  158. 
Proc.  Zool.  Soc.  London,  1854,  pi.  69,  1855,  pi.  90. 

From  the  Truando. 

The  male  only,  of  this  handsome  and  remarkable  species,  precisely  as  figured 
by  Mr.  Sclater. 

"  The  wildest  bird  I  met  with  in  the  whole  journey.  A  portion  of  the  sur- 
veying party  remained  fifteen  days  at  a  camp  in  the  Cordilleras,  on  the  Rio 
Truando,  where  only  this  bird  was  obtained,  and  was  so  very  shy  and  watch- 
ful, that  it  was  with  difficulty  obtained.  Three  specimens  were  together  and 
were  observed  to  always  resort  to  one  tree  to  roost,  and  constantly  frequenting 
the  highest  trees.  Very  active  and  perpetually  on  the  move  from  one  tree  to 
another,  notes  loud  and  musical,  somewhat  like  those  of  the  Baltimore  Oriole 
of  the  United  States."     (Mr.  C.  J.  Wood). 

62.  Tachyphonus? 
Falls  of  the  Truando. 

One  specimen  labelled  as  a  female,  but  which  is  of  no  species  with  which 
I  am  acquainted,  nor  find  described.  Not  having  the  male  I  do  not  venture  a 
description. 

63.  Calliste  francesc^,  (Lafresnaye). 

Aglaia  Fanny,  Lafres.  Rev.  Zool.  1847,  p.  72. 
Des  Murs.  Icon.  Orn.  pi.  56. 
From  Turbo. 

"  In  a  tree  that  grows  along  streams  of  water,  on  the  fruit  of  which  it  feeds. 
Rather  shy  and  not  easily  approached,  very  quick  and  active."  (Mr.  C.  J. 
Wood). 

64.  Calliste  inornata,  Gould. 

Calliste  inornata,  Gould,  Proc.  Zool.  Soc.  London,   1855,  p.  158. 
Sclater,  Monog.  Calliste,  pi.  45. 
From  Turbo. 

Probably  the  female  or  young,  of  the  preceding,  (C.francescce),  and  given 
by  us  as  distinct,  with  some  reluctance.  The  specimens  in  the  collection  are 
very  nearly  as  described  and  figured  as  cited  above. 

"  In  the  same  tree,  and  appeared  to  be  in  company  with  the  preceding,  and 
thought  by  my  brother  and  myself  to  be  the  female  of  that  bird. "  (Mr.  C.  J. 
Wood). 

65.  Calliste  Lavini^:,  Cassin. 

Calliste  Lavinia,  Cass.  Proc.  Acad.  Philadelphia,  1858,  p.  178. 

From  the  river  Truando. 

We  have  much  gratification  in  finding  in  the  present  collection,  the  second 
specimen  that  we  have  ever  seen  of  this  interesting  little  species,  though  not 
in  mature  plumage.  It  bears,  however,  the  characteristic  edging  of  rufous  on 
the  outer  webs  of  the  quills,  and  is  easily  recognised. 

"Shot  at  camp  Toucey,  in  the  mountains  on  the  Rio  Truando.  In  high 
trees,  very  active  and  lively,  and  not  easily  obtained,  though  not  often  seen, 
March,  1858."     (Mr.  C.  J.  Wood). 

[April. 


NATURAL   SCIENCES    OF   PHILADELPHIA.  143 

66.  Ecphonia  fulvicrissa,  Sclater. 

Euphonia  fulvicrissa,  Sclater,  Proc.  Zool.  Soc.  Philada.  1856,  p.  276. 

Falls  of  the  Truando. 

' '  At  our  encampment  in  the  mountains  on  the  Rio  Truando,  in  the  high 
trees,  and  difficult  to  shoot.  Not  often  seen,  and  quite  shy  and  watchful." 
(Mr.  C.  J.  Wood). 

67.  Nemosia  auricollis,  Sclater. 

Nemosia  auricollis,  Sclater,  Proc.  Zool.  Soc.  London,  1856,  p.  iii. 

From  the  river  Truando. 

"  At  the  first  camp  on  the  Truando,  before  reaching  the  mountains.  In  the 
bushes  growing  abundantly  in  the  extensive  marshes  and  swamps  on  that 
river.  Appeared  to  have  habits  much  like  those  of  the  Wrens,  and  constantly 
repeated  its  notes,  so  as  easily  to  be  followed.     (Mr.  C.  J.  Wood). 

68.  Lipaugus  unirufus,  Sclater. 

Lipaugus  unirufus,  Sclat.  Proc.  Zool.  Soc.  London,  1859,  p.  385. 
Querula  fuscocinerea,  Lafres.  Rev.  Zool.  1843,  p.  291? 

From  Turbo  and  the  river  Truando. 

Entire  plumage  light  rufous,  darker  on  the  back,  and  lighter  on  the  under 
parts  of  the  body  and  under  wing  coverts  ;  quills  and  tail  rufous  cinnamon, 
shafts  and  inner  webs  of  quills  darker.  Total  length,  about  9  inches,  wing  5, 
tail  4^  inches.     Sexes  alike. 

Several  specimens  labelled  as  both  sexes,  are  from  Turbo  and  the  river 
Truando,  and  all  have  the  appearance  of  being  in  young  or  some  peculiar 
seasonal  plumage.  These  specimens  are  all  of  an  uniform  dull  rufous,  very 
nearly  the  color  of  the  immature  plumage  in  some  species  of  black  Tach.yph.onus 
which  induces  me  to  suppose  that  the  adult  of  this  bird  is  quite  different  in 
color  from  the  present  specimens.  Although  undoubtedly  of  the  genus 
Lipaugus,  this  bird  corresponds  but  indifferently  with  the  last  description 
above  cited,  though  it  may  be  that  species  in  the  plumage  of  another  season 
than  that  described. 

"In  the  dry  parts  of  the  forest  at  Turbo,  and  in  the  Cordilleras  on  the  Rio 
Truando,  in  the  lower  trees.  Frequently  seen,  but  always  solitary  and  silent. 
Sits  very  quietly  in  a  tree  and  flies  after  insects,  especially  the  large  coleop- 
terous species,  abundant  on  the  route  everywhere."     (Mr.  C.  J.  Wood). 

69.  Querula  cruenta,  (Boddaert). 

Muscicapa  cruenta,  Bodd.  Tab.  PI.  Enl.  p.  23,   (1783). 
Buff.  PI.  Enl.  381,  Vieill.  Gal.  pi.  115. 
From  Turbo.     "Very  abundant  and  in  large  parties  in  the  thick  and  dry 
parts  of  the  forest  at   Turbo.     Constantly  chattering  and  noisy,   frequently 
seen  on  the  ground,  and  seemed  to  prefer  low  bushes.     Female  entirely  black. ' ' 
(Mr.  C.  J.  Wood). 

70.  Saukophagus  Lictor,  (Lichtenstein). 

Lanius  Lictor,  Licht.  Verz.  p.  49,  (1823). 
Gray,  Genera  of  B.  i.  pi.  62. 
From  the  Rivers  Atrato  and  Truando. 

71.  Tyrannus  dominicensis,  Brisson. 

Tyrannus  dominicensis,  Briss.  Orn.  ii.  p.  394,  (1760). 
Aud.  B.  of  Am.  pi.  46,  Oct.  ed.  i.  pi.  55. 
From  Carthagena. 

72.  Tyrannus  melancholicus,  Vieillot. 

Tyrannus  melancholicus,  Vieill.  Nouv.  Diet.  xxxv.  p.  48,  (1819). 
Spix,  Av.  Bras.  ii.  pi.  19. 
From  Turbo,  Carthagena  and  the  River  Truando. 

73.  Myiarchus  ferox,  (Gmelin). 
I860.] 


144 


PROCEEDINGS   OP   THE    ACADEMY   OP 


Muscicapa  ferox,  Gm.  Syst.  Nat.  i.  p.  934,  (1788). 
Buff.  PI.  Enl.  571,  fig.  1. 
Falls  of  the  Truando. 

74.  Elaenia  cayennensis,  (Linn;eus). 

Muscicapa  cayennensis,  Linn.  Syst.  Nat.  i.  p.  327,  (1766). 
Buff.  PL  Enl.  569,  fig.  2. 
From  Turbo. 

75.  Satornis  ardosiacus,  (Lafresnaye). 

Tyrannula  ardosiaca,  Lafres.  Rev.  ZooL  1844,  p.  80. 
Falls  of  the  Truando.     "A  pair  observed  about  rocks  at  the  foot  of  the 
mountains,  on  the  Truando.     Had  some  very  pleasing  notes  and  almost  a 
continued  song,  very  shy."     (Mr.  C.  J.  Wood). 

76.  Myiobius  sulphureipygius,  (Sclater). 

Tyrannula  sulphureipygia,  Sclater,  Proc.  ZooL  Soc.  London,  1856,  p.  296. 
From  the  River  Truando. 

77.  Tyrannula  albiceps,  (D'Orb.  et  Lafres). 

Muscipeta  albiceps,  D'Orb.  et  Lafres.  Mag.  ZooL  1837,  p.  47. 
From  Carthagena. 

78.  Tyrannula  albiceps? 

Apparently  an  accidental  variety  of  the  preceding,  having  the  back  light 
yellow  or  canary  color.     One  specimen  from  Carthagena. 

79.  Cyclorhynchus  brevirostris,  Cabanis. 

Cyclorhynchus  brevirostris,  Cab.  Wiegm.  Arch.  1847,  p.  249. 
From  the  River  Truando. 

80.  Platyrhynchus  cancroma,  (Lichtenstein). 

Todus  cancroma,  Licht.  Verz.  p.  51,  (1823). 
Temm.  PL  Col.  12,  fig.  2,  Sw.  ZooL  111.  ii.  pi.  115. 
From  the  Truando. 

"At  Camp  Toucey,  on  the  Truando,  soon  after  leaving  the  Atrato.  In  the 
high  trees  and  difficult  to  obtain."     (Mr.  C.  J.  Wood). 

81.  Todirostrum  cinereum,  (Linnaeus). 

Todus  cinereus,  Linn.  Syst.  Nat.  i.  p.  178  (1766). 
Buff.  PL  Enl.  585,  fig.  3. 
From  Carthagena. 

"Occasionally  seen  on  the  'Popa'  Mountain,  near  Carthagena,  in  the 
bushes  and  low  trees,  flying  out  after  insects,  which  it  caught  on  the  wing 
with  much  dexterity,  and  which  were  very  abundant,  mostly  small  Diptera." 
(C.  J.  Wood). 

82.  Todirostrum  nigriceps,  Sclater. 

Todirostrum  nigriceps,  Sclater,  Proc.  ZooL  Soc.  London,  1855,  p.  Q6. 
Proc.  Zool,  Soc.  London,  1855,  pi.  84. 
From  Turbo. 

' '  In  the  drier  parts  of  the  forest  at  Turbo,  occasionally  seen,  but  not  com- 
mon. Caught  insects  of  the  same  description  as  the  preceding,  and  resembled 
it  in  general  habits."     (Mr.  C.  J.  Wood). 

83.  Todirostrum  exile,  Sclater. 

Todirostrum  exile,  Sclater,  Proc.  Zool.  Soc.  London,  1857,  p.  83. 
Proc.  Zool.  Soc.  London,  1857,  pi.  125. 
From  Carthagena. 

"In  the  bushes  and  low  trees,  constantly  flying  after  insects,  and  uttering 
a  single  chirp,  by  which  it  could  easily  be  traced  and  shot.  Frequently  seen 
in  the  month  of  April."     (Mr.  C.  J.  Wood). 

(To  be  continued.) 

[April, 


NATURAL   SCIENCES   OF   PHILADELPHIA. 


145 


May  1st. 
Dr.  Leidy  in  the  Chair. 

Twenty  four  members  present. 

Dr.  Darrach  read  the  following  catalogue  of  Plants  collected  in  flower 
in  the  neighborhood  of  Philadelphia,  from  February  to  the  1st  of  May, 
amounting  to  sixty- eight  species  : 

Plants  appearing  in  Flower,  in  the  neighborhood  of  Philadelphia,  from 

February  to  May. 

February.  Symplocarpus  foetidus,  N.  J.    32.  Cerastium  vulgatum. 


March.  Draba  verna. 
April. 

I.    RANUNCULACE.E. 

1.  Anemone  nemorosa. 

2.  Hepatica  triloba. 

3.  Thalictrum  anemonoides. 

4.  "  dioicum. 

5.  Ranunculus  abortivu3. 

6.  i:  fasicularis. 

7.  Caltha  palustris. 

S.  Aquilegia  Canadensis. 

II.  Anonace.*. 
9.  Asimina  triloba. 

III.  PAPAVERACE/E. 

10.  Sanguinaria  Canadensis. 

IV.  FdmariacEvE. 

11.  Dicentra  cucullaria. 

12.  Corydalis  aurea. 

V.  CrociferjE. 
Dentaria  laciniata. 
Cardamine  rhomboidea. 
pratensis. 


13. 
14. 
15. 
16. 
17. 


hirsuta. 
v.  virginica. 


18.  Arabis  ludoviciana. 

19.  "      hirsuta. 

20.  Barbarea  vulgaris. 

21.  Sisymbrium  thalianum. 

22.  Draba  Caroliniana. 

23.  Capsella  bursa-pastoris. 

VI.  Violace*:. 

24.  Viola  cucullata. 


25.       " 

villosa. 

26.       " 

pedata. 

27.       " 

sagittata,  v. 

28.       " 

Muhlenbergii. 

29.       " 

blanda. 

VII.  Caryophyllace^i. 

30.  Stelh 

ma  media. 

31.        " 

pubera. 

I860.] 

33.  "  viscosum. 

VIII.    PoRTULACACEjE. 

34.  Claytonia  Virginica. 

IX.    LlMNANTHACEjE. 

35.  Flcerkea  proserpinacoides. 

X..  Sapindace/e. 

SUBORDER  III.  ACEKINEJE. 

36.  Acer  dasycarpum. 

37.  "       rubrum. 

XI.    RoSACEiE. 

38.  Potentilla  Canadensis. 

39.  Fragaria  Virginiana. 

40.  Amelanchier  Canadensis. 

XII.  SAXIFRAGACEiE. 

41.  Saxifraga  Virginiensis. 

42.  Mitella  diphjlla. 

43.  Chrysosplenium  Americanum. 

XIII.  Umbelmferje. 

44.  Chaerophyllurn  procumbens. 

XIV.    ARALIACEiE. 

45.  Aralia  trifolia. 

XV.    RUBIACE.S. 

46.  Oldenlandea  coerulea. 

XVI.  Composite. 

47.  Erigeroa  bellidifolium,   in   places 

exposed  to  the  sun. 

48.  Antennaria  plantaginifolia. 

50.  Taraxacum  dens-leonis. 

XVII.  Ericacea. 

51.  Epigfea  repens. 

52.  Cassandra  calyculata. 

XVIII.    ScROPHCLAKIACEiE. 

53.  Veronica  serpyllifolia. 

54.  Pedicularis  Canadensis. 

XIX.  Labiatve. 

55.  Lamium  amplexicaule. 

56.  "       purpureum. 


146 


PROCEEDINGS  OP  THE  ACADEMY  OF 


XX.  BORRAGINACEJE. 

57.  Lithospermum  arvense,, 

XXI.  PoLEMONIACE^. 

58.  Phlox  subulata. 

59.  Pyxidanthera  barbulata. 

XXII.  Gentianace,k„ 

60.  Obolaria  Virginica. 

XXIII.  Aristolochiace.*:.. 

61.  Asarum  Canadense. 

XXIV.  Lauraceje. 

62.  Sassafras  officinale. 

63.  Benzoin  odoriferum. 


XXV.  MyricacEjE. 

64.  Comptonia  asplenifolia. 

XXVI.    ARACEiE. 

65.  Arisaema  triphyllum. 

66.  Orontium  aquaticum. 

XXVII.    LlLLIACE/E. 

67.  Erythroneum  Americanum 

XXVIII.  Melanthace-S. 

68.  Hellonias  bullata. 
In  all — 68  species. 

In  addition, 
Viola  rotundafolia. 
Acer  9Rccharinum. 
Diospyros  Virginiana. 


May  Sth. 
Mr.  Lea,  President,  in  the  Chair. 

Forty-four  members  present. 

The  following  papers  were  presented  for  publication  r 

"  Contributions  to  American  Lepidopterology,  No.  4,"  by  Bracken- 
ridge  Clemens,  M.  D. 

u  Notes  on  American  Land  Shells,  No.  6,"  and  "  Descriptions  of  new 
species  of  Pulmonata,"  by  Win.  G-.  Binney;  and 

"A  list  of  the  fresh-water  Shells  of  Wisconsin,"  by  J.  A.  Lapham. 

And  were  referred  to  Committees. 

Mr.  Aubrey  H.  Smith  read  the  following  extracts  from  a  letter  from 
Mr.  Alex.  H.  Smith,  of  Solano  Co.,  California,  dated  March  25th,  1860, 
on  the  habits  of  the  Beaver. 

"This  winter  I  have  had  an  opportunity  of  observing  somewhat  the  habits  of 
the  Beaver.  You  know  that  this  cunning  little  animal  is  famed  for  bis  industry 
and  bold  engineering.  About  the  middle  of  our  land  there  is  a  large  slough 
seventy  feet  wide  and  very  deep,  running  back  into  the  country.  In  the  pro- 
gress of  our  work,  it  became  necessary  to  stop  it  off  and  lay  a  large  sluice  to 
drain  it,  which  was  done  in  a  complete  manner. 

At  the  head  of  the  slough,  two  miles  away,  the  beavers  had  their  settlement. 
When  the  water  fell  away  from  their  houses  and  would  not  return,  as  usual, 
they  seemed  to  have  sent  a  delegation  down  to  see  what  was  the  matter.  For 
several  successive  mornings  we  found  a  dam  built  across  the  race  leading  to 
the  sluice,  quite  skilfully  made  with  sticks  and  tuUs,  and  cemented  with  mud. 
One  of  the  men  agreed  to  watch  for  them  with  the  hope  of  securing  their  skins, 
which  are  of  some  value.  The  night  was  bright  moonlight.  Four  beaver? 
came  down  examining  either  bank  carefully.  One  of  the  party  always  remained 
in  the  water  and  seemed  to  be  the  commander,  and  would  turn  from  the  one  to 
the  other  to  see  that  each  did  his  duty.  At  length  they  reached  the  dam,  still 
observing  the  same  caution.  The  three  examiners  came  out  and  went  all  over 
it  and  into  the  sluice,  chattering  the  while  to  their  companion  in  the  water. 
■  Finally  they  seemed  satisfied  that  it  was  past  their  skill  and  went  off.     Since 

[May, 


NATURAL   SCIENCES   OP  PHILADELPHIA.  147 

then  we  have  had  no  further  trouble  with  them.  When  the  man  was  ask?d 
why  he  did  not  s,hoot,  he  said,  '  he  did'nt  want  to  shoot  the  pretty  little  cree- 
lers,  he  wanted  to  see  what  they  were  going  to  do.'  I  could  not  help  being 
pleased  with  his  humanity  and  love  of  science." 

Mr.  Lea  mentioned  that  he  had  recently  received  a  letter  from  Dr.  Showalter 
of  Uniontown,  Alabama,  in  which  he  mentions  that  specimens  of  Physa  (yyrina) 
Say,  which  he  sent  on,  were  obtained  in  an  open  neglected  cistern,  and  in  a 
trough  of  water  supplied  by  an  Artesian  well  ten  miles  from  the  town.  Dr.  S. 
expressed  his  surprise  that  these  Physa  should  find  their  homes  so  soon  at  these 
Artesian  wells.  There  are  no  streams  or  pools  near  to  these  wells,  but  in  a  few 
years  after  they  are  bored  and  water  supplied,  these  shells  may  with  certainly 
be  found.  Mr.  Lea  went  on  to  mention  that  he  had  nearly  30  years  ago  found 
an  undescribed  species  of  Lymncea,  accompained  by  Physa  heterostropha  Say,  in 
a  small  artificial  pond  on  the  high  grounds  near  to  the  Falls  of  Schuylkill, 
about  four  miles  north  of  Market  Street,  now  within  the  limits  of  this  City.  He 
published  an  account  of  it  in  April  1834,  in  the  Trans.  Am.  Phil.  Soc.  under 
the  name  of  acuta.  The  pond  was  small  and  dug  out  for  lh  to  2  feet  deep, 
simply  for  the  supply  of  rain  water  for  cattle.  Afterwards  it  dried  up  and  the 
shells  were  no  longer  to  be  obtained  there.  He  never  found  this  Lyvmoea  in, 
any  other  habitat;  but  many  years  subsequently,  Dr.  Ingalls,  of  Greenwich, 
N.  Y.,  near  to  Lake  Champlain,  sent  him  several  specimens  of  what  he  regard- 
ed as  a  new  Lymncea,  but  which  was  at  once  recognised  as  the  acuta,  heretofore 
found  only  in  the  one  habitat  near  the  Falls  of  Schuylkill.  In  the  minds  of 
some  zoologists  a  difficulty  exists  as  to  existence  of  species  in  such  constricted, 
isolated  points  as  mentioned  above,  but  that  difficulty  in  Mr.  Lea's  mind  was 
done  away  with  under  the  belief  that  very  young  molluscs  may  be  transported 
on  the  feet  of  birds  from  distant  points,  or  on  those  of  cattle  going  to  drink  from 
one  place  to  another.  The  idea  of  spontaneous  generation  could  not  of  course 
be  for  one  moment  admitted. 

Mr.  Lea  also  read  an  extract  of  a  letter  from  Dr.  Lewis,  of  Mohawk, 
N.  Y.,  giving  an  account  of  some  meteorological  phenomena,  and  exhibited 
a  diagram  of  thermal  curves  traced  by  the  self-registering  thermometer  of  Dr. 
Lewis. 

Prof.  R.  E.  Rogers  stated  that  he  had  recently  received  a  letter  from  Western 
Pennsylvania,  communicating  the  intelligence  that  some  of  the  Petroleum  wells 
had  already  begun  to  show  a  diminished  yield  of  Oil,  a  fact  in  confirmation  of 
an  apprehension  which  lie  had  expressed  at  a  former  meeting  of  the  Academy, 
that  when  the  Artesian  borings  became  more  numerous  in  the  favorite  localities, 
there  was  a  probability  of  such  a  result. 

He  regarded  the  circumstance  of  even  a  small  reduction  in  the  supply  of  the 
oil,  from  any  of  the  wells,  at  this  early  stage  of  the  enterprise  in  that  region, 
as  very  significant,  and  suggestive  of  the  fear  that,  remunerative  as  these 
wells  may  at  present  prove  to  be,  it  may  not  be  prudent  to  base  permanent 
calculations  upon  them. 

In  connection  with  the  subject,  Prof.  Rogers  described  the  approved  process 
by  which  the  illuminating  and  lubricating  Coal  Oils  are  manufactured,  an  I 
detailed  the  characteristics  which  seemed  to  be  requisite  to  render  any  oil- 
making  material  profitably  available  for  the  purpose. 


I860.] 


148  PROCEEDINGS  OP  THE  ACADEMY  OF 

May  15th. 
Mr.  Lea,  President,  in  the  Chair. 

Fifty-three  members  present. 

The  following  papers  were  presented  for  publication  : 

"  Description  of  a  new  species  of  Marginella,"  by  John  H.  Redfield. 

"  Descriptions  of  new  organic  remains  from  the  Tertiary,  Cretaceous 
and  Jurassic  rocks  of  Nebraska,"  by  F.  B.  Meek  and  F.  V.  Hayden. 

And  were  referred  to  Committees. 

Dr.  Fisher  read  the  following  extract  of  a  letter  from  Mr.  J.  H. 
Kedfield  : 

':  Mr.  J.  R.  Willis  announces  that  he  has  discovered,  in  deep  water  off  the 
coast  of  Nova  Scotia,  small  specimens  of  the  Waldheimia  cranium,  hitherto  known 
only  from  Norther  i  Europe.  He  has  also  found  Littorina  litorea  abundant  upon 
the  rocky  shore?  near  Halifax,  the  specimens  being  perfectly  undistinguishable 
from  English  examples." 

Prof.  R.  E.  Rogers  exhibited  a  modification  of  Mr.  Gore's  apparatus  of  the 
metallic  ball  revolving  in  a  circle  under  the  influence  of  a  galvanic  current. 

The  apparatus  consists  of  two  bands  of  sheet  brass,  secured  parallel  and 
within  an  inch  and  a  half  of  each  other,  upon  the  edge  of  a  board,  so  as  to 
form  a  miniature  railway,  on  which  the  ball  may  rest. 

To  give  automatic  action  to  the  ball,  causing  it  to  transverse  the  rails  alter- 
nately to  and  fro,  the  ends  of  the  bands  are  bent  slightly  upwards.  By  this 
arrangement,  the  ball,  on  approaching  the  end  of  its  course  in  one  direction,  is 
carried  by  its  momentum  a  little  up  the  inclination,  but  gravity  soon  prevail- 
ing, its  motion  is  reversed,  and  continues  in  its  new  direction  until  the  same 
result  takes  place  at  the  other  end. 

The  death  of  Bernard  Henry,  M.  D.,  who  died  at  sea  on  the  15th 
April,  was  announced. 

On  motion  of  Mr.  Vaux,  the  following  resolution  was  unanimously 
adopted  : 

Resolved,  That  the  thanks  of  this  Society  be  presented  to  H.  Gr.  De- 
silver,  for  the  valuable  addition  to  its  collection  of  the  fine  specimen  of 
the  Moose  presented  this  evening. 


May  22nd. 
Vice  President  Bridges  in  the  Chair. 

Forty-four  members  present. 

The  following  papers  were  presented  for  publication. 

"  Catalogue  of  Birds  collected  during  a  survey  of  a  route  for  a  ship 
canal  across  the  Isthmus  of  Darien,  by  order  of  the  Q-overnment  of  the 
United  States,  made  by  Lieut,  N.  Michler,  U.  S.  Top.  Eng.,  with 
notes  and  descriptions  of  new  species,"  No.  2,  by  John  Cassin. 

"Descriptions  of  some  new  species  of  Cretaceous  Fossils  from  South 
America,  in  the  collection  of  the  Academy,  by  Wm.  M.  Gabb. 

"  Descriptions  of  14  new  species  of  Schizostoma,  Anculosa,  and 
Lithasia,"  by  Isaac  Lea. 

And  were  referred  to  Committees. 

[May, 


NATURAL   SCIENCES   OF   PHILADELPHIA.  149 

Mr.  Aubrey  H.  Smith  remarked,  that  a  few  days  since,  whilst  he  and 
another  member  of  the  Academy  were  crossing  a  sandy  bank,  partially  covered 
with  low  bushy  pine  trees  and  other  undergrowth,  near  Moorestown,  N.  J., 
they  came  across  a  black  snake  of  about  four  feet  in  length,  lying  near  the 
edge  of  the  cover  formed  by  the  bushes.  At  the  first  alarm,  the  animal,  in- 
stead of  escaping  along  the  ground,  into  the  shelter  so  close  at  hand,  immedi- 
ately, with  a  rapid  gliding  motion,  ascended  among  the  branches  of  the  pines, 
and  reaching  their  somewhat  flattened  tops,  pressed  along  from  one  of  them 
to  the  other  at  the  height  of  some  six  or  seven  feet  from  the  ground,  and 
finally  rested  at  length  among  the  horizontal  upper  branches.  The  ascent  was 
made  by  him  in  a  direction  almost  perpendicular,  solely  by  projecting  the  body 
upward  from  the  ground  to  the  lower  branches  of  the  trees,  and  from  them  as 
from  a  new  point  of  support,  to  those  next  higher,  not  deriving  any  aid 
from  the  upright  trunk  of  the  tree,  which  he  did  not  seem  even  to  touch. 
When  again  disturbed  by  our  approach,  he  did  not  descend,  but  retreated  with 
the  same  gliding  motion  along  the  top  of  the  pines.  It  was  not  till  actually 
seized  by  the  hand,  that,  on  his  release,  he  betook  himself  to  flight  along  the 
ground. 

Mr.  Lea  called  the  attention  of  the  members  to  two  very  remarkable  speci- 
mens of  Echinus,  perforating  rocks,  which  he  had  recently  received  from  Mr. 
Cailliaud,  of  Nantes,  the  Egyptian  traveller.  He  also  exhibited  a  specimen  of 
Sandstone  from  Payta  in  Peru,  which  contained  Pelricola,  Lilhophagus,  &c.  He 
reminded  the  members  that  he  had  presented  to  the  Academy  a  very  remarka- 
ble specimen,  which  he  had  received  about  two  years  since  from  Mr.  Cailliaud, 
being  a  mass  of  gneiss  which  had  been  perforated  by  Pholades.  When  Mr. 
Cailliaud,  who  had  advocated,  contrary  to  the  opinion  of  most  naturalists,  the 
theory  that  some  of  the  Molluscs  bored  the  rocks  by  friction  and  not  by  de- 
composition, found  that  gneiss  and  granite  and  other  silicious  rocks  were  pene- 
trated by  them,  he  entirely  settled  that  question,  for  there  are  no  acids  known 
which  will  decompose  silex.  Mr.  Lea  remarked  that  the  two  specimens  now 
on  the  table  were  still  more  remarkable.  The  smaller  one  consisted  of  two 
specimens  of  Echinus  lividus,  Lam.,  which  had  buried  themselves  in  the  solid 
granite,  one  of  them  having  made  a  circular  hole  lj  inch  deep,  and  2  inches 
wide.  This  specimen  came  from  the  granite  coast  of  the  Loire-Inferieure. 
The  second  specimen  consisted  of  quite  a  congress  of  individuals  of  the  same 
species,  imbedded  in  a  solid  mass  of  hard  Silurian  Sandstone,  from  the  Bay  of 
Douarnenez,  in  the  Department  of  Finistere.  In  this  be  lutiful  specimen  there 
are  five  individuals  nestled  in  their  circular  holes,  worked  out  in  this  hard  stone 
by  the  attrition  of  their  teeth,  and  there  are  three  holes  vacated.  The  specimen 
is  5  inches  by  6J,  and  there  being  eight  holes  in  all,  their  circumferences  nearly 
impinge  on  each  other.  Mr.  Cailliaud  is  entirely  satisfied  that  the  boring  is 
purely  mechanical,  that  the  five  teeth  are  the  instruments  of  exploitation,  and 
that  it  is  by  the  percussion  of  their  points  on  the  rocks  that  these  holes  are 
effected.  The  teeth  are  in  form  like  the  rodents,  and  constantly  increase  as 
worn  at  the  outer  extremity.  He  made  a  hole  five  millimetres  deep  and  forty 
in  circumference  with  a  bundle  of  the  teeth  in  an  hour.  One  of  the  colonies 
which  he  examined  was  in  a  bay,  and  contained  about  two  thousand  holes,  each 
one  filled,  and  at  low  water  they  were  but  a  short  distance  below  the  surface. 
Some  of  the  specimens  were  not  larger  than  a  pea,  and  probably  only  five  days 
old.  The  holes  were  not  all  made  by  the  present  occupants,  most  of  them  pro- 
bably being  very  old  and  having  successive  inhabitants.  Mr.  Cailliaud  men- 
tioned in  his  letter  to  Mr.  Lea  that  he  shortly  expected  to  receive  from  Guada- 
loupe  an  oval  Echinus  which  had  made  its  oval  hole  in  the  mass  of  Madreporite. 

Dr.  I.  I.  Hayes  stated  to  the  Academy,  that  his  success  in  New 
York  and  Boston,  in  raising  funds  for  his  proposed  Arctic  Expedition, 
1860."| 


150 


PROCEEDINGS   OF   THE   ACADEMY   OP 


had  been  so  great,  that  if  he  could  succeed  in  raising  $6000  in  this 
city  he  would  be  able  to  sail  this  year. 


May  29th. 
Mr.  Lea,  President  in  the  Chair. 

Thirty-eight  members  present. 

The  report  of  the  Biological  Department  was  presented. 

The  following  resolution,  presented  by  Dr.  Leidy  on  behalf  of  the 
Curators,  was  adopted, 

Resolved,  That  the  Publication  Committee  and  the  Committee  on 
Proceedings,  be  authorized  to  exchange  as  much  of  the  Journal  and 
Proceedings  of  the  Academy  as  can  be  spared,  for  the  suite  of  Palaeozoic 
fossils,  which  have  been  offered  by  Mr.  J.  N.  H.  Barris. 

The  following  papers  were,  on  the  report  of  the  Committees  to  whom 
they  had  been  referred,  ordered  to  be  published  in  the  Proceedings. 


Notes  on  American  Land  Shells.    No.  6, 
BY   W.    G.    BINNEY. 

The  Catalogue  of  the  Terrestrial  Mollusks  of  North  America,  commenced  in 
the  Proceedings  of  the  Academy  for  November,  1858,  and  continued  in  the 
number  for  July,  1859,  is  here  completed.  The  list  is  believed  to  contain  all 
the  species  described  as  inhabiting  Mexico.  I  have  followed  the  systematic 
arrangement  of  Drs.  Gray  and  Pfeiffer  in  grouping  the  genera,  and  the  de- 
cisions of  the  latter  in  regard  to  the  synonymy. 

Many  Central  American  species  will  undoubtedly  be  added  to  the  list  when 
their  geographical  range  is  better  known.  The  species  of  the  Pacific  coast, 
included  in  the  first  section  of  the  Catalogue,  are  omitted  here,  viz.:  Nos.  3, 
7,  8,  11,  23,  25,  35,  37,  39,  40,  41,  42,  43,  45,  46,  47. 

For  additional  species,  changes  of  nomenclature,  &c,  &c,  of  the  section  of 
the  United  States,  see  Boston  Journal  of  Natural  History,  vol.  vii.,  and  the 
Remarks  on  North  American  Helicidse  by  Mr.  T.  Bland,  in  Annals  of  New 
York  Lyceum  of  Natural  History,  vol.  vi. 


Familia  TESTACELLID^E. 

GlANDINA. 

248.  G.  Candida  (Achatina)  Shuttl., 

Pf.  (dim.) 
Oleacina  Candida  Gr.  et  Pf.,  Pf. 

249.  G.  Carminensis    Mor.,  Ads. 

Gen. 
Achatina    Carminensis     Desh.     in 
Fer.,  Pf.  (olim.) 
"  rosea  var.  Rve.  (46  b.) 

Oleacina   Carminensis  Gr.  et   Pf., 
Pf. 

250.  G.  conularis  ( Oleacina)  Pf. 
Achatina  conidaris  Pf.  (olim.) 

251.  G.  Cordovana  (Oleacina)  Pf. 
Achatina  Cordovana  Pf.  (olim.) 


252.  G.  corneola   W.  G.  Binn.vid. 

202. 

252a.   G.  delicatula    (Achatina) 
Shuttl.,  Pf.  (olim.) 
Oleacina  delicatula  Gr.  et  Pf.,  Pf. 

253.  G.  Ghiesbreghti  (Achatina) 

Pf.  (olim.) 
Oleacina  Ghiesbreghti  Pf. 
253a.  G.  indusiata  Pf. 

254.  G.  Isabellina   (Achatina)  Pf 

(olim),  Rve. 
Oleacina  Isabellina  Gr.  et  Pf.,  Pf. 

255.  G.  Liebmanni   (Achatina)  Pf. 

(olim),  Chemn. 
Achatina  striata  Rve.  (19.) 
Oleacina  Liebmanni  Gr.  et  Pf.,  Pf, 

[May, 


NATURAL    SCIENCES    OP   PHILADELPHIA. 


151 


256.  G.  marg  a  ri  tacea  (Achatina) 

Pf.  (olim.) 
Oleacina  margaritacea  Pf. 

25 6a.  G.  monilifera    (Achatina) 
Pf.  {olim),  Rve. 
Oleacina  monilifera  Gr.  et  Pf.,  Pf. 

257.  G.  nana   (Achatina)  Skuttl.,  Pf. 

(olim.) 
Oleacina  nana  Gr.  et  Pf.,  Pf. 
257a.    G.  Orizabae    (Achatina)  Pf. 

(olim.) 
Oleacina  Orizaboz  Pf. 

258.  G.  pulcliella  ( Oleacina)  Pf. 

259.  G.    solidula  (Achatina)  Pf. 

(olim),    Chemn.,   Rve.,   Desh.  in 

Fer. 
Polyphemus  solidulus  Pf.  (olim.)  ~ 
Glandina  solidula  Pf., (olim),  Phil. 
"         folliculus  Gld.  (teste  Pf. ) 
Oleacina  solidula  Gr.  et  Pf.,  Pf. 
v  a  r .    Glandina  paragramma  Mor. 

260.  G.   Sowerbyana   (Achatina) 

Pf.  (olim),  Rve. 
Oleacina   Sowerbyana  Gr.   et  Pf., 
Pf. 

261.  G.    speciosa  (Achatina)  Pf. 

(olim.) 
Oleacina  speciosa  Pf. 

262.  G.   stigmatica    (Achatina) 

Shuttl.,  Pf.  (olim.) 
Oleacina  stigmatica  Gr.  et  Pf.,  Pf. 

263.  G.  Vanuxemensis  Lea,  vid. 

206. 

Familia  HELIClDiE. 

VlTKINA. 

264.  V.  Mexicana  Beck. 

Simpulopsis. 

265.  S.  ChiapensisP/. 

266.  S.  CordovanaP/. 

267.  S.  SalleanaP/. 

SUCCINEA. 

268.  S.  b  re  vis  Dunk.,  Pf.,  Chemn. 

269.  S.  undnlata  Say,  Pf.,  Chemn. 

Helix. 

270.  H  AriadnjeP/.,  vid.  79. 

271.  H.  Berlandieriana  Mor.vid. 

84a. 

272.  H.  bicinctaP/,  Chemn.,  Phil. 

273.  H.  b  i  c  r  u  r  i  s  Pf. 
I860.] 


274.  H.  b  i  1  i n  e  a  t  a  Pf.,  Chemn.,  Rve. 
H.  zonites  Rve.  615. 

275.  H.  caduca  Pf.,  Rve.,    Chemn.. 

=290? 

276.  H.  ChiapensisP/. 

277.  H.  coactiliata  Fer. 

278.  H.  contortuplicata  Beck. 

279.  H.  Cordovana  Pf. 

280.  H.  Couloni  Shuttl.,  Pf. 

281.  H.  flavescens   Wiegm.,  Pf. , 

Chemn. 

282.  H.  fulvoidea  Mor.,  Pf. 

283.  H.  Ghiesbreghti  Nyst.,  Pf., 

Rve.,  Chemn.,  Desh.  in  Fer. 

284.  H.  g  r  i s  e  o  1  a  Pf.  vid.  113, 

285.  H.  Guillarmodi  Shuttl.,  Pf., 

Chemn.,  Rve. 

286.  H.  helictompkala  Pf. 

287.  H.  H  i  nd  s  i  Pf.  vid.  117. 

288.  H.  Humboldtiana  Val.,Pf., 

Chemn.,    Rve.,    Desh.    in    Fer.. 

Phil. 
H.  Buffoniana  Pf.,  Phil.,  Chemn.. 

Fer.,  Rve.,  Binn. 
H.  badiocincta  Wiegm. 

289.  H.  implicata  Beck. 

290.  H.  lucubrata   Say,    Pf.,  nee 

Binn.  vid.  275. 

291.  H.  Mexicana  Koch.,    Chemn.. 

Pf. 

292.  H.  Oajacensis  Koch.,  Chemn., 

Pf. 

293.  H.  plagioglossa  Pf. 

294.  H.  SalleanaP/.^ve.,  Chemn. 

295.  H.    stolephora     Val.,    Pf., 

Chemn.,   Desh.,  Rve. 
Helicella  bupthalmus  Fer. 
Helix  Lamarkiana  /?.  Pf. 
Nanina  stolephora  Pf.,  Gr.  et  Pf. 

"         bicolor  Pf.  (olim.) 

296.  H.   tenuicostata    Dunk.. 

Chemn.,  Rve.,  Pf.. 

297.  H.  Texasiana  Mor.  vid.  170. 

298.  H.  trypanomp  ala  Pf. 

299.  H.  Veracruzensis  Pf. 

300.  H.  zonites   Pf.,  Rve.,    (excl. 

615.) 
Nanina  zonites  Gr. 

BtJLIMUS. 

301.  B.  alternatus  Say,  vid.  182. 


152 


PROCEEDINGS   OF   THE   ACADEMY   OF 


302.  B.  attenuatus  Pf,  Chemn. 

303.  B.  a  u  r  i  f  1  u  u  s  Pf. 

304.  B.  Cordovanus  Pf. 

305.  B.  coriaceus  Pf. 

306.  B.  costatostriatus  Pf. 

307.  B.  Drouet  i  Pf. 

308.  B.  Dunkeri  Pf.,  Rve. 

309.  B.  emeus  Say,  Pf. 

310.  B.  fenestratus   Pf. ,   Rve., 

Phil. 

311.  B.  gnomon  Beck. 

312.  B.  Gruneri  Pf,  Rve.,    Chemn. 

313.  B.  Hegewischi  Pf,  Rve. 

314.  B.  Humboldti  Pf,  Rve. 

B.  Mexicanus  Val.,  nee  Lam. 
var.  0. 
var.  y.  Bulimus  primularis  Rve., 

Pf.  (olim.) 
var.  <P. 
var.  e. 

315.  B.  livescens  Pf.,  Rve.,  Phil. 

316.  B.  M  arise  Albers,  =183. 

317.  B.  Mar  ten  si  Pf. 

318.  B.  Mexicanus    Pf.,     Rve., 

Deless.,  Desh.  in  Lam. 
Cochlogena  vittata  Fer. 
Orthalicus?  Mexicanus  Carp. 

318a.  B.  patriarcha   W.  G.  Binn. 

319.  B.  punctatissimus    Less., 

Rve.,  Pf.,  Chemn. 
Clausilia  punctatissima  Less. 

"         exesa  Pot.  et  Mich. 
Auricula  fuscagula  Lea. 
Pupa  septemplicata  Muhlf. 
Bulimus  fuscagula  Orb. 

' '         septemplicatus     Pf. 
(olim.) 

"         dentatus  King? 
Cochlodrina  exesa  Fer. 

320.  B.  rudis  Anton,  Rve.,  Pf. 

321.  B.  S  c  h  i  e  d  e  a  n  u  s  Pf.  vid.193. 

322.  B.  serperastrus    Say.,  Pf., 

Chemn. 
var.  /?.  Bulimus  Liebmanni  Pf. 
"         Ziebmanni  Rve. 
serperastrus    var. 
Chemn. 
var.  y.  Bulimus  nitelinus  Rve. 

323.  B.  sulcosus  Pf.,  Phil.,  Rve., 
B.  hyematus  Rve. 


324.  B.  sulphureus  Pf. 

325.  B.  truncatus  Pf.,  Rve.,  Phil. 

326.  B.  varicosus  Pf,  Chemn. 

Spiraxis. 

327.  S.  acus  Shuttl.,  Pf. 

328.  S.  auriculacea  Pf. 

329.  S.  b  i  c  o  n  i  c  a  Pf. 

330.  S.  catenata  Pf. 

331.  S.  coniformis  Shuttl.,  Pf. 

332.  S.dubiaP/. 

333.  S.  euptyctaiy. 

334.  S.  i  r  r  i  g  u  a  Shuttl.,  Pf. 

335.  S.  lurida  Shuttl,  Pf. 

336.  S.  mitrseformis  Shuttl.,  Pf. 

337.  S.  Nicole  ti  Shuttl,  Pf. 
Achatina  Nicoleti  Chemn. 

338.  S.  nigricans  Pf.,  Shuttl. 
Achatina  nigricans  Pf.  olim,  Rve.. 

Desh.  in  Fer. 
Glandina  nigricans  Pf.  olim. 

339.  S.  o  b  1  o  n  g  a  Pf. 

340.  S.  parvula  Pf. 

341.  S.  Shuttleworthi  Pf. 

342.  S.  streptostyla  Pf. 
Achatina    streptostyla     Pf.    olim, 

Chemn. 

343.  S.  turgidula  Pf. 

Orthalicus. 
343a.  O.  Boucardi  Pf 

344.  O.  livens  Pf.,  Bk.,  Shuttl. 

345.  O.  long  us  Pf. 

Bidimus  zebra  (1.  Pf.  (olim.) 

346.  O.  undatus  Brug.  vid.  196. 

Achatina. 

347.  A.  ambigua  Pf. 

348.  A.  Chiapensis  Pf. 

349.  A.  Rangiana  Pf,  Rve. 

350.  A.  trochlea  Pf,  Chemn. 

351.  A.  trypanodes  Pf. 

Cylindrella. 

352.  C.  apiostoma  Pf. 
352a.  C.  arctispira  Pf. 

353.  C.  attenuata  Pf.,  Chemn. 

354.  C.  Boucardi  Pf. 

355.  C.  clava  Pf.,  Chemn. 
355a.  C.  cretacea  Pf. 

[May, 


NATURAL  SCIENCES  OF  PHILADELPHIA. 


153 


356.  C.    de  col  lata   Nyst.    (Pupa), 

Pf.,  Chemn. 

357.  C.  denticulata  Pf.,    Chemn. 

358.  C.    filicosta     ShuttL,    Pf., 

Chemn. 

359.  C.  Ghiesbreghti  Pf.,  Chemn. 

360.  C.  goniostoma  Pf.,   Chemn. 
360a.  C.  grandis  Pf. 

361.  C.  Liebmanni  Pf.,    Chemn., 

Phil. 
361a.  C.  Mexican  a   Cum. 

362.  C.  Pfeifferi   Menlce,    Chemn., 

Phil. 

363.  C.  P  i  1  o  c  e  r  e  i  Pf,  Chemn.,Phil. 

364.  C.  polygyra  Pf.,  Chemn. 

365.  C.  teres  Menke,    Pf.,    Chemn., 

Phil. 

365a.  C.  splendida  Pf. 

366.  C.  turris  Pf.,  Chemn. 

Familia  AURICULIDiE. 
Melampus. 

367.  M.  coffea  Linn.  vid.  229. 

Familia  TRUNCATELLIDiE. 
Truncatella. 

368.  T.  Caribseensis    Sowb.   vid. 

238. 

Familia  CYCLOPHORIDJE. 
Cyclotps. 

369.  C.  Dysoni  Pf. 
Cyclostoma    Dysoni    Pf.     (olini), 

Chemn. 
Cyclophorus    Dysoni    Pf.    (olim), 
Gr.  et.  Pf. 

Cyclophorus. 

370.  C.  Boucardi  SalU,  Pf. 

371.  C.   Mexicanus    ( Cyclostoma) 

Menke,  Vgt.,  Phil.,  Sby.,  Chemn. 
Cyclotus  Mexicanus  Gr.  et  Pf.,Pf. 
(olim.) 

Tudora. 

372.  T.  p  1  a  n  o  s  p  i  r  a  Pf. 
Cyclostoma  planospira  Pf.  (olim.) 

Cistula. 

373.  C.  trochlearis    Pf.,    Gr.    et 

Pf. 
Cyclostoma  trochleare    Pf.   (olim), 
Chemn. 

I860.] 


Cyclostoma    trochlea     Pf.    (olim), 
nee  Bens. 

Chondropoma. 

374.  C.  Cordovanum  Pf. 
Cyclostoma  Cordovanum  Pf.  (olim.) 

375.  C.  truncatum    (Cyclostoma) 

Wiegm.,  Rossm. 
Chondropoma    truncatum    Pf.,    Gr. 
et  Pf. 

Familia  HELICINIDJE. 

Helicina. 

376.  H.  brevilabris  Pf. 

377.  H.  Chiapensisiy. 

378.  H.  chrysocheila  Binn.  vid. 

24t2. 

379.  H.  chrysocheila  ShuttL,  Pf. 

(nomen  tr.) 

380.  H.  ci  net  el  la  ShuttL,  Pf. 

381.  H.  concentrica  Pf.,    Gr.  et 

Pf.,  Chemn. 

382.  H.  Cordillera*  SalU,  Pf. 

383.  H.  delicatula  ShuttL,  Pf. 

384.  H.  elata  ShuttL,  Pf. 

385.  H.    f  1  a  v  i  d  a    Menke,     Sowb., 

Chemn.,  Pf.,  Gr.  et  Pf. 
H.    Ambieliana    Boissy,    Pot.     et 

Mich. 
H.  trossula  Mor. 

386.  H.  Ghiesbreghti  Pf. 
386a.  H.  H  e  1  o  i  s  se  SalU. 

387.  H.  Lindeni  Pf,   Chemn.,    Gr. 

etPf. 

388.  H.  lirata    Pf.,    Gr.   et    Pf., 

Chemn. 

389.  H.  merdigera  SalU,  Pf. 

390.  H.  n  o  t  a  t  a  SalU,  Pf. 

391.  H.  Oweniana   Pf.,     Chemn., 

Gr.  et  Pf. 

392.  H.  Sandozi  ShuttL,  Pf. 

393.  H.  sinuosa  Pf.,  Chemn.,  Gr.  et 

Pf. 

394.  H.  tenuis  Pf.,    Chemn.,   Gr.  et 

Pf. 

395.  H.  t  r  o  p  i  c  a  Pf.  vid.  247. 

396.  H.   turbinata    Wiegm.,    Pf., 

Mke.,  Chemn.,  Gr.  et  Pf. 
H.  zephyrina  var.  Sowb. 

397.  H.   zephyrina    Duel.,   Sowb., 

Chemn.,  Orb.,  Gr.  et  Pf. 
H.  Ambeliana  Sowb. 
Oligyra  zephyrina  Mrs.  Gray. 


154 


PROCEEDINGS   OP   THE   ACADEMY   OP 


SCHAZICHEILA. 

398.  S.  a  lata  {Helicina)  Mke.,    Gr. 

etPf. 
Schazicheila    alata    Shuttl.,     Pf., 
Ad.  Gen. 

399.  S.  Nicoleti  Shuttl.,  Pf. 

400.  S.  pannucea  Mor. 
Helicina  alata  var.?  Gr.  et  Pf. 


Familia  PROSERPINIDiE. 
Ceres. 

401.  C.  eolina  (Carocolla)  Duclos. 
Helicodonta  eolina  Fer. 
Odontostomus  eolinum  Pf.  (olim.) 
Proserpina  eolina  Pf.  (olim.) 
Ceres  eolina  Pf.,  Gr.  et  Pf. 

402.  C.  Salle  an  a  Cum.,  Pf.,  Gr.  et 

Pf. 


Descriptions  of  New  Species  of  Pulmonata  in  the  Collection  of  the 
Smithsonian  Institution. 

BY    W.    G.    BTNNEY. 

Pedipes  lirata.  T.  imperforata,  globoso-conica,  solida,  liris  regularibus 
spiraliter  cincta,  nitens,  straminea  ;  spira  brevis,  depressa,  apice  obtusa  ;  anfr. 
3,  superi  brevi,  ultimus  5-6  longitudinis  subsequans  ;  apertura  semicircularis  ; 
paries  aperturalis  callonitente  induta,  et  plica,  elevata,  crassa,  unca  et  intrante 
armata  ;  labium  columellare  callosum,  dentibus  2  approximatis,  crassis,  acutis, 
munitum ;  perist.  acutum,  intus  callo  nitente  in  medio  dentem  formante 
munitum.     Diam.  maj.  2£,  long.  3^;   aperturse  long.  2.},  mill. 

Ad  promont.  St.  Lucas  pceninsulse  California?  collegit  J.  Xantus  (cum  Buli- 
mo  proteo  Brod.,  B.  pallidiori  Sowb.  et  B.  excelso  Gould.) 

Onchidium  Carpenteri.  Among  the  mollusca  from  the  Straits  of  De  Fuca, 
Mr.  Carpenter  has  detected  five  specimens  of  a  shelless  inollusk,  which  evi- 
dently belong  to  the  genus  Onchidium.  Being  preserved  in  alcohol  it  is  diffi- 
cult to  obtain  any  more  satisfactory  specific  characters  than  the  following : 
The  body  is  oblong,  with  its  extremities  circularly  rounded ;  the  upper  sur- 
face is  regularly  arched  ;  below,  quite  near  the  edge,  the  border  of  the  mantle 
is  readily  distinguished,  most  of  the  under  surface  is  occupied  by  the  broad, 
distinct,  locomotive  disk ;  the  body  is  uniformly  smoke-colored ;  in  size  the 
individuals  vary  considerably,  the  length  of  the  largest  being  5,  the  extreme 
breadth  3  millimetres. 


A  List  of  the  SHELLS  of  the  State  of  Wisconsin 
BY   J.    A.    LAPHAM. 

Vitrina  limpida,  Gould,  N.  W.  Territory,  Say. 
Succinea  avara,  Say,  Milwaukee  ! 


obliqda,  Say, 

do. 

! 

ovalis,  Gould, 

do. 

; 

Helix  albolabris,  Say, 

do. 

! 

ALTERNATA,   Say, 

do. 

i 

arborea,  Say, 

do. 

i 

chersina,  Say, 

do. 

I 

CLA0SA,  Say, 

do. 

j 

concava,  Say,  N.  W.  Territory,  Say. 
elevata,  Say,  R.  Kennicott. 
fraterna,  Say,    Milwaukee ! 
hirsdta,  Say,  do.         ! 

labyrinthica,  Say,   do.         ! 
ligera,  Say,  N.  W.  Territory,  Say. 
lineata,    Say,    Milwaukee ! 


[May, 


NATURAL   SCIENCES   OF   PHILADELPHIA.  155 

monodon,  Rack,   Milwaukee ! 
multilineata,  Say,  do.         ! 
(perspectiva,  Say,  ?  ) 
profunda,  Say,  Milwaukee  ! 
striatella,  Anthony,  do.      ! 
Bulimus  harpa,  Say,  N.  W.  Territory,  Say. 
marginatus,  Say,  Milwaukee  ! 

ACHATINA  LUBRICA,   MU1.  do.  ! 

Pupa  armifera,  Say,  (?) 

corticaria,  Say,  (?)  Milwaukee  ! 
Vertigo  ovata,  Say,  (?)  do.         ! 

Carychium  exiguum,  Say,  (?)   do.         ! 
Helicina  occulta,  Say,  Sheboygan  !  ! 


Amnicola  limosa,  Say,  N.  W.  Territory,  Say. 

lustrica,  Say,  Milwaukee  ! 
Melania  depygis,  Say,  (?)       do.         ! 

elongata,  Say  ?  (or  elevata  ?)  Milwaukee  ! 
occulta,  Anth.,  Wisconsin,  Anthony. 
Leptoxis  isogona,  Say,  Rock  River  ! 
Viviparus  decisus,  Say,  Milwaukee  ! 

subglobosus,  Say,  N.  W.  Territory,  Say. 
Valvata  sincera,  Say,  Milwaukee  ! 
tricarinata,  Say,  do.      ! 
Limn^ea  caperata,  Say,  (?)    do.      ! 

catascopium,  Say,  N.  W.  Territory,  Say. 
columella,  Say,  (?)  Milwaukee  ! 
emarginata,  Say,  Madison,  Wisconsin  ! 
fragilis,  Say,  Milwaukee ! 
gracilis,  Say,         do.         ! 
jugularis,  Say,      do.         ! 
megasoma,  Say,  N.  W.  Territory,  Say. 
umbrosa,  Say,  do.  do. 

Physa  elongata,  Say,     Milwaukee 

heterostropha,  Say,  do. 
Planorbis  armigerus,  Say,    do. 
bicarinatus,  Say,  do. 
campanulatus,  Say,  Milwaukee. 
corpulentus,  Say,  N.  W.  Territory,  Say. 
deflectus,  Say,  Milwaukee 


exacutus,  Say, 

do. 

parvus,  Say, 

do. 

trivolvis,  Say, 

do. 

Ancylus  diaphanus,  Hald. 

(?) 

do. 

rivularis,  Say, 

do. 

Unio  alatus,  Say, 

do. 

gracilis,  Bar. 

do. 

pressus,  Lea, 

do. 

I860.] 


plicatus,  Lesueur,  Rock  and  Wisconsin  Rivers  ! 
schoolcraftensis,  Lea,  Fox  River,  Lea. 
cornutus,  Bar.,  Fox  River,  Barnes. 
postulosus,  Lea,  Rock  and  Wisconsin  Rivers  ! 
verrucosus,  Bar.,  Rock  River  ! 
metanevrus,  Raf.,  Wisconsin  River 
tuberculatus,  Bar.,  do. 

elegans,  Lea,  do. 

Lea,  (?) 


■C 


156  PROCEEDINGS  OP  THE  ACADEMY  OP 

Unio  zig-zag,  Lea,  Wisconsin  River  ! 
trigones,  Lea,  Milwaukee         ! 
obliquus,  Lam.,  Wisconsin  River  ! 
mytiloides,  Raf.,  Rock  River  ! 

ventricosus,  Bar.,  Wisconsin  River,  Barnes. 
ellipsis,  Lea,  Wisconsin  River  ! 
cariosus,  Say,  Silver  Lake         ! 
ligamentous,  Lam.,  Milwaukee! 
luteolus,  Lam.,  do.         ! 

radiatus,  Lam.,  do.         ! 

parvus,  Bar.,  Fox  River,  Barnes. 
rectus,  Lam.,  Wisconsin  and  Rock  Rivers  ! 
iris,  Lea,  (?) 

tenuissimus,  Lea,  Milwaukee  ! 
phaseolus,  Hild.,  Wisconsin  River,  Barnes. 
gibbosus,  Bar.,  Milwaukee  ! 
Margaritana  complanata,  Lea,  Milwaukee  ! 
marginata,  Lea,  do.         ! 

rugosa,  Lea,  do.         ! 

calceola,  Lea,  do. 

Anodonta  edentula,  Lea,  do. 

ferussaciana,  Lea,  do. 

imbecilis,  Say,  do. 

fluviatilis,  Lea,  (?)  do. 

plana,  Lea,  (?)  do. 

Note.— The  localities  observed  by  me  are  marked  with  an  exclamation  point  (!)  after  the  manner 
of  botanists. 


Contributions  to  American  Lepidopterology.— No.  4. 
BY   BRACKENRIDGE    CLEMENS,    M.    D. 

Saturnia  Schrank. 

S.  g  a  lb  in  a. — Antennae  luteous.  Body  and  head  rather  dark  brown. 
Fore  wings  yellowish-brown,  with  a  rather  faint  whitish,  angulated  band  at 
the  base.  On  the  discal  nervure  is  a  round,  black  ocellus  having  a  central 
subvitreous  streak,  containing  a  yellow  circle,  and  toward  the  base  of  the 
wing  a  slender  blue  crescent.  A  whitish  band  crosses  the  middle  of  the  ner- 
yules,  with  a  faint  wavy  one  between  it  and  the  hind  margin.  In  the  apical 
interspace  is  a  black  spot,  with  a  crimson  streak  to  the  tip  of  the  wing.  The 
marginal  portion  of  the  wing  is  whitish,  and  is  tinged  on  the  terminal  edge 
with  pale  yellowish  brown.  Hind  wings  similar  in  color  and  ornamentation 
to  the  fore  wings,  the  ocelli  being  somewhat  smaller.  On  the  under  surface, 
which  is  similar  in  hue  to  the  upper,  the  faint  wavy  bands  of  the  fore  and 
hind  wings  are  very  distinct. 

Texas.     From  the  Smithsonian  Institution.    Capt.  Pope's  collection. 

Pimela. 

In  the  fore  wings,  the  costal  and  subcostal  nervures  are  placed  near  each 
other  and  the  exterior  margin.  The  subcostal  sends  a  single  marginal  branch 
from  near  the  posterior-superior  angle  of  the  disk,  delivered  to  the  margin 
near  the  tip,  and  just  behind  this  angle  divides  into  two  branches  ;  the  upper 
one  or  the  apical  is  simple,  and  the  lower  one  is  subdivided  into  three  ner- 
vules,  the  post  apical  arising  near  the  upper  third  and  the  infra  post-apical  and 
subcosto-inferior  near  the  middle.  The  discal  nervure  arises  midway  between 
the  origin  of  the  subcosto-marginal  branch  and  that  of  the  apical ;  it  is  acutely 

[May, 


NATURAL   SCIENCES   OP   PHILADELPHIA.  157 

angulated  about  the  middle  and  sends  a  false  nervule  through  the  disk  to  the 
base  of  the  wing,  and  above  this  arises  the  discal  nervule. 

The  median  nervure  is  four-branched.  In  place  of  the  fold  is  a  slender, 
simple  nervure.  The  submedian  sends  two  branches  to  the  inner  margin,  one 
from  the  upper  third  and  one  from  the  lower  third  of  the  nervure.  (This  may 
be  a  malformation.     However  I  can  scarcely  believe  it  is  one.) 

Hind  wings  without  costal  nervure.  The  subcostal  forms  an  imperfect  cell 
at  its  base,  and  near  the  hind  end  of  the  disk  sends  off  an  apical  branch,  which 
gives  rise  to  an  oblique  but  not  angulated  discal  nervure  ;  from  this  arises  a 
false  nervule  running  to  the  base,  and  nearly  opposite  to  it  a  discal  nervule  to 
the  hind  margin. 

Median  nervure  four-branched.     Submedian  and  internal,  simple. 

Body  stout  and  very  pilose,  woolly.  Head  rather  small :  eyes  rather  large 
and  salient.  Antennae,  basal  joint  somewhat  tufted,  rather  longer  than  the 
thorax,  rather  deeply  pectinated  with  the  branches  decreasing  in  length  to  the 
tip,  and  both  sets  directed  forward.  Labial  palpi  extremely  short,  almost  ru- 
dimentary. Tongue  none.  Abdomen  equal  in  length  to  the  hind  wings. 
Tibiae  moderately  ciliated  exteriorly ;  hind  tibiae  with  two  very  short  apical 
spurs. 

This  genus  may,  perhaps,  be  the  same  as  Mr.  Walker's  Lagoa. 

P.  lanuginosa. — Female?  The  wings  are  badly  worn  and  denuded. 
Antennas  pale  brownish-yellow.  Face  dark  brownish :  head  and  body  dull 
yellow.  The  anterior  tibiae  and  all  the  tarsi  are  dark  brownish.  The  un- 
denuded  portion  of  the  fore  wings  at  the  base,  is  woolly  and  pale  brownish 
yellow. 

Male  ?  Antennae  yellowish  white.  Face  and  the  fore  legs  blackish-brown, 
the  hairs  white  and  all  the  tarsi  blackish-brown  toward  the  ends.  Thorax 
white,  very  slightly  tinted  with  yellowish.  Abdomen  rather  deep,  dull  yel- 
low. Wings  white,  slightly  tinted  with  yellowish  ;  fore  wings  woolly  toward 
the  base,  with  a  dark  brownish  discoloration  along  the  upper  part  of  the  disk 
and  the  costa  adjoining  it. 

The  female  ?  of  this  species  was  ticketed  by  the  collector  Bombyx  1  a  n  u  - 
g  i  n  o  s  u  s ,  but  I  have  not  been  able  to  find  any  description  under  this  name, 
nor  any  that  designates  the  insect  itself. 

From  the  Smithsonian  Institution.     Capt.  Pope's  coll.     Texas. 

Limacodes  Latreille. 

L.  laticlavia . — Body  and  fore  wings  rather  dark  ochreous-yellow. 
Fore  wings  with  an  oblique  silvery  band,  inclined  toward  the  base  of  the  wing, 
from  the  costa  to  the  middle  of  inner  margin,  and  toothed  toward  the  base  on 
the  submedian  nervure  or  fold.  A  rather  faint  dark  reddish  brown  line,  ex- 
tends from  the  costal  origin  of  the  silvery  band  to  the  hind  margin  beneath 
the  middle.  Hind  wings  pale  ochreous-yellow.  Abdomen  rather  reddisb- 
ochreous. 

Larva. — Outline  elliptical  somewhat  pointed  behind ;  body  flattened,  with 
the  sides  curving  from  a  central  ridge,  flattened  above.  The  ridge  has  a  ver- 
tical elevation  at  its  sides  above  the  body,  growing  less  and  less  before  and  be- 
hind, and  terminates  in  front  in  a  rounded  margin  and  behind  in  an  obtuse, 
short  spine.  The  body  is  smooth,  with  no  distinct  spined  papulae,  but  the 
edges  of  the  ridge  and  the  outline  of  the  body  are  thrown  into  folds,  subcre- 
nated.  The  body  is  thickest  in  the  middle  where  it  curves  anteriorly  nnd 
posteriorly.  ■ 

The  general  color  of  the  body  is  pale  green  and  dotted  with  numerous  yel- 
low points.     The  central  ridge  is  bordered  in  front  with  yellow. 

The  larva  feeds  on  the  underside  of  the  leaf  of  maple  in  September,  and  the 
imago  from  it  appears  in  the  spring.  There  is  doubtless  a  spring  brood  of 
larvae. 

I860.] 


158  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  ACADEMY  OP 

Var.  laticlavia?  Imago,  brownish-luteous,  sometimes  inclining  to  yel- 
lowish. Fore  wings  with  an  oblique  silvery  band  from  the  costa  to  the  mid- 
die  of  the  inner  margin,  toothed  on  the  submedian  fold  and  shaded  behind  with 
blackish-brown,  with  a  blackish-brown  line  from  the  costal  origin  of  the  silvery 
band  to  the  hind  margin  beneath  the  middle.  Hind  wings  dark  brown,  yellow- 
ish at  the  base. 

Three  sp.  from  Robert  Kennicott,  Illinois. 

Adoneta. 

The  characteristics  in  wing  structure  are  ;  that  the  subcostal  nervure  is  re- 
mote from  the  anterior  margin,  and  gives  off  two  marginal  branches  from  the 
disk,  one  near  the  middle  and  one  near  the  end,  and  then  subdivides  beyond 
the  disk  into  an  apical  and  post  apical  branch.  The  disco-central  nervule 
arises  above  the  middle  of  the  discal  nervure  at  an  angle,  whence  the  nervure 
curves  to  the  first  branch  of  the  median.  In  the  hind  wings  the  costal  and 
subcostal  intersect  at  their  bases.  The  latter  is  bifid  beyond  the  disk  ;  the 
disco-central  is  continued  to  the  base  of  the  wing,  attenuated  within  the  disk, 
and  the  discal  nervure  is  straight  on  the  costal  side  of  it,  and  very  oblique  on 
the  median  side ;  with  their  points  of  junction  separated.  Median  thre** 
branched. 

Body  rather  slender,  not  pilose.  Head  small  ;  eyes  quite  small.  Antenna- 
rather  more  than  one  half  as  long  as  the  body.  Labial  palpi  somewhat  ex- 
ceeding the  front,  rather  slender,  nearly  cylindrical,  squamose  above  and  slight- 
ly hirsute  beneath  ;  third  joint  very  small,  the  development  being  chiefly  in 
the  second  joint.  Tongue  none.  Abdomen  much  shorter  than  the  hind 
wings.  Fore  legs  rather  slender,  tibise  moderately  ciliated  ;  middle  and  hind 
tibiae  thickly  and  shortly  ciliated,  with  two  rather  short  apical  spurs.  Wings 
very  much  deflexed  in  repose,  almost  enveloping  the  body.  Male. — Tin- 
basal  half  of  the  antennae  shortly  pectinated.     Female. — Antennae  simple. 

A.  voluta. — Reddish-brown,  somewhat  paler  in  the  9  tnan  tne  <$• 
Fore  wings  with  a  dingy  yellow  streak  along  the  base  of  the  inner  margin, 
extended  toward  the  disk  above  the  middle  of  the  wing  and  on  this  portion 
are  two  or  three  blackish  dots.  On  the  hind  portion  of  the  disk  is  a  short 
black  streak.  In  the  tf  there  is  another  short  black  streak  along  the  median 
nervure  and  its  last  branch,  with  a  curved  row  of  three,  black,  submargina! 
spots.  The  lower  streak  and  the  spots  are  as  distinct  in  the  9  as  in  the  ^J1. 
In  both  sexes  there  is  a  subapical  dingy  yellow  patch,  lightly  bordered  behind 
with  whitish.     Hind  margin  spotted  with  black.     Hind  wing  pale  reddish 

brown. 

Larva. — Body  semi-cylindrical,  tapering  posteriorly  and  rounded  obtusely 
in  front.  Nearly  smooth,  but  with  a  subvascular  row  of  small  fleshy,  minute- 
ly spined  papulae  on  each  side  of  the  vascular  line,  three  of  which  placed  an- 
teriorly are  separated  and  distinct,  and  three  approximated  on  the  last  rings  : 
the  intermediate  ones  are  minute.  The  outline  of  the  body  above  the  ven- 
tral surface,  is  furnished  with  a  row  of  minute  spined  papulae. 

Bright  green,  with  a  broad  dorsal  yellow  band  containing  a  reddish  purple 
one  which  is  constricted  opposite  the  second  and  third  pairs  of  anterior  papu- 
lae and  dilated  into  an  elliptical  patch  in  the  middle  of  the  body.  This  is 
almost  separated  from  a  smaller  elliptical  patch  which  is  constricted  opposite 
the  third  pair  of  posterior  papulae  and  ends  in  a  small  round  patch.  The  an- 
terior and  posterior  papulae  are  crimson  and  the  intermediate  ones  green.  Th(^ 
superventral  row  of  spined  papul|e  are  green. 

In  September,  on  the  leaf  of  Apricot.     Imago  in  March. 

Empbetia. 

In  the  anterior  wings  the  subcostal  nervure  is  moderately  remote  from  the 
external  margin,  sends  off  two  marginal  branches  from  the  disk,  and  beyond 

[May- 


NATURAL   SCIENCES    OF    PHILADELPHIA.  159 

it  subdivides,  first  near  the  disk,  into  a  subcosto-inferior  branch,  and  then  into 
an  apical  and  post  apical  branch.  The  discal  nervure  is  very  irregular,  and 
sends  from  its  costal  portion  a  disco-central  nervule,  whilst  the  middle  of  the 
disk  contains  a  bifid  false  nervule.  The  internal  nervure  is  bifid  at  its  base. 
In  the  hind  wings  the  costal  and  subcostal  nervures  intersect  at  their  bases. 
The  subcostal  is  bifid  near  the  disk.  The  costal  portion  of  the  discal  nervure 
is  angulated,  and  forms  likewise  an  acute  angle  in  the  middle  of  the  disk, 
whence  a  false  nervule  proceeds  to  the  base  of  the  wing,  and  obliquely  joins 
the  median  system,  giving  rise  on  the  median  side  to  a  disco-central  nervule. 

Body  stout  or  very  stout,  thorax  covered  thickly  with  flat  hairs.  Head 
quite  small ;  eyes  small  and  oval.  Labial  palpi  somewhat  exceeding  the  head, 
slightly  curved,  more  robust  in  the  <^  than  in  the  9  '■>  third  joint  small  and 
conical,  about  four  times  less  long  than  the  second  and  slightly  hirsute  be- 
neath. Tongue  none.  Antennae  rather  more  than  one  half  the  length  of  the 
body.  Abdomen  shorter  than  the  hind  wings.  Fore  legs  long  and  rather 
slender ;  fore  tibiae  and  tarsi  moderately  ciliated ;  middle  and  hind  tibia? 
thickly  ciliated,  with  two  moderate  apical  spurs  on  hind  tibiae.  Male. — An- 
tennae, basal  half  pectinated.     Female. — Simple. 

E.  stimulea  . — Body  and  fore  wings  uniform  dark  ferruginous,  with  two 
small  subapical  white  spots,  and  in  the  $  two  inore  near  the  base  of  the  wing 
beneath  the  median  nervure.     Hind  wings  pale  reddish-brown. 

Larva. — Body  semicylindrical,  truncated  obliquely  before  and  behind,  with 
a  pair  of  anterior,  long,  fleshy,  subvascular  slenderly  spined  horns  and  a  pair 
smaller  beneath  them,  above  the  head  ;  a  posterior  similar  pair  and  a  smaller 
anal  pair  beneath  them.  The  superventral  of  papulae  are  rather  large  and 
densely  spined.  After  the  last  moulting  the  longer  horns  become  moderate 
in  length. 

The  portion  of  the  body  between  the  anterior  and  posterior  horns  is  a  fine, 
bright  green  color,  bordered  anteriorly  and  superventrally  by  white,  with  a 
central,  dorsal,  oval  reddish  brown  patch  bordered  with  white,  which  color  is 
again  edged  by  a  black  line.  The  horns,  papulae  and  anterior  portion  of  the 
body  are  reddish  brown,  with  a  small  yellow  spot  between  the  anterior  horns, 
while  the  posterior  pair  are  placed  in  a  yellow  patch. 

The  spines  with  which  the  horns  are  supplied,  produce  an  exceeding  pain- 
ful sensation  when  they  come  in  contact  with  the  back  of  the  hand,  or  any 
portion  of  the  body  on  which  the  skin  is  thin. 

On  a  great  variety  of  plants  ;  fruit  trees,  the  rose,  Indian  corn,  (Zea  mays) 
and  a  number  of  other  plants. 

E.  paenulata . — Body  dark  reddish  brown.  Fore  wings  dark  reddish- 
brown  along  all  the  borders,  with  a  large,  central  pea-green  patch,  extending 
from  the  base  of  the  wing  to  the  subterminal  portion,  bordered  narrowly  on 
the  inner  side  and  behind  with  white,  and  deeply  indented  opposite  the  mid- 
dle of  the  inner  margin,  where  there  is  a  bright  brown  patch  in  the  reddish 
brown  border.     Hind  wings  yellowish  brown. 

I  do  not  know  the  larval  state  of  this  species,  and  have  only  two  specimens, 
both  apparently  females.  I  can  perceive  no  differences  in  the  structural  char- 
acters of  the  imago  of  this  and  the  previous  species,  and  am  quite  sure  that 
they  belong  to  the  same  generic  group.  The  discovery  of  the  larval  form  will, 
however,  determine  the  question. 

From  Mr.  Robert  Kennicott,  Illinois. 

NOCHELIA. 

In  the  anterior  wings,  the  subcostal  nervure  is  remote  from  the  external 
margin,  and  the  costal  arises  from  its  base ;  it  gives  off  a  marginal  branch 
near  the  posterior  end  of  the  disk,  and  another  exterior  to  the  disk.  The  sub- 
costo  inferior  branch  arises  nearly  midway  between  this  latter  and  the  post- 

1860.] 


160  PROCEEDINGS   OF   THE   ACADEMY   OF 

apical,  which  is  given  off  near  the  tip  of  the  wing.  The  discal  nervure  is 
doubly  angulated,  and  gives  rise  to  the  disco-central  nervule  at  the  angle  on 
the  costal  side  ;  and  from  the  central,  a  false  nervule  to  the  base  of  the  wing. 
Median  four-branched.     Internal  bifid  at  the  base. 

In  the  hind  wings,  the  costal  and  subcostal  have  a  common  trunk.  The 
subcostal  bifid  beyond  the  disk.  The  subcostal  and  median  portions  of  the 
discal  nervure  are  much  separated  at  their  points  of  junction  with  the  disco- 
central,  which  is  continued  as  a  false  nervule  to  the  base  of  the  wing. 

Male. — Body  stout  and  very  short ;  thorax  covered  with  fiat  hairs.  Head 
and  eyes  moderate,  the  latter  oval.  Labial  palpi  slightly  exceeding  the  front, 
rather  stout,  porrect,  third  joint  very  minute.  No  tongue.  Antennae  much 
more  than  one  half  as  long  as  the  body,  with  the  basal  third  pectinated.  Ab- 
domen shorter  than  the  hind  wings.  The  middle  and  hind  tibiae  rather  thick- 
ly ciliated  ;  apical  spurs  of  hind  tibiae,  if  present,  inconspicuous. 

N.  tardigrada . — Male. — Body  and  fore  wings  rather  dark  reddish  brown, 
with  a  small,  nearly  triangular  pea-green  patch  narrowly  bordered  with  dark 
brown  at  the  base  of  the  wing  beneath  the  median  nervure,  slightly  excavated 
behind  where  it  adjoins  a  bright  brown  patch.  Towards  the  hind  end  of  the 
disk,  in  its  middle,  is  a  minute,  oval  dark  brown  streak  ;  two  small  pea-green 
subapical  spots,  the  one  nearest  the  costa  minute. 

Larva. — The  body  is  elliptical,  much  flattened  above.  There  is  on  each 
side  a  row  of  subvascular,  minutely  spined  papulae,  of  which  the  three  anterior 
and  two  posterior  are  more  conspicuous  than  the  rest.  The  superventral  row 
of  papulae  are  moderate,  equal,  and  form  the  outline  of  the  body. 

General  color  very  pale  green,  with  dorsal  patches  of  the  general  hue  beau- 
tifully margined  by  crimson  lines,  and  crimson,  vascular  patches,  of  which 
those  between  the  fourth  undjifth,  seventh  and  eighth  pairs  of  subvascular  papu- 
lae are  most  conspicuous,  although  small.     All  the  papulae  pale  green. 

On  the  apricot  in  September.     Imago  in  April. 

I  have  descriptions  of  other  larvae  similar  in  physical  characteristics  to  the 
above,  but  have  not  succeeded  in  carrying  them  through  their  transforma- 
tions. 

The  genera  Pimela,  Limacodes,  Adoneta,  Empretia  and  Nochelia  belong  to 
that  most  anomalous  family  Limacodidae.  Perhaps  some  of  the  groups  de- 
scribed as  new  have  been  heretofore  established,  but  I  found  the  effort  to 
identify  them  from  meagre  and  unsatisfactory  diagnoses  of  the  imago  an 
almost  futile  task. 

Attacus  Hubner. 

The  following  species  have  never  been  described  I  believe,  except  by  De 
Beauvois,  and  as  his  work  is  now  rather  rare  and  an  expensive  one,  and  not 
accessible  to  tbe  great  body  of  American  entomologists,  I  insert  here  de- 
scriptions of  the  following  insects  : 

A.  splendida,  Bombix  splendida,  De  Beauvois,  Ins.  en  Afrique  et 
en  Amer.  p.  133,  pi.  22,  f.  1,  2.  .  .  .   .  .    .        AV 

Dull  reddish-brown.  Thorax  banded  with  white  before  and  behind.  Ab- 
domen with  a  white  stigmatal  band  edged  above  and  beneath  with  black  and 
containing  reddish  brown  spots.  Fore  wings  with  a  basal  white  streak  ex- 
tending from  the  costa  to  the  base  of  medio-posterior  nervule  and  thence  to 
the  inner  margin  at  the  base  of  the  wing,  bordered  toward  the  base  with 
orange-yellowish  and  externally  by  black.  The  breadth  of  the  disk  is  occu- 
pied by  a  large  trigonate  vitreous  patch,  extended  behind  so  as  to  interrupt  a 
white  wavy,  narrow  band  crossing  the  middle  of  the  nervules  and  which  is 
bordered  internally  with  black  and  externally  with  orange-yellowish.  The 
trigonate  patch  is  edged  within  by  white  and  externally  by  black  behind  and 
before.  Beyond  the  transnervular  band,  the  wing  is  brown  dusted  with 
blackish  and  powdered  with  whitish  roseate  in  the  medio-posterior  and  sub- 

[May, 


NATURAL    SCIENCES   OF   PHILADELPHIA.  161 

median  interspaces  behind  the  band.  At  the  tip  is  a  large  whitish  roseate 
patch,  three  contiguous  black  spots  at  the  end  of  post  apical  interspace,  with 
a  wavy  black,  submarginal  line.  Hind  margin  luteo-testaceous.  Hind  wings, 
trigonate  vitreous  patch  somewhat  larger  than  in  fore  wings,  with  a  trans- 
nervular  band  similar  to  fore  wings,  continued  around  the  costa  to  the  base 
of  the  wing  and  the  medio-posterior  interspace  and  those  adjoining  it, 
powdered  with  whitish  roseate  behind  the  band.  Hind  margin  luteo-testa- 
ceous with  a  row  oflblack  spots  and  a  dark  brown  line. 
From  Smithsonian  Institution.     Capt.  Pope's  coll.     Texas. 

Hypercompa  Stephens. 

H.  interrupto-marginata.  —  Bombix  interrupto-marginata,  De 
Beauvois  Ins.  Afriq.  et  Amer.  p.  265,  pi.  24,  f.  5,  6.  Head  and  labial  palpi 
pale  orange  yellow,  the  latter  with  black  tips.  Thorax  pale  yellow,  with 
a  broad  black  stripe  on  the  disk.  Abdomen  orange  yellow,  with  a  dorsal 
black  stripe.  Fore  wings  pale  yellow,  with  a  black  streak  along  the  costa 
not  reaching  the  tip  of  the  wing,  a  broad  streak  of  the  same  hue  along 
the  inner  margin,  sending  from  the  inner  angle  toward  the  hind  end  of  the 
disk,  a  hooked  demi-band  ;  hind  margin  black  in  the  middle.  Hind  wings 
pale  orange-yellow,  with  a  black  spot  near  the  inner  angle  and  a  larger 
one  in  the  middle  of  the  medio-posterior  interspace  and  nervule.  Legs 
pale  orange-yellow. 

Virginia  and  Wisconsin. 

TINEINA. 
Anorthosia. 

Anterior  wings  rather  narrow,  and  somewhat  lanceolate.  The  subcostal 
nervure  is  nearly  straight  and  gives  off  from  the  disk,  which  is  unclosed, 
three  marginal  nervules  and  becomes  bifid  before  the  tip.  The  discal  ner- 
vule is  independent.  The  median  is  four-branched,  its  last  nervule  is  bifid, 
and  arises  opposite  the  middle  of  the  origins  of  the  2d  and  3d  subcosto 
marginals.     The  submedian  is  bifid  at  its  base. 

Hind  wings  somewhat  emarginate  behind  the  tip  on  the  external  mar- 
gin, and  rather  deeply  emarginate  beneath  the  tip.  Disk  unclosed.  Sub- 
costal nervure  bifid  from  the  end  of  the  disk.  This  discal  nervule  is  trans- 
ferred to  the  median  side,  and  the  median  nervure  is  three-branched. 

Head  and  face  smooth;  vertex  elongated,  with  long  loose  scales  over- 
lapping in  the  middle.  Forehead  rounded.  Ocelli  very  small.  Eyes  small, 
round  and  salient.  Antenna?  about  one  third  less  long  than  the  anterior 
wings,  basal  joint  long  and  slender,  the  stalk  slightly  denticulated  beneath. 
Maxillary  palpi  extremely  small.  Labial  palpi,  smooth,  long  and  porrected, 
their  development  being  almost  entirely  in  the  second  joint,  ivhich  is  sup- 
plied above  with  long  hairs  capable  of  being  erected,  although  usually  decumb- 
ent, and  with  the  third  joint  short,  very  slender,  smooth  and  pointed,  arising 
nearly  erectly  at  the  apical  third  of  the  second,  and  is  likewise  capable  of  being 
erected  or  depressed.  Tongue  scaled  at  the  base  and  about  as  long  as  the 
labial  palpi. 

A.  p  unc  ti  pen  n  e  11  a. — Labial  palpi  and  head  rather  dark  ochreous, 
the  former  dark  brownish  externally.  Antennae  ochreous,  annulated  with 
dark  brown.  Fore  wings  rather  dark  ochreous,  sometimes  dusted  with  dark 
brownish,  with  three  pairs  of  blackish  brown  dots  along  the  fold,  the  first 
near  the  base  of  the  wing,  the  second  rather  above  the  middle  and  the  third 
near  its  end.  One  dot  of  each  of  the  latter  pairs,  is  in  the  fold,  the  other 
above  it  obliquely.  The  costa  at  the  base,  and  beyond  the  middle  is  touched 
with  blackish,  with  the  hinder  portion  of  the  wing  dotted  and  dusted  with 
dark  brown,  especially  along  the  hinder  margin.  Cilia  ochreous.  Hind 
wings  shining,  blackish  gray,  cilia  the  same.     Abdomen  blackish. 

I860.]  10 


162  PROCEEDINGS   OF   THE   ACADEMY   OF 

Gelechia  Zeller. 

G.  cerealella. — Anacampsis  (Butalis)  cerealella  Harris,  Treat,  on  Ins. 
2d  ed.  p.  392  — Head  and  face  dull  ochreous.  Labial  palpi  pale  ochreous, 
with  fuscous  ring  at  the  tip  and  a  slight  fuscous  spot  on  the  middle  of  the 
second  joint.  Fore  wings  pale,  shining  ochreous,  with  a  fuscous  streak  in  the 
fold  toward  the  base  and  a  few  fuscous  scales  toward  the  tip  of  the  wing  on 
the  margin  ;  cilia  grayish  ochreous.  Hind  wings  grayish  ochreous,  cilia  the 
same. 

This  insect  has  doubtless  been  introduced  into  this  country  from  Europe. 
My  own  specimens  were  obtained  from  the  W.  D.  Porter  wheat,  distributed  by 
the  Patent  Office  at  Washington  City.  The  seed  of  this  wheat  was  originally 
procured  from  Mount  Olympus  in  Asia,  and  from  two  heads  of  this  as  a  be- 
ginning was  grown  in  the  District  of  Columbia  the  grain  distributed  in  the 
years  1854  and  1855.     The  insect  is  probably  common  in  the  District. 

G.  agrim  o  n  iel  1  a  . — Labial  palpi  yellowish.  Eyes  crimson.  Antenna? 
yellowish  annulated,  with  black.  Head,  thorax  and  fore  wings  blackish  some- 
what suffused  with  a  greenish  hue,  the  latter  black  beyond  the  middle,  with 
a  pale  yellow  band,  somewhat  hooked  on  the  costa,  at  the  apical  third  of  the 
wing.     Hind  wings  blackish-brown,  cilia  the  same. 

The  larva  may  be  found  about  the  middle  of  June,  nearly  full  fed,  in  the 
leaves  of  Agrimony,  (Agrimonia  Eupatoria)  which  it  rolls  and  binds  together 
with  silken  threads.  The  body  of  the  full  grown  larva  is  colored  obscure 
green,  dotted  with  black  dots.  Head  and  shield  pale  brown.  The  young 
larva  is  flesh-colored  and  dotted  with  dark  colored  dots.  The  pupa  is  con- 
tained in  a  slight  cocoon,  sometimes  woven  between  the  leaves  of  its  food 
plant,  but  usually  it  is  abandoned  to  construct  it.  The  pupa-case  is  not 
thrust  from  the  cocoon  at  the  maturity  of  the  insect. 

The  June  brood  of  larva  become  imagos  during  the  latter  part  of  June  or 
the  beginning  of  July. 

Fore  wings  scarcely  pointed.  Secondary  cell  faintly  indicated.  Subcosto- 
apical  vein  forked.  The  last  branch  of  median  bifid.  Hind  wings  emarginate 
before  the  tip  and  slightly  beneath  it ;  with  an  intercostal  cell  at  the  base. 

G.?  flavocostella  . — Labial  palpi  wanting.  Head  dull  reddish  yellow. 
Antennae  blackish-brown,  yellowish  toward  the  base.  Thorax,  disk  black, 
front  and  sides  dull  yellow.  Fore  wings  black,  with  a  broad,  pale  yellow 
costal  streak,  extending  from  the  base  nearly  to  the  tip  of  the  wing,  undula- 
ting from  the  base  to  the  middle  of  the  wing  and  dilated  into  an  angle  at  the 
apical  third,  with  a  faint,  yellowish  streak  produced  from  the  apex  of  the 
angle  toward  the  inner  angle  of  the  wing.  Hind  wings  dark  brown,  cilia  the 
same. 

This  insect  does  not,  probably,  belong  to  the  genus  under  which  it  is  placed. 
As  the  labial  palpi  are  wanting,  I  include  it  here  from  its  general  structure 
and  appearance,  not  knowing  otherwise  where  to  place  it. 

One  specimen  from  A.  I.  Packard  Jr.,  of  Brunswick,  Maine. 

The  second  joint  of  labial  palpi  moderately  thickened.  Hind  wings  deeply 
emarginate  beneath  the  tip,  which  is  produced. 

G.?  roseosuffusella  . — Labial  palpi,  second  joint  whitish  spotted  with 
dark  fuscous  ;  the  third  dark  fuscous  annulated  with  two  white  rings.  Head 
and  thorax  ochreous,  tegulse  with  a  dark-brown  spot  in  front.  Antennae 
dark  fuscous,  annulated  with  whitish.  Fore  wings  dark  brown,  ochreous 
along  the  inner  margin,  where  it  is  suffused  with  roseate.  At  the  base  of  the 
wing  is  a  white  spot  containing  a  dark  brown  dot,  and  near  the  base  an  ob- 
lique white  band.  About  the  middle  of  the  wing  is  a  large  white  spot  or  in- 
distinct broad  band,  irrorated  with  dark  brownish  and  tinted  with  roseate  on 
the  inner  margin.     Near  the  tip  is  a  costal  white  spot  and  a  roseate  spot 

[May, 


NATURAL   SCIENCES   OF  PHILADELPHIA.  163 

opposite  on  the  inner  margin,  and  a  whitish  spot  at  the  tip.  Cilia  brownish 
gray.  Hind  wings  dark  fuscous-gray,  cilia  fuscous.  Feet  annulated  with 
white. 

Fore  wings  scarcely  pointed.  Hind  loings  slightly  emarginate  beneath  the  tip, 
with  an  intercostal  cell  at  the  base. 

G.  Rhoifructella  . — Head,  face  and  thorax  grayish-fuscous.  Labial 
palpi  rather  dark  ochreous.  Antenna  ochreous,  annulated  with  black.  Fore 
wings  grayish-fuscous  dusted  with  dark  brown,  and  with  four  dark  fuscous 
dots,  one  near  the  base  of  the  fold,  two  near  the  middle  of  the  wing,  (one  on 
the  fold  and  one  above  it, )  and  one  on  the  end  of  the  disk.  Near  the  end  of 
the  wing  is  an  indistinct  grayish  band.     Hind  wings  fuscous,  cilia  the  same. 

The  larvae  may  be  found  in  April  or  early  in  May,  in  the  fruit  spikes  of  sumach 
(Rhus  Typhina),  where  they  feed  on  the  crimson  hairs  and  exterior  envelope 
of  the  drupes,  without  however  eating  the  drupes  themselves.  The  larvae  are 
concealed  in  galleries  formed  in  the  fruit  spikes,  and  their  presence  is  indicated 
by  strings  of  "frass"  clinging  to  the  exterior.  The  cocoon  is  a  slight  silken 
web  woven  amongst  the  "frass"  near  the  surface.  The  larva  is  immaculate, 
and  varies  in  color,  from  dark  reddish-brown  to  a  pale  brown,  dotted  with 
rows  of  darker  colored  dots,  each  giving  rise  to  a  hair ;  the  head  is  brown  and 
the  shield  blackish.     The  imago  appears  about  the  middle  of  June. 

Size  small.  Fore  wings  rather  lanceolate  and  pointed.  Hind  wings  deeply 
emarginate  beneath  the  tip,  which  is  produced.  The  second  joint  of  labial  palpi 
somewhat  thickened. 

G.?  rubidella  . — Head  and  face  ochreous.  Labial  palpi  yellowish  white, 
with  two  deep  fuscous  spots  on  the  middle  joint,  and  two  blackish  brown  rings 
on  the  terminal  one,  a  narrow  one  near  its  base  and  a  broad  one  near  the  tip, 
while  the  tip  is  blackish.  Antennae  deep  fuscous  annulated  with  white. 
Thorax  fuscous,  deep  fuscous  in  front.  Fore  wings  roseate,  dusted  with  deep 
fuscous,  with  a  brownish  ochreous  streak  along  the  inner  margin  from  the 
base  to  nearly  the  middle  of  the  wing,  and  interrupted  about  its  middle  by  a 
roseate  hue.  At  the  basal  third  of  the  wing  is  an  oblique  deep  fuscous  band,  ex- 
tending from  the  costa  to  the  fold,  and  beyond  the  middle  of  the  costa  is  a 
spot  of  the  same  hue,  joined  toward  the  inner  margin  by  a  brownish- 
ochreous  spot.  The  apical  portion  of  the  wing  much  dusted  with  deep  fus- 
cous ;  cilia  ochreous,  with  a  fuscous  hinder  marginal  line.  Hind  wings  black- 
ish gray  ;  cilia  somewhat  paler.  Feet  rather  pale  ochreous,  spotted  with  deep 
fuscous. 

G.  flexurella. — Head  and  face  grayish  fuscous.  Labial  palpi,  second 
joint  dark  fuscous,  terminal  joint  white  with  a  blackish  ring  at  the  base  and 
one  near  the  tip.  Antennae  whitish  annulated  with  dark  fuscous.  Fore 
wings  grayish  fuscous,  with  a  pale  grayish  band  near  the  apex  margined  in- 
ternally on  the  costa  by  a  blackish  brown  spot,  with  another  of  the  same  hue 
about  the  middle  of  costa  and  another  on  the  costa  near  the  base.  Near  the 
base  of  the  fold  is  a  rather  faint  dark  brownish  spot,  and  the  wing  is  sprinkled 
with  dark  brown  atoms.     Hind  wings  dark  fuscous,  cilia  ochreous  gray. 

Variety  ?  Fore  wings  smoky  fuscous,  with  a  pale  grayish  band  near  the 
tip,  broadest  and  most  distinct  on  the  costa,  margined  broadly  internally  across 
the  wing,  with  dark  brown,  with  a  pale  grayish  spot  between  it  and  a  dark 
brown  spot  on  the  middle  of  costa.  In  the  middle  of  the  wing  are  two  dark 
brown  spots,  one  on  the  basal  part  of  the  fold  and  a  small  one  on  the  costa 
above  it  of  the  same  hue.     Hind  wings  dark  fuscous. 

G.  mimella. — Head  and  face  tawny  brown.  Labial  palpi,  second  joint 
dark  fuscous,  with  a  whitish  ring  at  its  end  ;  third  joint  gray  with  a  ring  in 
its  middle.  Antennae  pale  fuscous  annulated  with  white.  Fore  wings  tawny 
brown,  with  an  ochreous  band  near  the  tip,  margined  internally  slightly  with 
I860.] 


164  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  ACADEMY  OF 

dark  brown.     Along  the  costa  are  a  few  dark  brown  spots  and  a  few  in  the 
apical  portion  behind  the  ochreous  band.     Hind  wings  dark  brown. 

Size  small.  Fore  wings  acutely  pointed  or  lanceolate.  Hind  wings  deeply 
emarginate  beneath  the  tip,  which  is  produced.  Labial  palpi  rather  short ;  middle 
joint  somewhat  thickened  with  scales,  terminal  rather  short. 

G.?  deter  sell  a. — Head  and  face  grayish  fuscous.  Labial  palpi  pale 
yellowish-white,  with  two  fuscous  patches  on  the  middle  joint,  a  very  narrow 
fuscous  ring  at  the  base  of  terminal  joint,  a  broad  one  near  the  tip,  with  the 
extreme  apex  whitish.  Antennae  grayish  fuscous,  annulated  with  dark  fus- 
cous. Fore  wings  grayish,  very  profusely  dusted  with  dark  fuscous,  with  a 
dark  fuscous  spot  on  the  disk  ;  cilia  ochreous  gray.  Hind  wings  pale  ochreous- 
gray  ;  cilia  pale  ochreous.     Feet  annulated  with  whitish. 

I  have  found  this  genus  a  very  difficult  one.  It  is  of  great  extent  and  in- 
cludes individuals  of  a  variety  of  aspects  and  more  or  less  marked  modifica- 
tions in  the  labial  palpi.  The  oral  parts  in  the  doubtful  species  correspond 
so  nearly  to  those  of  the  genus,  that  I  have  concluded  after  much  hesitation 
not  to  place  them  in  separate  groups,  notwithstanding  the  produced  apex  of 
the  hind  wings  in  some  of  them. 

Strobisia. 

Fore  wings  obtuse  and  rounded  behind.  The  subcostal  divides  into  four 
branches,  with  the  apical  branch  simple  or  forked.  The  discoidal  nervure 
gives  origin  to  a  disco-central  branch.  The  median  is  four-branched ;  sub- 
median  forked  at  the  base.  Hind  wings  trapezoidal,  not  broader  than  fore 
wings,  with  the  hinder  margin  slightly  emarginate  beneath  the  tip.  Subcos- 
tal bifid  from  the  discoidal,  which  gives  rise  to  a  disco-central  vein.  Median 
three-branched,  the  two  upper  branches  aiising  at  a  common  base. 

Head  smooth  with  appressed  scales.  Forehead  and  face  rounded.  Ocelli 
large.  Eyes  oval  and  obliquely  placed.  Labial  palpi  recurved,  moderately 
long  ;  second  joint  flattened,  smooth  with  appressed  scales  ;  third  slender, 
smooth  and  pointed.  Maxillary  palpi  short  and  distinct.  Antennae  slender, 
simple  ;  basal  joint  subclavate.  Tongue  scaled,  nearly  or  quite  as  long  as  the 
thorax  beneath. 

The  structure  of  the  insects  here  included,  closely  approach  that  of  the 
genus  Gelechia,  in  which  I  placed  them  in  the  first  arrangement.  I  cannot 
believe,  however,  that  they  are  members  of  this  group,  and  have  hence  re- 
moved them.  The  perfect  insects  are  most  commonly  found  in  shaded  places, 
on  the  surface  of  leaves.  They  are  active  and  restless  in  their  motions,  and 
turn  in  circles  on  their  resting  places,  especially  after  short  flights ;  withal 
they  are  disposed  to  be  quarrelsome  and  drive  away  from  the  leaves  on  which 
they  may  happen  to  be  enjoying  themselves,  other  "  little  people"  of  the 
shaded  wood. 

Fore  wings  obtusely  rounded  behind.  Subcosto  apical  branch  simple.  Medio 
posterior  vein  bifid. 

S.  iridipennella  . — Head  and  thorax  brown,  with  a  greenish  hue  j 
face  whitish  beneath.  Labial  palpi  dull  silvery.  Antennae  dark  brown.  Fore 
wings  dark  brown,  with  a  greenish-golden  hue.  Along  the  costa  are  three 
metallic  blue  or  violet-blue  oblique  streaks  scarcely  reaching  the  middle  of 
the  wing,  the  first  is  longest  and  is  placed  about  the  middle  of  the  costa,  the 
third  near  the  tip,  and  with  three  spots  of  the  same  hue  beneath  the  second 
streak,  one  in  the  fold  and  two  in  the  middle  of  the  wing.  In  the  apical  por- 
tion near  the  hind  margin  are  three  or  four  parallel  similarly  hued  streaks 
and  at  the  base  of  the  fold  is  a  violet-blue  spot.  Hind  wings  brown,  along 
the  base  of  costa  pale  yellow. 

[May, 


NATURAL    SCIENCES   OF  PHILADELPHIA.  165 

Fore  wings  obtuse,  hind  margin  slightly  oblique.  Apical  branch  bifid. 
S.  emblemella . — Head  and  thorax  dark  brownish,  with  a  goMen  hue  ; 
face  whitish  beneath.  Labial  palpi  silvery  gray  ;  third  joint  fuscous  in  front. 
Antennae  dark  fuscous.  Fore  wings  dark  brown,  somewhat  golden.  The 
costa  at  the  base  and  a  basal  band  are  dull  silvery  and  rather  behind  the 
middle  of  costa  is  an  oblique  silvery  costal  streak  and  about  the  middle 
is  a  curved  costal  streak  of  the  same  hue.  This  unites  with  an  oblique 
silvery  streak,  from  the  middle  of  inner  margin,  and  which  becomes  diffuse  in 
the  middle  of  the  wing.  Near  the  tip  at  the  beginning  of  the  costal  cilia,  is  a 
small  costal  silvery  spot  and  a  row  of  spots  or  short  parallel  bluish  silvery 
streaks  along  the  hinder  margin.  Cilia  at  the  tip  ochreous,  containing  a  dark 
fuscous  line  ;  on  inner  margin  dark  fuscous.  Hind  wings  dark  brown,  yel- 
lowish along  the  costa  ;  cilia  dark  brown. 

Endrosis  ?  Hiibner. 

Hind  wings  10th  a  medio-discal  branch,  in  addition  to  the  discocentral ;  terminal 
branch  of  median  bifid.      Transparent  patch  at  base,  quite  distinct. 

E.?  Kenn  ico  tt  e  1 1  a  . — Head  and  thorax  white,  with  a  small  dark  fus- 
cous patch  on  the  front  of  tegulae.  Labial  palpi  white,  terminal  joint  with  a 
dark  fuscous  ring  at  the  base  and  one  near  the  tip,  with  the  extreme  apex 
white.  Antennae  dark  fuscous.  Fore  wings  whitish,  much  dusted  with  dark 
fuscous.  At  the  base  is  a  white  spot  and  the  adjoining  portion  of  the  costa 
dark  fuscous  ;  behind  the  middle  and  near  the  tip  is  a  whitish  spot  and  oppo- 
site the  latter  on  the  inner  margin  is  a  whitish  spot  nearly  joining  it,  both 
dusted  with  fuscous.  Apical  portion,  dark  fuscous,  with  a  few  whitish  spots 
on  the  margins  ;  cilia  ochreous.  Hind  wings  gray  ;  cilia  pale  ochreous.  Feet 
with  tarsi  annulated. 

From  Mr.  Robert  Kennicott  of  North  Westfield,  111.     Two  specimens. 

Ev AGORA. 

Fore  wings  rather  narrow  and  obliquely  pointed  at  the  tip  ;  inner  margin 
slightly  retuse  beyond  the  middle.  Discoidal  cell  closed  by  a  faint,  simple, 
oblique  nervure,  given  off  from  the  subcostal  near  the  third  marginal  branch ; 
without  disco-central  nervule.  The  subcostal  runs  almost  straight  from  the 
base  to  the  tip  of  the  wing,  giving  off  from  the  cell  three  marginal  branches, 
one  near  the  middle  of  the  wing  and  two  near  the  end  of  the  disk  ;  beyond  the 
disk  it  sends  another  branch  to  the  costa,  and  before  the  tip  becomes  bifid  send- 
ing one  branch  above  and  another  below  the  tip.  The  median  subdivides  into 
four  branches,  which  are  aggregated  at  their  origins,  and,  except  the  medio-pos- 
terior,  are  long.  The  submedian  is  furcate  at  its  base.  Hind  wings  deeply 
emarginate  beneath  the  tip,  which  is  abruptly  produced,  although  short. 
The  discoidal  cell  is  closed  by  a  slight  curved  nervure,  and  is  without  a  disco- 
central  nervule.  The  subcostal  is  bifid  from  the  discal  nervure,  and  the  median 
gives  rise  to  a  medio-discal  nervule  which  curves  much  upward ;  the  last 
branch  of  the  median  much  removed  from  the  two  terminal  branches  which 
are  approximated. 

Size  small,  forehead  rounded  ;  face  rather  narrow.  Ocelli  none.  Eyes  round, 
moderately  prominent.  Antennae  rather  thick,  simple,  and  about  one  half  as  long 
as  the  fore  wings  ;  basal  joint  rather  slender  but  short.  Labial  palpi  cylindrical, 
rather  short,  middle  joint  slightly  thickened  toward  its  extremity,  at  least  one 
half  longer  than  the  terminal  joint,  which  is  somewhat  roughened  but  slender 
and  pointed.  Maxillary  palpi  not  perceptible.  Tongue  scaled  at  the  base,  short, 
not  as  long  as  the  labial  palpi. 

This  genus  shows  some  resemblance  in  structure  to  Parasia,  but  I  think  it 
is  very  distinct, 

E.  apicit  r  ipun  c  tell  a. — Head,  face  and  thorax  ochreous.  Labial  palpi 
I860.] 


166  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  ACADEMY  OP 

ochreous  internally,  externally  dark  fuscous  ;  terminal  joint  with  a  fuscous 
ring  at  the  base  and  tip,  extreme  tip  ochreous.  Antennae  dark  fuscous,  in- 
distinctly annulated  with  ochreous.  Fore  wings  brownish  ochreous,  with  three 
oblique  dark  streaks  from  the  costa  to  the  middle  of  the  wing,  bordered  behind 
with  very  pale  ochreous,ihe  first  near  the  base,  the  second  about  the  middle  of  costa, 
the  third  near  the  tip  with  its  pale  ochreous  margin  extended  across  the  wing. 
Beneath  the  third  streak  are  two  dark  fuscous  spots,  sometimes  margined  with 
pale  ochreous.  At  the  tip  are  three  dark  fuscous  dots,  one  nearly  on  the  ex- 
treme apex  and  two  others  behind  it.  Cilia  of  the  tip  somewhat  dusted  with 
fuscous,  the  inner  margin  ochreous.     Hind  wings  rather  dark  ochreous,  cilia 


3> 
the  same 


Teichotaphk. 


Fore  wings  scarcely  pointed,  hind  margin  oblique,  costa  behind  the  tip  deflex- 
ed.  The  discoidal  cell  is  closed  and  rounded  behind .  The  subcostal  nervure  sends 
four  veins  to  the  costa  behind  the  tip,  the  last  of  which  is  furcate,  and  one  to 
hind  margin  beneath  the  tip  from  the  cell.  The  median  seuds  four  branches 
to  the  hind  margin,  the  last  of  which  is  furcate.  Hind  wings  emarginate  in 
the  middle  of  costa,  and  somewhat  emarginate  beneath  the  tip,  with  an 
intercostal  cell  at  the  base  ;  subcostal  bifid  from  the  discal  nervure  which  sends 
a  central  branch  to  the  hind  margin.     The  median  is  three-branched. 

Head  smooth,  with  appressed  scales.  Without  ocelli.  Eyes  round  and 
moderately  prominent.  Labial  palpi  recurved  ;  middle  joint  slightly  curved, 
rather  broad,  compressed  laterally,  squamose  on  the  sides  and  hairy  toward 
the  end  ;  terminal  joint  slender,  smooth,  pointed  and  not  so  long  as  the  middle 
joint.  Maxillary  palpi  short  and  distinct.  Antennae  rather  more  than  one  half 
as  long  as  the  fore  wings,  somewhat  denticulated  and  microscopically  pubes- 
cent beneath  in  the  male?  Tongue  scaled  at  the  base,  nearly  as  long  as  the 
thorax  beneath. 

Middle  joint  of  labial  palpi  much  flattened ;  hairy  above  and  below,  with  diverging 

hairs. 
T.  setosell  a.— Head,  face  and  thorax  rather  dark  ochreous.  Labial 
palpi,  middle  joint  blackish-brown  externally,  with  the  spreading  hairs  above 
and  beneath  at  the  end,  ochreous  ;  terminal  joint  ochreous  tipped  with  fus- 
cus,  antennae  fuscous,  ochreous  toward  the  base.  Fore  wings  dark  brown,  slightly 
dusted  with  pale  ochreous.  At  the  base  of  the  costa  is  a  pale  ochreous  irregu- 
larly triangular  patch,  slightly  dusted  with  fuscous,  angulated  on  the  upper 
portion  of  the  fold  ;  the  angle  is  margined  beneath  with  blackish  brown,  with 
a  small  patch  of  the  same  hue  between  the  angle  and  base  of  the  wing,  and  a 
large  one  behind  it  extending  from  the  subcostal  nervure  to  the  fold.  Across 
the  base  of  the  nervnles  runs  a  pale  ochreous  line,  on  each  side  of  which  the 
wing  is  nearly  uniform  dark  brown.     Hind  wings  yellowish  brown. 

Middle  joint  of  labial  palpi  vnthout  spreading  hairs. 
T.  j  u  n  c  i  d  e  1 1  a  .—Head,  face  and  thorax  dark  brown.  Labial  palpi  ochre- 
ous orange.  Antenna?  dark  brown.  Fore  wings  dark  brown  almost  black- 
ish brown,  with  an  ochreous  orange  spot  on  the  disk,  one  on  the  sub- 
costal nervure  nearer  the  base,  one  beneath  it  in  the  fold,  and  one  on  the  end 
of  the  disk,  all  of  the  same  hue.  On  the  costa  near  the  tip  is  a  small  ochreous 
orange  spot,  and  the  cilia  which  are  somewhat  paler  than  the  general  hue  are 
varied  with  shining  ochreous.     Hind  wings  dull  yellowish  brown. 

Callima. 
Fore  wings  rather  ovate,  obtusely  pointed.     The  subcostal  nervure  sends 
four  nervules  to  the  costa,  the  last  one  furoate  behind  the  tip,  with  both 
branches  above  it.     From  the  discal  proceeds  a  disco-central  nervule,  and  the 
median  subdivides  into  four  branches.     Submedian  furcate  at  the  base. 

[May, 


NATURAL    SCIENCES    OP   PHILADELPHIA.  -167 

The  hind  wings  are  much  narrower  and  shorter  than  the  fore  wings,  emargin- 
ate  in  the  middle  of  the  costa,  hind  margin  obtusely  pointed  and  very  oblique. 
The  costal  ends  in  the  middle  of  the  wing.  The  subcostal  is  attenuated  to- 
wards the  base,  thediscal  gives  rise  to  two  nervules  and  the  median  is  three- 
branched,  the  superior  and  central  nervules  arising  in  a  short  common  stalk. 

Head  smooth,  with  hair-like  scales.  Face  quite  narrow.  Ocelli  none.  Eyes 
round  and  quite  prominent.  Labial  palpi  long  and  recurved  ;  the  middle  joint 
rather  slender,  smooth  with  appressed  scales,  slightly  flattened,  longer  than 
the  third  joint,  which  is  slender,  smooth  and  pointed.  Maxillary  palpi  none. 
Antennae  inserted  on  the  front,  basal  joint  smooth  and  subclavate,  slightly 
denticulated  beneath  and  microscopically  pubescent  (in  the  tf  alone  ?). 
Tongue  scaled  at  the  base  and  somewhat  longer  than  the  anterior  coxae. 

This  insect,  I  think,  must  approach  very  nearly  (Ecophora  of  Zeller  if  it  is 
not,  indeed,  a  member  of  that  genus. 

C.  argenticinc  t  e  11  a. — Head,  face  and  thorax  deep  reddish  orange. 
Labial  palpi,  middle  joint  dark  brown,  terminal  white  with  a  broad  dark  brown 
ring  on  its  middle.  Antennae  silvery  white  annulated  with  blackish.  Fore 
wings  yellowish  orange.  Along  the  basal  margin  of  the  wing  from  the  fold  to 
the  basal  angle,  is  a  silvery  line  black  margined  on  both  sides,  and  one 
from  the  basal  third  of  the  inner  margin,  somewhat  curved  and  not  extended 
to  the  costa,  likewise  silvery  and  black  margined  on  both  sides  ;  the  basal 
portion  of  the  wing  included  between  these  lines  is  deep  reddish  orange.  Near 
the  apical  third  of  the  wing  is  a  silvery  costal  streak,  curved  and  tapering 
outwardly,  slightly  dark  margined  on  the  costa  behind.  Opposite  this  on  the 
inner  margin,  is  a  semicircular  silvery  line,  black  margined  on  both  sides  at  its 
beginning,  which  terminates  in  a  dark  brown  spot,  white  margined  exteriorly, 
at  the  commencement  of  the  cilia,  before  which  the  line  becomes  grayish  sil- 
very. The  portion  of  the  wing  included  within  this  line,  is  deep  reddish 
orange,  as  well  as  the  apical  portion,  in  which  along  the  hind  margin  is  a  row 
of  silvery  spots  each  slightly  dark  margined.  Hind  wings  fuscous.  Feet 
annulated  with  white. 

Nomia. 

Fore  wings  rather  narrowly  ovate-lanceolate,  discoidal  e'en  very  narrow,  long 
and  unclosed,  with  two  independent  discal  nervules  to  the  hinder  margin  beneath 
the  tip.  The  costal  nervure  is  short.  The  subcostal  nearly  straight,  sending 
three  nervules  to  the  costa  from  the  cell,  the  first  from  the  middle  of  the  wing, 
and  its  last  branch  bifid,  with  both  branches  above  the  apex.  The  median  is 
two-branched,  the  one  nearest  the  base  bifid  near  its  end.  The  submedian  is 
furcate  at  its  base. 

Hind  wings  narrower  than  the  fore  wings,  costa  nearly  straight,  but  slightly 
curved  ;  apex  decidedly  produced,  with  the  hind  margin  deepty  and  circularly 
excavated  beneath  it  and  the  anal  angle  rounded.  The  discoidal  cell  is  broad 
and  unclosed,  with  a  short  independent  discal  nervule  beneath  the  middle  of 
the  wing.  Subcostal  nervure  simple.  Median  three-branched,  the  first  de- 
livered to  the  inner  margin  rather  behind  the  middle,  the  last  to  the  rounded 
anal  angle. 

Head  smooth,  with  appressed  scales.  Forehead  and  face  broad  and  round- 
ed. Ocelli  none.  Eyes  oval,  not  prominent,  flattened.  Labial  palpi  short, 
somewhat  reflexed,  smooth,  rather  slender  and  pointed  ;  terminal  joint  ex- 
tremely short,  much  slenderer  than  the  middle.  Maxillary  palpi  not  percepti- 
ble. Antenna?  about  one  half  as  long  as  the  fore  wings,  rather  thick,  but  taper- 
ing, roughened  ;  basal  joint  rather  slender  and  short.  Tongue  slender,  scaled 
at  the  base,  longer  than  the  anterior  coxa?. 

N.  li  n  gul  acell  a  . — Head,  face,  and  thorax,  dark  fuscous.  Tegulae 
golden.     Labial  palpi  pale  yellowish,  terminal  joint  fuscous.     Antennae  dark 

I860.] 


168  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  ACADEMY  OP 

fuscous.  Fore  wings  golden  yellow.  At  the  base  of  the  costa  is  a  dark  golden 
brown  patch,  not  extended  beyond  the  fold,  and  margined  behind  and  beneatli 
with  iridescent  silvery.  On  the  inner  margin  near  the  base  and  extended  to 
the  middle  of  the  margin  is  a  rather  long  patch  of  the  same  hue,  with  an  iri- 
descent silvery  internal  patch  and  touched  exteriorly  with  the  same  hue.  A 
large  trapezoidal  golden  brown  patch  on  the  middle  of  the  costa  is  margined 
internally  by  a  rather  broad  iridescent  silvery  streak,  which  is  slightly  dark 
margined  internally,  having  also  an  external  silvery  streak  produced  in  the 
middle  of  the  wing  toward  the  apex  and  beneath  it,  at  its  interior  angle,  a 
brownish  silvery  blotch,  pointing  to  the  inner  margin  at  the  beginning  of  the 
cilia.  In  the  apical  portion  of  the  wing  is  a  silvery  streak,  dark  margined  on 
both  sides  behind,  pointing  into  the  costal  cilia  above  the  apex.  The  costa 
from  the  trapezoidal  patch  to  the  tip,  is  touched  with  dark  brown  ;  cilia  dark 
brown  ;  beneath  the  apex  varied  with  silvery  on  the  base  of  the  cilia.  Hind 
wings  dark  brownish. 

Trypanisma. 

Fore  wings  ovate-lanecolate.  The  discoidal  cell  is  rather  narrow  and  elong- 
ately  oval.  The  subcostal  nervure  sends  three  nervules  to  the  costa,  the  last 
from  the  end  of  the  cell,  together  with  the  apical  branch  which  curves  at  its 
origin  to  send  off  a  very  short  and  faint  discal  nervure,  and  at  its  middle 
gives  rise  to  a  costal  branch,  becomes  furcate  behind  the  tip  and  delivers  a 
branch  above  and  one  below  the  tip.  The  median  is  three-branched,  the  mid- 
dle branch  being  bifid.  Submedian  furcate  at  the  base.  Hind  wings  narrower 
than  the  fore  wings,  with  an  intercostal  cell  at  the  base  ;  apex  produced,  deep- 
ly emarginate  on  hind  margin  and  anal  angle  rounded.  The  costa  is  slightly 
emarginate  in  the  middle.  The  discoidal  cell  broad,  and  closed  by  a  very  faint 
nervure  from  the  middle  of  the  subcostal,  which  is  furcate  near  the  tip.  The 
discal  nervule  arises  near  the  median,  which  is  three-branched,  with  branches 
rather  approximated. 

Size  small.  Head  smooth,  with  appressed  scales.  Forehead  and  face  rounded 
and  rather  broad.  OcellL.none.  Eyes  oval,  moderately  prominent.  Labial 
palpi  moderate,  arched  ;  middle  joint  slightly  thickened  with  scales  beneath, 
terminal  as  long  as  the  second,  smooth,  pointed  and  tapering  from  the  middle. 
Maxillary  palpi  not  perceptible.  Antennae  slender  and  simple  ;  about  oue  half 
as  long  as  the  fore  wings  ;  basal  joint  subclavate.  Tongue  scarcely  so  long  as 
the  labial  palpi. 

T.  prudens. — Head  pale  yellowish  white  dusted  with  fuscous.  Face 
yellowish  white.  Labial  palpi  pale  yellowish  white,  with  two  dark  brown 
spots  on  the  second  joint  and  two  rings  on  the  terminal  of  the  same  hue,  one 
at  the  base  and  one  near  the  apex  Thorax  yellowish,  dusted  with  fuscous. 
Antennas  fuscous  slightly  annulated  with  yellowish.  Fore  wings  fuscous, 
tinted  with  yellowish,  with  a  small  ochreous  yellow  patch  on  base  of  costa, 
one  of  the  same  hue  on  the  middle  of  inner  margin,  extended  to  the  middle  of 
the  wing  and  a  band  of  the  same  hue  near  the  tip,  much  angulated  or  nearly 
interrupted  in  the  middle  of  the  wing      Hind  wings  fuscous. 

The  generic  characters  of  this  insect  approach  those  of  Evagora.  The  larva 
lives  within  a  silken  web  woven  on  the  under  surface  of  the  leaves  of  chestnut 
oak.  It  feeds  on  the  cuticles  and  parenchyma  of  both  sides  of  the  leaf,  gaining 
the  upper  side  by  round  holes  eaten  through  its  substance,  and  just  large 
enough  to  admit  the  body  ;  of  these  there  were  three  at  various  points  of 
the  eaten  surface.  If  alarmed  the  larva  immediately  retreats  through  the 
opening  last  made  to  the  web  on  the  xinder  surface.  The  pupa  is  robust, 
almost  ovoid  and  is  contained  in  a  slight  cocoon  woven  on  the  leaf  on  which  the 
larvae  feed.  I  have  no  description  of  the  larva.  It  was  taken  July  22d,  became 
a  pupa  on  the  27th,  and  an  imago  on  August  8th. 

[May, 


NATURAL    SCIENCES    OP   PHILADELPHIA.  169 

Botalis  Treitschke. 

B.  f  u  scic  om  e  11a. — Head,  face,  labial  palpi  and  thorax,  yellowish,  fus- 
cous, antennae  purplish  fuscous.  Fore  wings  purplish  fuscous,  tinted  some- 
what with  yellowish  ;  cilia  purplish  fuscous.     Hind  wings  dark  fuscous. 

Taken  on  wing  in  June.  The  egg  is  ellipsoidal  ;  dirty  white;  investing 
membrane  thin  and  covered  with  punctures,  variolate. 

Fore  icings  loith  three  subcosto  marginal-branches,  the  apical  simple;  apex  pointed. 

B.  flavifrontella.  — Head  and  face  pale  brownish  ochreous.  Labia' 
palpi  dark  fuscous.  Thorax  and  antenna?  purplish  fuscous.  Fore  wings  pur- 
plish fuscous,  with  a  yellow  basal  streak  from  the  base  to  the  middle  of  the 
wing,  sometimes  almost  wanting,  and  the  tip  of  the  wing  of  the  same  hue. 
Hind  wings  dark  fuscous. 

Fore  ivings  with  three  nervules  beneath  the  apical. 
B.  matutella. — Head,  face,  thorax,  and  antenna?  dark  brownish  with  a 
purple  hue.  Fore  wings  reddish  fuscous,  with  a  brassy  lustre ;  a  pale  green- 
ish white  spot  rather  obliquely  placed  near  the  middle  of  the  wiug  and  one 
of  the  same  hue  on  the  inner  margin,  near  the  apex.  Hind  wings  dark  fuscous, 
cilia  the  same. 

Anaesia  ?  Zeller. 

Fore  wings  ovate-lanceolate  ;  with  an  opaque  space  on  the  costa,  towards  the 
end  of  the  costal  nervure  and  the  first  subcosto-marginal  branch.  Discoidal 
cell  rather  narrow,  closed  by  a  short  nervure.  The  subcostal  sends  four 
branches  to  the  costa,  the  first  from  a  point  rather  behind  the  middle  of  the 
wing,  much  separated  from  the  second,  and  the  last  furcate  on  the  costa  be- 
fore the  tip,  and  a  simple  branch  beneath  the  latter  to  inner  margin  just  be- 
neath the  tip  of  the  wing.  The  median  subdivides  into  four  branches,  rather 
approximated  at  their  origins,  the  medio-posterior  branch  being  nearly  opposite 
to  the  second  marginal.  Subcostal  furcate  at  the  base.  Hind  wings  trapezoidal, 
costa  refuse,  slightly  emarginate  beneath  the  tip,  hind  margin  obliquely 
rounded  ;  broader  than  the  fore  wings.  Subcostal  nervure  rather  attenuated 
toward  the  base,  with  a  faintly  formed  intercostal  cell,  furcate.  Discoidal  cell 
broad,  closed,  with  a  nervule  given  off  to  the  hind  margin.  Median  three- 
branched,  medio-posterior  branch  distant  from  the  others. 

Head  smooth,  covered  thickly  with  decumbent  scales.  Forehead  broad,  al- 
most spherical ;  face  rather  narrow  beneath.  Ocelli  none.  Eyes  rounded, 
moderately  prominent.  Labial  palpi,  second  joint  thick,  with  a  very  abundant 
tuft  of  hairs  beneath  prolonged  in  front  ;  third  joint  smooth,  slender  and  pointed, 
as  long  as  the  second.  Maxillary  palpi,  short  and  distinct.  Antenna?  simple, 
scarcely  more  than  one  half  so  long  as  the  fore  wings,  slightly  denticulated, 
basal  joint  smooth.  Tongue  scaled  at  the  base,  about  as  long  as  the  labial 
palpi. 

I  have  three  specimens  of  the  insect  belonging  to  this  genus,  but  none  of 
them  show  the  peculiar  structure  of  the  palpi  of  the  European  male.  Whe- 
ther mine  are  all  females  or  whether  the  individuals  are  generically  distinct  from 
the  European,  as  the  details  of  some  parts  of  their  structure  seems  to  indicate, 
must  be  left  for  future  determination. 

A.  ?  p  r  u  n  i  e  1 1  a  . — Head  and  face  pale  gray  ;  thorax  dark  gray.  Labial  pal- 
pi dark  fuscous  externally  and  pale  gray  at  the  end  ;  terminal  joint  gray, 
dusted  with  dark  fuscous.  Antennas  grayish,  annulated  with  dark  brown. 
Fore  wings  gray,  dusted  with  blackish  brown,  with  a  few  blackish  brown  spots 
along  the  costa,  the  largest  in  the  middle,  and  short  blackish-brown  streaks 
on  the  median  nervure,  subcostal,  in  the  fold  and  one  or  two  at  the  tip  of  the 
wing  ;  cilia  fuscous  gray.  Hind  wings  fuscous  gray  ;  cilia  gray,  tinted  with 
yellowish. 

I860.] 


170  PROCEEDINGS    OP   THE    ACADEMY    OF 

The  larva  was  taken  June  16th,  full  grown  and  about  to  transform  on  the 
limbs  of  the  plum.  Its  head  is  black,  body  uniform  reddish-brown  with  indis- 
tinct papulae,  each  giving  rise  to  a  hair,  and  with  pale  brown  patches  on  the 
sides  of  the  3d  and  4th  segments  ;  shield  and  terminal  prolegs,  black.  One 
specimen  had  secreted  itself  under  a  turned  up  portion  of  the  old  bark  of  the 
trunk.  The  cocoon  is  exceedingly  slight,  and  the  tail  of  the  pupa  is  attached 
to  a  little  button  of  silk.  The  pupa  is  ovate,  abdomen  short  and  conical, 
smooth  ;  color,  dark  reddish-brown.  I  do  not  know  on  what  part  of  the  tree 
the  larva  feeds. 

Stilbosis. 

Fore  wings  narrow  and  pointed.  Discoidal  cell  open,  elongated  and  very 
narrow.  Subcostal  nervure,  with  tbree  nervules  to  the  costa  from  the  cell,  and 
an  apical  branch  which  sends  a  nervule  to  the  costa  from  its  middle,  and  is  bifid  at 
the  tip  of  the  wing;  the  apical  branch  is  nearly  absolete  from  the  third  to  the 
fourth  marginal  branch.  Beneath  the  apical  is  a  discal  nervule,  which  is  obso- 
lete posteriorly  from  its  middle.  The  median  is  tbree-branched  ;  the  submedi- 
an,  simple.  Hind  wings  setaceous  ;  the  discoidal  cell  is  open  and  moderately 
broad  toward  the  base  of  the  wing.  The  subcostal  is  obsolete  toward  the  base 
and  bifid  at  the  tip  of  the  wing  ;  a  discal  nervule  beneath  it  is  obsolete  posteriorly 
from  its  middle.     The  median  subdivides  into  three  separate  branches. 

Head  and  face  perfectly  smoo  h.  Ocelli  none.  Eyes  small,' oval  and  visible 
in  front.  Labial  palpi  moderate,  somewhat  curved,  slender,  smooth  and 
pointed  ;  terminal  joint  as  long  and  as  thick  as  the  middle,  and  very  acute  at 
its  apex.  Antennae  rather  thick,  simple,  somewhat  roughened,  rather  short  ; 
basal  joint  smooth  and  subclavate.     Tongue  short. 

This  genus  is  nearly  related  to  Cosmopteryx  of  Hiibner,  but  the  labial  pal- 
pi are  much  less  developed,  and  the  tongue  much  shorter. 

S.  tesquell  a. — Head  and  face  grayish-silvery,  having  a  greenish  splen  - 
dent  lustre.  Labial  palpi  ochreous.  Antennae  dark  fuscous.  "Fore  wings  fus- 
cous-golden, tinted  along  the  base  of  costa  with  reddish-violet;  with  three 
patches  of  raised  scales,  one  in  the  fold  near  the  base,  one  behind  the  middle  of 
the  wing,  and  one  near  the  tip  on  the  inner  margin,  the  latter  two  are  large  and 
extended  nearly  to  the  costa.  In  certain  lights  these  raised  patches  are  golden 
internally,  while  the  spaces  of  the  wing  between  them  become  dark  fuscous  and 
with  the  light  striking  the  wing  from  the  tip  the  patches  are  dark  ochreous 
and  the  last  is  extended  obliquely  into  the  costa  as  a  streak  of  the  same  hue. 

The  tip  of  the  wing  is  reddish- violet,  in  certain  lights  dark  fuscous.  The  cilia 
are  very  long  and  are  extended  along  the  hind  margin  beyond  the  middle  of 
the  wing  ;  fuscous  tinged  with  reddish.  Hind  wings  dark  fuscous,  cilia  the 
same. 

Laverna  Curtis. 

Fore  wings  pointed,  oblique  along  the  hinder  margin,  with  five  veins  be- 
neath the  furcate  apical  vein.  Discoidal  cell  narrow.  Submedian  furcate  at 
each  end;  basal  fork  long,  the  apical  fork  shorter.  Hind  wings  rather  refuse 
on  the  costa  before  the  tip  ;  hind  margin  rounded  or  cimetar-shaped  from  base 
to  apex.  The  subcostal  is  obsolete  toward  the  base,  simple,  and  runs  into  the 
costa  before  the  tip.  Discoidal  cell  closed,  with  a  discal  vein  furcate  at  the 
tip.     Median  three-branched,  the  last  two  arising  on  a  common  base. 

Head  smooth  ;  backhead  or  vertex  elongated.  Forehead  obtuse,  advanced  ; 
face  retreating.  Eyes  oval,  visible  in  front.  Labial  palpi  moderately  long, 
curved,  smooth  but  rather  loosely  scaled  ;  second  joint  flattened  toward  its  end, 
subclavate  ;  the  third  short,  smooth  and  pointed.  Antennae  rather  more  than 
one  half  as  long  as  the  fore  wings,  simple,  setaceous,  basal  joint  subclavate. 
Tongue  sparingly  scaled,  extremely  short,  not  one-half  as  long  as  the  labial 
palpi. 

[May, 


NATURAL    SCIENCES    OF    PHILADELPHIA.  171 

L.  luciferella. — Head  and  face  silvery,  tinged  with  yellowish.  Back- 
head  dark  fuscous.  Labial  palpi  silvery  ;  middle  joint  dark  fuscous  from  the 
base  to  the  middle,  the  terminal  joint  with  a  minute  fuscous  dot  at  its  base. 
Antennae  dark  fuscous.  Fore  wings  dark  reddish  fuscous,  with  a  large,  rather 
faint  bluish  silvery  patch  at  the  base,  one  on  the  middle  of  the  costa,  and  a 
curved  band  near  the  tip  of  the  wing,  of  the  same  hue.  On  the  fold  beneath  the 
costal  patch,  is  a  patch  of  raised  scales,  and  another  on  the  inner  margin  join- 
ing the  band  behind.  Exterior  to  the  band  the  wing  is  touched  with  ochreous, 
containing  in  the  middle  a  short  dark  fuscous  streak,  sometimes  a  pale  yel- 
lowish white  streak  margined  with  dark  fuscous,  and  on  the  costa  just  behind 
it,  is  a  short  pale  yellowish-white  streak,  margined  exteriorly  with  dark  fus- 
cous. Apical  portion  of  the  wing  is  dark  fuscous  ;  cilia  of  inner  margin  fus- 
cous.    Hind  wings  fuscous,  cilia  the  same. 

Fore  wings  slenderly  and  shortly  caudate  at  the  tip.  Apical  vein  with 
a  long  fork,  with  an  independent  discal  nervure  beneath  it.  Median  four- 
branched.  Submedian  with  a  long  basal  fork,  no  apical  fork,  but  with  the 
end  of  the  fold  thickened.  Labial  palpi  recurved,  thickened  at  the  end  of 
second  joint  with  loose  scales ;  the  third  rather  long,  smooth  and  pointed. 
Tongue  nearly  as  long  as  the  anterior  coxae. 

L.  Eloisella. — Head,  face  and  thorax  silvery  white,  the  latter  spotted 
with  blackish.  Labial  palpi  white,  with  a  dark  brown  spot  on  the  middle  of 
second  joint,  and  two  dark  brown  rings  on  the  third,  one  at  the  base  and 
one  at  the  tip.  Antennae  tawny  yellow,  white  at  base.  Fore  wings  silvery 
white,  with  a  small  tuft  of  tawny  scales  at  the  basal  third  of  the  fold,  and  a 
larger  patch  of  the  same  hue  on  the  inner  margin  at  the  end  of  and  above  the 
fold.  Between  the  tufts,  is  an  oblique  dark  brownish  costal  streak,  nearly 
joined  at  an  angle  by  another  of  the  same  hue  in  the  middle  of  the  wing  and 
exterior  to  the  first  tuft ;  the  fold  is  tinted  with  golden  yellow.  Exterior  to 
the  second  tuft  is  a  blackish-brown  streak,  which  becomes  diffuse  behind  and 
above,  while  the  apical  portion  of  the  costa  to  the  slender  apex  of  the  wing  is 
golden  yellow.  At  the  base,  beneath  the  fold,  is  a  blackish-brown  spot,  and 
another  of  the  same  hue  beneath  the  fold  equidistant  from  the  first  and  the 
first  tuft  of  scales,  and  on  the  costa  midway  between  these  latter  is  a  rather 
faint  dark  brownish  spot.  Cilia  yellowish  gray.  Hind  wings  tawny-grayish, 
cilia  ochreous. 

Cheysocorys  Curtis. 

C.  Erythriella . — Head,  face  and  thorax  fuscous,  with  a  greenish-brassy 
hue.  Labial  palpi  ochreous,  terminal  joint  fuscous.  Antennae  bronzy -yellow- 
ish fuscous.  Fore  wings  reddish-fuscous,  with  a  greenish-brassy  hue ;  cilia 
fuscous.     Hind  wings  reddish  fuscous,  cilia  the  same. 

Specimens  of  this  insect  reared  by  myself  were  much  smaller  than  those 
taken  on  the  wing,  had  less  of  the  brassy  hue  and  were  nearly  uniform  grayish 
fuscous,  but  I  have  no  doubt  it  is  the  same  insect. 

The  larva  feeds  on  the  fruit  racemes  of  Sumach.  It  tapers  anteriorly  and 
posteriorly,  incisures  deep,  segments  elevated  in  the  middle,  with  a  single 
row  of  transversely  arranged  epidermic  points  on  each  ring,  each  one  giving  rise 
to  one  or  two  rather  stiff  hairs  ;  abdominal  legs  very  slender  and  short,  termi- 
nal placed  posteriorly.  Head  with  a  few  hairs,  ellipsoidal,  pointed  rather 
small,  and  pale  brown.     The  body  is  uniform  dark  green.     '•  Frass  "  scarlet. 

The  cocoon  was  woven  on  the  outside  of  the  raceme.  It  was  ovoid,  and  ap- 
peared to  consist  of  coarse  silk  and  but  a  single  thread,  being  woven  so  as  to 
leave  large  meshes,  enabling  one  to  see  the  pupa  through  it  distinctly.  At 
maturity  the  pupa  case  is  thrust  forth.  The  pupa  is  pale  green,  with  the 
head-case  distinctly  separated  from  the  case  of  the  thorax.  The  length  of  the 
larva  is  about  two  lines,  of  the  pupa  about  one  and  a  half. 

The  larva  may  be  taken  in  July ;  the  imago  appears  early  in  August  and 

I860.] 


172  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  ACADEMY  OF 

ro3y  be  taken  on  wing  at  this  time  in  the  neighborhood  of  the  food  plant  of 
the  larva. 

Elachista  Treitschke. 
I  would  beg  here  to  call  the  student's  attention  to  the  fact,  that  the  genus 
described  in  Paper  No.  3,  January,  1860,  under  the  name  Cosmiotes,  is  the  same 
as  the  present  one.     I  much  regret  the  existence  of  this  error  ;  it  is  not,  how- 
ever, necessary  to  state  how  I  came  to  be  misled. 

Median  vein  of  hind  trings  two-branched.  Apical  vein  of  fore  wings  with  a 
branch  from  its  middle  to  the  costa,  bifid  at  the  tip;  median  vein  two-branched. 

E.  prsematurella . — Head,  face  and  labial  palpi  grayish  fuscous.  An- 
tennae rather  dark  fuscous.  Fore  wings  fuscous  with  a  purplish  hue.  Rather 
behind  the  middle  of  the  wing  is  a  white  band,  silvery-hued,  and  near  the 
tip  a  costal  and  opposite  dorsal  spot  of  the  same  hue.  Extreme  apex  of  the 
wing  white,  with  a  row  of  dark  brown  atoms  in  the  cilia,  which  are  fuscous. 
Hind  wings  bluish-gray,  cilia  fuscou-<  with  a  reddish  hue. 

The  imago  may  be  taken  on  wing  early  in  April. 

Brenthia. 

Fore  wings  almost  cuneiform,  rounded  behind.  The  subcostal  nervure  sends 
a  vein  to  the  costa  from  the  middle  of  the  cell,  and  subdivides  into  two  branches 
at  the  point  of  junction  with  the  discoidal  nervure  ;  arising  from  this  are  five 
veins  to  the  hinder  margin,  and  the  median  nervure  subdivides  into  two 
branches  at  its  tip.  The  subcostal  is  furcate  at  its  base.  The  hind  wings  are 
broad,  irregularly  oval.  The  subcostal  is  simple.  The  discoidal  does  not 
join  it,  gives  rise  to  three  veins  to  the  hind  margin,  and  is  deflected  towards 
the  base.  The  median  is  two-branched,  the  upper  one  being  bifid  about  its 
middle. 

Head  smooth.  Forehead  and  face  rounded.  Ocelli  large.  Eyes  oval,  and 
rather  prominent.  Labial  palpi  moderately  long,  rather  slender,  pointed  and 
somewhat  squamose  :  the  terminal  joint  shorter  than  the  second.  Antenna? 
slender,  simple  in  the  $,  rather  densely  ciliated  in  the  tf.  Tongue  slightly 
scaled  and  very  short. 

The  insect  belonging  to  this  genus,  which  is  nearly  allied  to  Glyphipteryx 
of  Hiibner,  has  the  curious  habit  of  strutting  about  broad  leaves  in  shaded 
places,  with  its  fore  wings  somewhat  spread  and  the  hind  wings  turned 
forward  at  right  angles  to  the  costa  of  the  fore  wings,  so  as  to  display  the 
surface  of  the  under  pair.     It  is  easily  recognized  by  this  characteristic  alone. 

B.  pavonacella  . — Head  and  thorax  fuscous;  face  whitish  beneath.  Labial 
palpi  white,  with  three  fuscous  rings,  one  at  the  end  of  the  second  joint,  one  at 
the  base  of  the  terminal  and  one  near  its  tip.  Antennae  fuscous,  annulated  with 
white.  Fore  wings  fuscous,  mottled  with  whitish,  especially  on  the  middle  of 
the  wing,  with  a  fuscous  spot  on  the  middle  of  the  disk,  ringed  with  whitish. 
Near  the  hinder  margin  is  a  black  band,  not  extended  to  the  costa  nor  the 
inner  margin,  with  two  sharp  indentations  of  the  general  hue  internally,  and 
containing  on  its  middle  a  streak  of  brilliant  scarlet-blue  metallic  scales. 
Along  the  costa  are  one  or  two  faint  spots  of  the  same  hue.  Hind  wings 
fuscous,  whitish  at  the  base  and  along  the  costa,  with  a  short  white  line 
near  the  hind  margin,  above  the  inner  angle  of  the  wing,  and  a  rather  faint 
scarlet-blue  metallic  hued  band  on  the  hind  margin,  from  near  the  tip  to 
beyond  the  middle.  The  under  surface  of  both  wings  show  a  metallic  hued 
subterminal  band. 

Imago  on  wing  in  July  and  August. 

Pighitia. 
Fore  wings  narrow,  elongated,  pointed  and  very  slightly  refuse  on  the  costa 
before  the  tip.     The  subcostal  sends  to  the  costa.  beyond  the  apical  third  of 

[May.. 


NATURAL    SCIENCES   OP   PHILADELPHIA.  173 

the  wing,  a  long,  thick  rein  which  arises  hehind  the  middle,  and  subdivides 
into  three  branches  at  its  tip,  the  apical  being  forked,  with  one  of  its  branches 
delivered  to  the  tip,  and  the  other  to  the  costa  before  it.  The  discoidal  cell 
is  much  elongated  and  narrow,  and  sends  to  the  hinder  margin  a  disco-central 
branch.  The  median  is  three-branched  at  its  tip,  all  of  which  are  short,  and 
the  two  upper  veins  arise  on  a  common  stalk.  Submedian  is  forked  at  the 
base,  with  the  lower  branch  nearly  obsolete.  Hind  wings  narrowly  lanceolate, 
broad  at  base,  with  interior  basal  angle  rounded.  The  subcostal  vein  is  simple, 
and  extended  to  the  tip.  Discoidal  cell  closed  by  a  very  faint  nervure,  giving  rise 
to  a  simple  nervule.  Median  nervure  is  three-branched,  the  last  two  branches 
from  a  common  base. 

Head  smooth,  with  decumbent  scales,  slightly  retracted.  Forehead  broad 
and  rounded ;  face,  with  the  scales  spreading  out  at  the  base  of  the  tongue,  so 
as  to  make  it  nearly  equally  broad.  Eyes  oval,  vertically  placed,  Ocelli 
small.  Labial  palpi  very  short,  smooth  ;  first  and  second  joints  rather  thick  ; 
terminal  joint  pointed,  slender,  and  as  long  as  the  second.  No  maxillary 
palpi.  Antennas  setaceous,  simple  in  the  V  >  microscopically  pubescent  in 
the  (j\  rather  more  than  one-half  as  long  as  the  fore  wings  ;  basal  joint 
flattened  and  expanded  into  a  small  eye-cap,  with  cilia  in  front.  Tongue 
scaled,  rather  longer  than  the  thorax  beneath. 

I  have  but  one  male,  which  is  without  labial  palpi.  With  the  aid  of  good 
lenses,  I  cannot  make  out  whether  they  have  been  broken  off,  or  whether 
they  are  naturally  obsolete.     Otherwise,  the  head  is  in  most  perfect  condition. 

The  genera  Zelleria  and  Ocnerostoma  are  congeneric  with  this  in  the 
neuration  of  the  wings,  especially  the  hinder  pair  in  the  latter  genus. 

P.  laticapitella . — Head,  face  and  thorax  shining  tawny  fuscous.  Labial 
palpi  dark  fuscous.  Antennas  fuscous,  basal  joint  tawny  fuscous.  Fore  wings 
dark  fnscons,  with  a  rufous  tinge,  sprinkled  with  white,  especially  toward  the 
tip,  with  an  indistinct  whitish  band  behind  the  middle  of  the  wing  ;  cilia  pale 
rufo-fuscous.     Hind  wings  greyish-fuscous  ;  cilia  the  same. 

Parasia  ?  Duponchel. 

Fore  wings  lanceolate.  The  subcostal  nervure  sends  three  veins  to  the 
costa,  the  first  from  the  middle  of  the  cell,  and  an  apical  branch  which 
delivers  from  its  middle  a  branch  to  the  costa,  and  is  forked  before  the  tip,  with 
one  of  the  branches  above  and  the  other  beneath  it.  The  discoidal  cell  is 
closed,  but  gives  rise  to  no  nervule.  The  median  fan-branched,  more 
separated  than  in  Evagora,  and  all  the  branches  long.  Submedian  is  forked 
at  the  base.  Hind  wings  with  the  apex  produced.  The  submedian  is  forked 
beyond  the  discal  nervure,  which  gives  rise  to  a  disco-central  branch.  The 
median  is  three-branched. 

Head  smooth,  with  loose,  decumbent  scales.  Forehead  advanced  ;  globose, 
face  retreating.  Ocelli  small.  Eyes  oval,  vertically  placed,  but  little  visible 
from  the  front.  Labial  palpi  rather  short,  recurved,  smooth,  with  appressed 
scales ;  second  joint  thick,  subclavate ;  third  joint  short,  very  acuminate. 
Maxillary  palpi  snort,  distinct.  Antennse  simple,  setaceous,  one-third  less 
long  than  the  fore  wings.  Tongue  clothed  with  scales,  scarcely  as  long  as  the 
anterior  coxae. 

This  insect  and  Evagora  apicitripunctella  certainly  approach  each 
other  closely  in  structure  ;  nevertheless,  they  are  very  different  in  appearance. 
The  hind  wings  differ  from  those  of  Parasia  in  the  produced  apex  being 
straight,  and  slightly  in  neuration. 

P.  ?  subsimella . — Head,  face  and  thorax  ochreous-fuscous.  Labial  palpi, 
second  joint  dark  brownish,  ringed  with  whitish  at  its  tip  ;  third  joint  white, 
terminal  half  black.  Antennae  dark  fuscous,  basal  joint  striped  with  yellowish 
in  front.     Fore  wings  dark  ochreous-fuscous  ;  along  the  costa  from  its  middle, 

I860.] 


174  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  ACADEMY  OP 

and  toward  the  tip,  brown  ;  and  in  the  latter  part  much  sprinkled  with  whitish. 
On  the  middle  of  the  costa  is  a  short,  yellowish  white  streak,  and  in  the 
apical  third  of  the  wing  is  an  oblique  line  of  the  same  hue,  meeting  in  the 
middle  of  the  wing  another  of  the  same  hue  from  the  inner  margin.  At  and 
beneath  the  tip  is  a  blackish  brown  spot,  and  in  the  cilia  a  dark  fuscous  line. 
Hind  wings  dark  ochreous,  cilia  the  same. 

Depressaria  Haworth. 

D.  Lecontella. — Head  and  face  ochreous.  Labial  palpi  ochreous: 
second  joint  varied,  externally  with  fuscous  ;  third  joint  with  a  slight  fuscous 
ring  at  the  base,  and  one  near  the  tip.  Antenna?  fuscous.  Thorax  ochreous, 
with  two  blackish  brown  dots  before.  Fore  wings  dark  ochreous,  with  dis- 
persed blackish  brown  dots  throughout  the  wing,  two  of  which,  about  the 
middle  of  the  median  nervure,  are  more  conspicuous  than  the  others ; 
cilia  rather  pale  ochreous.     Hind  wings  pale  grayish-ochreous,  cilia  the  same. 

This  is  the  only  true  Depressaria  I  have  found  thus  far ;  but  we  have  other 
nearly  allied  species,  which  differ  from  it  in  the  structure  of  the  labial  palpi. 
In  this  respect  they  resemble  somewhat  Gelechia  r  u  f  e  s  c  e  n  s  of  Europe,  but 
differ  from  the  genus  to  which  it  belongs  in  several  particulars.  I  think 
they  must  form  a  group  intermediate  between  Depressaria  and  Gelechia. 

I  have  now  nearly  worked  up  my  collection  of  Tineina,  and  would  beg  those 
who  feel  interested  in  the  continuation  of  these  studies,  to  aid  me  in  extending 
my  knowledge  of  species,  by  contributing  collections  from  their  various  neigh- 
borhoods. 


Description  of  a  new  species  of  Marginella. 
BY   JOHN    H.    REDFIELD. 
Marginella  roscida  Redf. 

T.  rhombico-ovata,  polita,  cinereo-lutescente,  albido  guttulata,  versus 
apicem  albido-lineata  ;  labis  albo,  crasso,  reflexo,  extus  fulvo  trimaculato, 
intus  subdenticulato  ;  spira  modica  ;  anfractus  quatuor  exhibente  ;  anfractu 
ultimo  angulato,  juxta  aperturam  calloso  ;  columella  quadriplicate. 

Shell  rhombic-ovate,  polished,  light  grayish  brown,  minutely  necked  with 
white  ;  towards  and  upon  the  spire  the  white  spots  tend  to  be  confluent  in 
longitudinal  lines.  Lip  white,  well  thickened,  obtusely  reflected,  extending  a 
little  upon  the  penultimate  whorl,  slightly  denticulate  within,  and  bearing 
three  brown  spots,  one  at  its  junction  with  the  spire,  a  second  about  midway, 
and  the  third  near  the  base.  Spire  moderate,  apex  slightly  colored,  with 
about  four  whorls  visible  ;  the  last  whorl  is  distinctly  shouldered,  a  little  be- 
neath the  suture  and  near  the  aperture  shows  a  vitreous  deposit.  Columella 
with  four  plaits ;  upper  ones  somewhat  oblique,  lower  ones  more  so.  Aper- 
ture yellowish  brown  within.  Length  0*57  in.  (14  millim.)  ;  breadth  0*32  in. 
(8  millim.) 

Habitat.     Coast  of  South  Carolina. 

Remarks.  The  general  form  of  this  shell  is  nearly  that  of  M.  apicina  Menke, 
and  the  spots  upon  the  outer  lip  give  it  a  further  likeness  to  some  varieties  of 
that  species,  but  the  spire  is  more  developed,  and  the  last  whorl  more  dis- 
tinctly angular  than  is  usual  in  M.  apicina,  while  the  latter  never  displays 
the  minute  white  flecking  of  the  species  under  consideration.  This  last  feature 
is  common  also  to  M.  guttata,  M.  nivosa  and  M.  pruinosa,  but  all  these  are 
quite  different  in  form  and  in  development  of  spire. 

[May, 


NATURAL    SCIENCES  OF  PHILADELPHIA.  175 

Descriptions  of  new  Organic  Remains  from  the  Tertiary,  Cretaceous  and 
Jurassic  Rocks  of  Nebraska. 

BY  F.  B.  MEEK  AND  F.  V.  HAYDEN. 

The  following  new  species  of  fossil  raollusca,  belong  mainly  to  the  collections 
brought  from  Nebraska  by  the  expeditions  under  the  command  of  Lieut.  G.  K. 
Warren,  of  the  U.  S.  Top.  Engrs.  in  185(3-7  and  8.  More  extended  descriptions 
of  these  and  the  other  species  already  described  by  us  from  that  region,  together 
with  remarks,  comparisons,  and  full  illustrations,  will  appear  in  Lieut.  War- 
ren's final  report. 

TERTIARY  SPECIES. 

GASTEROPODA. 

Helix  Evansi,  A.  k  H. — Shell  small,  suborbicular,  spire  depressed ;  volu- 
tions four  and  a  half  to  five,  obliquely  compressed,  or  a  little  convex  above, 
rounded  on  the  outer  side,  and  very  convex  below,  the  most  prominent  part  being 
near  the  umbilicus,  concave  within,  and  each  embracing  on  the  upper  side  about 
half,  and  below  nearly  the  whole  breadth  of  every  succeeding  inner  turn  ;  sur- 
face unknown  ;  umbilicus  rather  small,  or  about  equalling  the  breadth  of  the 
widest  part  of  the  outer  volution  ;  aperture  nearly  obovate,  its  longer  diameter 
being  directed  outward  and  upward.     Height,  (MO  inch  ;   breadth,  0  17  inch. 

Named  in  honor  of  Dr.  John  Evans,  Geologist,  of  Oregon. 

Locality  and  position.     Estuary  beds  at  the  mouth  of  Judith  River. 

PLANORBrs  vetulus,  M.  &  H. — Shell  discoidal,  much  compressed,  spire  slight- 
ly concave,  umbilicus  shallow,  very  little  broader  than  the  concavity  on  the 
upper  side,  and  rather  more  than  one-third  wider  than  the  outer  whorl,  show- 
ing about  half  of  each  inner  turn  ;  volutions  three  and  a  half  to  four,  compress- 
ed convex  above  and  below,  the  upper  side  being  a  little  more  convex  than  the 
other,  and  sloping  slightly  outward  from  near  the  inner  margin,  rather  distinct- 
ly angular  around  the  outer  side,  a  little  below  the  middle,  and  deeply  concave 
within  for  the  reception  of  each  succeeding  inner  whorl ;  sutures  well  defined, 
though  not  very  deep  ;  aperture  sub-cordate,  approaching  an  irregular  hastate 
outline,  very  slightly  oblique,  having  its  longer  axis  in  the  direction  of  the 
greatest  breadth  of  the  shell  ;  surface  apparently  nearly  smooth,  or  only  show- 
ing obscure  marks  of  growth.     Greatest  breadth  0  23  inch  ;  height  005  inch. 

Locality  and  position.  Upper  part  of  the  Tertiary  forming  the  Bad  Lands  of 
White  River. 

Planorbis  Leidyi,  M.  k  H. — Shell  small,  3ubdiscoidal ;  spire  flat,  or  a  little 
concave  ;  volutions  scarcely  three,  increasing  rather  rapidly  in  size,  not  embrac- 
ing on  the  upper  side,  inner  ones  almost  entirely  hidden  by  the  last  turn  below, 
all  convex  above,  rather  narrowly  rounded  on  the  upper  outer  side,  ventricose 
and  rounded  below  ;  suture  will  defined  ;  umbilicus  small,  or  less  than  half  the 
breadth  of  the  outer  whorl,  deep  and  scarcely  permitting  the  inner  volutions  to 
be  counted;  surface  marked  by  fine  delicate  lines  of  growth  ;  aperture  sub- 
circular,  or  obliquely  a  little  oval,  flattened  or  somewhat  concave  on  the  inner 
side.     Greatest  breadth,  0-22  inch  ;  height,  0-09  inch. 

Named  in  honor  of  Prof.  Jos.  Leidy  of  Philadelphia. 

Locality  and  position ,  same  as  la^t. 

CONCHIFERA. 

Sph^riom  planum,  M.  &  H. — Shell  rather  small,  broad  oval  or  subcircular, 
much  compressed ;  extremities  more  or  less  regularly  rounded,  the  posterior  mar- 
gin being  sometimes  faintly  subtruncate  ;  base  semi-oval  in  outline  ;  cardinal 
margin  rounding  gradually  from  near  the  middle  ;  beaks  very  small,  compressed, 
and  scarcely  extending  beyond  the  hinge  margin,  nearly  central  ;  surface  marked 

I860.] 


176  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  ACADEMY  OP 

by  fine  irregular,  obscure,  concentric  striae.     Length,  0-38  inch  ;  height,  0-32 
inch  ;  convexity  0.08  inch. 
Locality  and  position.     Near  the  mouth  of  Grand  River  on  the  Upper  Missouri. 

Sph^rium  recticardinale,  M.  &  H. — Shell  of  medium  size,  transversely 
subelliptical,  rather  compressed,  very  thin;  anterior  side  rounded  ;  base  form- 
ing a  regular  seraielliptic  curve;  posterior  extremity  obliquely  subtruncate  above, 
and  rather  narrowly  rounded  below  ;  cardinal  margin  long  and  straight ;  beaks 
very  small,  compressed,  and  projecting  but  slightly  above  the  hinge,  located 
nearly  half  way  between  the  middle  and  the  anterior  end  ;  surface  marked  by 
moderately  distinct,  irregular  lines  of  growth.  Length,  0-55  inch  ;  height,  0*36 
inch  ;  breadth,  0-24  inch. 

Locality  andposition,  same  as  last. 

Cyrena  (Corbicdla?)  cytheriformis,  M.  &  H. -Shell  broad  trigonal  ovate,  vary- 
ing to  subcircular,  ratner  thick  and  strong;  extremities  more  or  less  rounded; 
base  semiovate,  usually  more  prominent  before  than  behind  the  middle  ;  dorsal 
outline  sloping  from  the  beaks,  the  anterior  slope  being  more  abrupt  than  the 
other,  and  slightly  concave,  while  the  posterior  is  convex ;  beaks  rather  ele- 
vated, moderately  gibbous,  located  in  advance  of  the  middle  ;  surface  marked 
by  fine  lines  of  growth,  which  sometimes  show  a  very  slight  tendency  to  gather 
into  small  irregular  concentric  wrinkles.  Length,  inches  ;  height,  inch  ; 
thickness,         inch. 

Locality  and positio?i.     Estuary  beds,  near  mouth  of  Judith  River. 

CRETACEOUS  SPECIES. 

CEPHALOPODA. 

Genus  Phylloteuthis,  M.  &  H. 

Phylloteuthis  subovatds,  M.  &.  H. — The  specimens  on  which  we  propose  to 
found  this  genus  and  species  consist  of  the  expanded  portion  of  the  pen  or 
gladius.  This  organ  seems  to  have  been  corneous,  and  is  thin,  very  wide  or 
subovate  in  form,  a  little  concave  on  the  under  side,  and  convex  above.  From 
behind  the  middle  it  narrows  towards  the  front,  the  outline  of  the  lateral  mar- 
gins being  convex,  while  the  posterior  end  is  more  or  less  obtusely  angular. 
The  shaft  is  broken  away  in  our  specimens,  but  that  portion  of  it  extending 
backward  and  forming  the  midrib  of  the  expanded  part,  is  narrow,  prominent, 
and  rather  sharply  carinate  above,  while  on  the  under  side  it  is  merely  repre- 
sented by  a  narrow  groove.  The  lateral  expansions  are  crossed  a  little  ob- 
liquely backward  and  outward,  at  an  angle  of  about  65°  from  the  midrib,  by 
numerous  slender,  ridged  parallel  striae,  which  are  very  nearly  straight,  or  very 
slightly  curved  backward  near  the  outer  margins.  Length  of  expanded  part, 
exclusive  of  the  shaft,  1-55  inch;  breadth  of  do.,  0-82  inch. 

Apparently  near  the  Liassic  genera  Beloteuthis  and  Teudopsis,  or  at  any  rate 
to  species  that  have  been,  with  doubtful  propriety,  ranged  in  these  groups. 

Locality  and  position.     Moreau  River,  in  formation  No.  5. 

Helicoceras  angulatum — Of  this  shell  we  have  seen  but  a  single  nonseptate 
fragment,  2-78  inches  in  length,  with  a  diameter  of  1-50  inches  at  the  larger  end, 
and  1-37  inches  at  the  smaller.  It  is  rounded,  or  subcylindrical,  and  makes  a 
broad  (sinistral?)  spiral  curve,  in  such  a  manner  that  if  continued  around,  the 
volutions  would  be  disconnested,  and  encircle  an  umbilical  cavity  apparently 
more  than  three  times  their  own  breadth.  The  surface  is  ornamented  by  dis- 
tinct angular  costae,  which  pass  around  the  whorls  obliquely  and  support  two 
rows  of  nodes  on  the  lower  outer  side,  where  they  sometimes  bifurcate.  Septa 
unknown. 

Locality  and  position.  Head  of  south  branch  of  Shyenne  River,  in  the  upper 
part  of  formation  No.  4,  of  the  Nebraska  series. 

[May, 


NATURAL   SCIENCES   OF   PHILADELPHIA.  177 

Ammonites  placenta,  var.  intercalaris. — It  is  possible  this  shell  may  be  spe- 
cifically distinct  from  A.  placenta  of  Dekay,  but  it  agrees  with  that  species  so 
nearly  that  we  are  in  doubt  about  the  propriety  of  considering  it  entitled  to 
rank  as  a  species.  It  differs  externally  from  the  typical  forms  of  Dekay's 
species,  in  being  rather  less  compressed,  and  in  having  a  slightly  larger  umbili- 
cus, while  instead  of  a  single  series  of  scarcely  perceptible  transversely  elon- 
gated prominences  on  each  side,  it  has  a  row  of  small,  but  distinct  nodes  a 
little  less  than  one-third  of  the  way  across  from  the  dorsum,  and  another  more 
prominent  series  near  the  umbilicus.  It  also  differs  in  having  a  row  of  small, 
pinched,  alternating  nodes  on  each  of  the  two  dorsal  angles. 

With  these  external  differences,  however,  the  septa  of  the  shell  under  con- 
sideration, are  so  very  similar  in  all  their  details  to  those  of  A.  placenta,  that 
we  are  at  present  inclined  to  regard  it  as  a  variety  of  that  species. 

It  is  also  worthy  of  note,  that  the  form  before  us  is  closely  related  to  A.  syr~ 
talis  of  Morton,  being  in  fact  almost  exactly  intermediate  between  that  shell  and 
A.  placenta,  as  well  in  form  and  external  ornaments,  as  in  the  characters  of  its 
septa.  Its  exact  relations  to  these  species  can  perhaps  only  be  settled  by  a 
careful  comparison  of  a  more  extensive  series  of  specimens  than  has  yet  been 
obtained  ;  in  the  mean  time  it  may  be  made  known  as  a  subspecies,  under  the 
name  A.  placenta,  var.  intercalaris,  and  should  it  prove  distinct,  it  may  take  the 
latter  as  a  specific  name.  It  seems  to  attain  a  large  size.  Our  specimen,  which 
consists  of  inner  septate  whorls,  is  5-70  inches  in  its  greatest  diameter,  with 
a  thickness  or  convexity  of  1-62  inches. 

Locality  and  position.  Sheyenne  River,  in  the  upper  part  of  Formation  No.  4 
of  the  Nebraska  Cretaceous  series. 

Ammonites  Vermilionensis,  M.  &  H. — Shell  compressed  discoidal ;  umbilicus 
large,  very  shallow,  and  showing  about  four-fifths  of  each  inner  whorl ;  volu- 
tions five  or  more,  rather  sharply  carinated  around  the  middle  of  the  dorsum, 
and  ornamented  on  each  side  by  nearly  straight,  simple,  moderately  strong, 
obtuse  costae,  which  show  a  tendency  to  develope  nodes  at  each  extremity. 
Greatest  diameter  1-05  inches  ;  convexity  about  0-29  inch. 

Locality  and  position.  Mouth  Vermilion  River,  in  Formation  No.  2,  of  the 
Nebraska  section. 

Scaphites  Warreni,  M.  &  H. — Shell  small,  transversely  subovate,  moderately 
compressed,  rounded  on  the  dorsum  ;  umbilicus  rather  small;  volutions  sub- 
cylindrical,  height  and  breadth  nearly  equal,  increasing  gradually  in  size  ;  non- 
septate  portion  of  last  turn  slightly  compressed  laterally,  and  deflected  from 
the  regular  curve  of  the  others,  so  as  to  become  nearly  or  quite  disconnected 
at  the  aperture.  Surface  of  the  inner  whorls  ornamented  by  numerous  small 
costae,  which  increase  chiefly  by  implantation,  and  all  cross  the  dorsum  very 
regularly  without  arching;  on  the  sides  of  the  non-septate  outer  chamber, 
about  every  fourth  or  fifth  one  of  the  costae  is  much  more  prominent  and 
sharper  than  the  others,  and  extends  quite  across  to  the  umbilical  side,  while 
those  between  die  out,  or  coalesce  with  the  others  at  various  distances. 

Length  1-45  inches  ;  height  about  1-22  inches  ;  breadth  057  inch. 

Locality  and  position.  Near  the  Black  Hills,  in  formation  No.  2  of  the  Ne- 
braska Section. 

Scaphites  nodosus,  var.  plends. — We  suspect  the  noble  specimen  we  here 
propose  to  notice  provisionally,  as  a  variety  of  Dr.  Owen's  Scaphites  nodosus,  may 
prove  to  belong  to  a  distinct  species,  but  as  we  are  not  yet  fully  satisfied  on 
this  point,  it  is  perhaps  better  to  regard  it,  for  the  present,  as  a  marked  variety 
of  Dr.  Owen's  species;  and  should  further  comparison  demonstrate  that  it  is 
entitled  to  rank  as  a  species,  it  can  take  as  a  specific  name  that  by  which  we 
have  designated  it  as  a  variety.  It  differs  externally  from  Dr.  Owen's  figure  of 
S.  nodosus,  in  being  greatly  more  ventricose,  and  snorter  in  proportion  to  its 
height,  while  its  inner  rows  of  nodes  are  much  smaller  and  nearer  the  umbili- 

I860.]  11 


178  PROCEEDINGS   OP   THE   ACADEMY   OF 

cus.  There  are  also  some  differences  in  the  details  of  the  septa,  which  cannot 
however,  be  readily  explained  without  figures.  It  is  likewise  much  larger  than 
the  specimen  represented  by  Dr.  Owen,  or  any  individuals  of  that  form  we  have 
seen,  its  length  being  4-57  inches  ;  height  3-87  inches,  and  its  breadth  2*53 
inches. 

Locality  and  position.  On  Yellow  Stone  River,  150  miles  above  the  mouth,  in 
the  upper  part  of  formation  No.  4  of  the  Nebraska  Cretaceous  Series. 

GASTEROPODA. 

Aporrhais  paeva,  M.  &  H. — Shell  small,  conical,  subfusiform  ;  spire  moder- 
ately elevated,  and  acute  at  the  apex  ;  volutions  six  or  seven,  separated  by  a 
small  but  rather  distinct  suture,  and  having  around  the  middle  a  single  series 
of  very  oblique,  flexuous  folds,  or  node-like  costse,  which  do  not  extend  to  the 
suture  either  above  or  below  ;  last  whorl  having  just  below  the  row  of  nodes, 
a  small  but  well  defined  revolving  angle  ;  surface  marked  by  very  obscure 
lines  of  growth,  and  fine,  closely  set,  revolving  striae.  Length  about  0-28  inch  ; 
breadth  of  body  whorl,  0-15  inch ;  apical  angle  a  little  convex,  divergence  33°. 

Locality  and  position,  same  as  last. 

Aporrhais  sublevis,  M.  &  H. — Shell  conical,  or  subfusiform  ;  spire  elevated  ; 
volutions  seven  or  more,  convex,  and  separated  by  a  rather  distinct,  though 
not  deep  suture  ;  last  one  convex  above,  and  abruptly  contracted  below,  having 
a  (single  ?)  small,  revolving  angle,  which  passes  around  to  the  suture,  but  is 
not  seen  on  the  succeeding  turn  above.  Surface  polished,  and  marked  by 
moderately  distinct,  arcuate  lines  of  growth,  which  are  crossed  by  rather  ob- 
scure revolving  lines,  nearly  equalling  the  spaces  between,  on  the  spire,  but 
more  distant,  with  sometimes  a  few  indistinct,  irregular,  very  fine,  parallel 
striae  between  on  the  body  whorl ;  aperture  and  lip  unknown.  Length  about 
0-54  inch;  breadth  of  body  whorl,  0-26  inch;  apical  angle  slightly  convex, 
divergence  37°. 

Locality  and  position.  Yellow  Stone  River,  Upper  part  of  No.  4,  Nebraska 
section. 

Dentaliom  pacperculum,  M.  &  H.— Shell  small,  arcuate,  slender  and  taper- 
ing gradually ;  section  circular ;  substance  comparatively  thick ;  surface 
smooth,  but  showing  under  a  magnifier  extremely  fine,  obscure  lines  of  growth, 
which  pass  around  somewhat  obliquely.  Length  (of  an  incomplete  specimen, 
measuring  from  the  apex,)  0-36  inch;  diameter  of  same  at  apex  0-03  inch,  do. 
at  larger  extremity  0-06  inch. 

Locality  and  position.   Moreau  River,  formation  No.  5  of  the  Nebraska  section. 

Cylichna  scitula,  M.  &  H. — Shell  small,  rather  thick,  narrow,  subelliptical, 
or  subcylindrical ;  spire  entirely  hidden  ;  summit  truncate,  and  occupied  by  a 
comparatively  large  umbilicoid  depression  ;  aperture  very  narrow,  moderately 
arched,  and  equalling  the  greatest  length  of  the  shell ;  umbilical  region 
slightly  impressed ;  inner  lip  reflexed  upon  the  columella,  which  seems  to  be 
slightly  twisted,  so  as  to  form  a  small  indistinct  fold  at  its  base  ;  surface 
marked  by  fine,  obscure  lines  of  growth,  which  are  crossed  by  impressed,  re- 
volving striae,  separated  by  spaces  about  twice  or  three  times  their  own 
breadth,  near  the  middle  of  the  outer  whorl,  but  becoming  much  more  closely 
crowded  towards  the  extremities.  Length  0-24  inch ;  breadth  0-14  inch  ; 
widest  part  of  aperture  0-07  inch,  breadth  of  same  near  upper  extremity,  only 
002  inch. 

Locality  and  position.     Moreau  River,  No.  5  of  the  Nebraska  section. 

CONCHIFERA. 

Teredo  selliformib,  M.  &  H. — Shell  small,  subglobose  ;  posterior  side  nar- 
rowly rounded  above,  gaping,  and  having  a  broad,  more  or  less  angular  notch 

[May, 


NATURAL   SCIENCES   OP   PHILADELPHIA.  179 

below ;  antero-ventral  side  provided  with  a  large  hiatus,  formed  by  a  similar, 
but  deeper  rectangular  notch,  which  extends  from  the  base  nearly  half  way  up 
to  the  beaks,  and  back  almost  to  the  middle  of  the  valves  ;  base,  between  the 
anterior  and  posterior  notches,  extended  downward  in  the  form  of  a  narrow 
prolongation,  which  curves  under,  and  is  the  only  part  of  the  ventral  borders 
of  the  two  valves  that  come  in  contact ;  beaks  elevated,  gibbous,  incurved, 
and  located  between  the  middle  and  the  anterior  margin  ;  surface  ornamented 
by  small  concentric  lines,  which  are  curved,  and  deflected  parallel  to  the  great 
irregularities  of  the  free  borders,  and  crossed  by  two  distinct  radiating  grooves, 
one  of  which  passes  from  the  back  part  of  the  beaks^obliquely  downward  and 
backward  to  the  corner  of  the  posterior  notch,  ari^the  other  nearly  directly 
downward  to  the  extremity  of  the  ventral  prolongation.  Length,  of  a  medium 
sized  specimen,  0-16  inch  ;  height  0-14  inch  ;  gibbosity  0-13  inch. 

Locality  and  position.     Fort  Clark,  on  the  Missouri,  in  formation  No.  5. 

Mactra  Siouxensis,  M.  &  H. — Internal  cast  oval-subtrigonal,  moderately 
gibbous ;  anterior  border  narrowly  rounded  ;  posterior  margin  subangular  at 
the  extremity ;  base  forming  a  nearly  semiovate  curve,  the  most  prominent 
part  of  which  is  in  front  of  the  middle  ;  dorsal  outline  declining  with  a  slightly 
convex  outline  behind  the  beaks,  and  distinctly  concave  in  front  of  them  ;  beaks 
prominent,  rather  gibbous,  very  nearly  central ;  pallial  impression  provided 
with  an  oval  sinus,  which  appears  to  be  a  little  narrower  behind  than  in  tHe 
middle,  rounded  at  the  anterior  extremity,  and  extending  nearly  in  a  horizontal 
direction,  about  three-fourths  of  the  way  towards  the  middle  of  the  valves. 
Length  1-55  inches  ;  height,  1*22  inches  ;  convexity  0-76  inch. 

Locality  and  position.  Near  mouth  of  Big  Sioux  River,  in  formation  No.  1, 
of  the  Nebraska  Cretaceous  series. 

Mactra  gracilis,  M.  &  H.— Shell  small,  rather  thin,  ovate-subtrigonal, 
moderately  gibbous,  anterior  end  rounded,  a  little  broader  than  the  other  ; 
base  forming  a  broad  semiovate  curve,  being  usually  more  prominent  towards 
the  front  than  behind ;  posterior  margin  rather  narrowly  rounded,  or  sub- 
truncate  ;  beaks  moderately  prominent,  and  located  slightly  in  advance  of  the 
middle ;  escutcheon  comparatively  large,  lance-ovate  in  form  ;  surface  marked 
by  distinct,  regular  lines  of  growth  :  hinge  unknown.  Length  0-49  inch  ; 
height  0-38  inch;  convexity  about  0-24  inch. 

Locality  and  position.  On  Yellowstone  River,  150  miles  above  the  mouth,  in 
beds  containing  a  mingling  of  the  fossils  of  No.  4  and  5. 

Tellina?  Formosa,  M.  &  H. — Shell  subelliptical,  very  thin,  moderately  con» 
vex  ;  anterior  extremity  a  little  wider  than  the  other,  but  very  narrowly  round- 
ed ;  posterior  side  subangular  at  the  extremity  ;  base  forming  a  semi-elliptical 
curve ;  dorsum  sloping  gradually,  with  a  slightly  convex  outline  in  front  and 
rear;  beaks  small,  and  located  almost  exactly  in  the  middle;  surface  marked 
by  rather  obscure,  irregular  lines  of  growth,  and  extremely  fine  radiating  striae, 
only  visible  by  the  aid  of  a  magnifier ;  hinge  unknown.  Length  0*67  inch  ; 
height  0-40  inch;  convexity  (of  a  right  valve)  about  0*13  inch. 

Locality  and  position.  Twenty  miles  below  mouth  of  Cannon  Ball  River, 
formation  No.  5. 

Cyprina  humilis.  M.  &  H. — Shell  ovate,  gibbous,  thick,  very  oblique ;  ante- 
rior margin  scarcely  extending  beyond  the  beaks,  abruptly  rounded  below ; 
base  semiovate  in  outline,  most  prominent  towards  the  front,  sometimes  a  little 
contracted  behind  ;  posterior  extremity  rounding  obliquely,  with  a  broad  curve 
from  the  dorsum  to  the  postero-basal  extremity,  which  is  narrowly  rounded ; 
beaks  very  oblique,  almost  overhanging  the  anterior  border,  declining  and 
turned  a  little  inwards  at  the  extremities ;  umbonal  slopes  prominent  from  near 
the  beaks  obliquely  backward  to  the  lower  part  of  the  anal  margin  ;  surface 
marked  by  distinct,  subimbricating  lines  of  growth.  Length  1-70  inches  ; 
height  1-34  inches;  breadth  1-30  inches. 

I860.] 


180  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  ACADEMY  OF 

Locality  and  position.     North  branch  of  Cheyenne  River,  near  Black  Hills, 
formation  No.  5. 

Avicula  subsibbosa,  M.  k  H. — Shell  (left  valve)  obliquely  rhombic-oval, 
or  ovate,  moderately  gibbous;  anterior  margin  contracted,  or  a  little  concave 
in  outline  just  below  the  wing,  from  which  point  it  descends  obliquely  back- 
ward, with  a  broad,  gently  convex  sweep,  into  the  base  ;  posterior  border  rather 
broadly  rounded  below,  distinctly  sinuous  under  the  wing  above ;  hinge  line 
Straight,  a  little  less  than  the  height  of  the  shell.  Anterior  wing  forming  an 
equilateral  triangle,  compressed,  and  rather  distinct  from  the  umbo;  posterior 
wing  having  the  form  of  a  very  inequilateral  triangle,  the  posterior  side  of 
which  is  much  the  shortest,  compressed,  moderately  distinct  from  the  more 
gibbous  part  of  the  valve,  forming  an  angle  of  about  50°  at  the  extremity  ;  beak 
small,  slightly  elevated  above  the  hinge,  gibbous,  located  a  little  less  than  one- 
third  the  length  of  the  hinge,  behind  the  anterior  extremity  ;  posterior  muscu- 
lar scar  large,  oval  or  ovate,  and  located  a  little  above  the  middle.  Height 
1-40  inches ;  length,  measuring  from  the  postero-basal  extremity  obliquely 
forward  and  upward  to  the  point  of  the  beak,  1*72  inches  ;  length  of  hinge 
1-32  inches. 

This  species  resembles  A.  linguiformis,  Evans  &  Shumard,  but  is  much  broad- 
er and  less  oblique,  while  its  postero-basal  margin  is  more  broadly  rounded. 
Our  specimen  is  a  cast,  and  does  not  show  the  surface-markings,  excepting  on 
the  anterior  wing,  where  the  marks  of  growth  are  rather  distinct  and  subim- 
bricating. 

Locality  and positio?i.     Long  Lake,  above  Fort  Pierre,  formation  No.  5. 

Inoceramus  cuneatus,  M.  &  H. — Shell  oblong-ovate,  moderately  gibbous  in 
the  umbonal  and  anterior  regions,  very  nearly  or  quite  equivalve,  rather  thin  ; 
buccal  side  descending  from  the  beaks  ai  first,  almost  at  right  angles  to  the 
hinge,  after  which  it  gradually  curves  obliquely  backward  and  downward,  so 
as  to  pass  by  a  graceful  sweep  into  the  base  ;  posterior  side  long,  compressed, 
broader  than  the  other  extremity,  and  regularly  rounded  ;  ventral  border  form- 
ing a  semiovate  curve,  the  most  prominent  part  of  which  is  behind  the  middle  ; 
hinge  very  long,  and  nearly  straight.  Beaks  very  nearly  terminal,  or  located 
almost  directly  over  the  anterior  border,  oblique,  rising  little  above  the  hinge, 
equal,  and  but  slightly  incurved.  Surface  marked  by  rather  distinct,  more  or 
less  regular  undulations.  Length  3-90  inches;  height  2-75  inches  ;  convexity 
2  inches. 

Locality  and  position.  Yellow  Stone  River,  150  miles  above  the  mouth,  ia 
beds  containing  a  blending  of  the  fossils  of  formations  Nos.  4  and  5. 

Inoceramds  Vanuxemi,  M.  &  H. —  Shell  large,  subcircular  or  broad  oval, 
equivalve,  and  much  compressed  ;  anterior  margin  rounded  ;  base  forming  a 
nearly  semicircular  curve,  being  a  little  more  prominent  behind  than  in  front ; 
posterior  side  longer  and  wider  than  the  other,  broadly  rounded  orsubtruncate; 
hinge  (of  moderate  length  ?)  straight,  and  forming  an  angle  of  about  70°  with 
the  axis  of  the  umbones.  Beaks  small,  compressed,  scarcely  rising  above  the 
hinge,  not  distinctly  incurved,  located  a  little  in  advance  of  the  middle.  Sur- 
face ornamented  by  regular,  distinct,  angular,  but  not  very  prominent  concen- 
tric undulations,  which  are  separated  by  rather  shallow  depressions.  Length 
of  the  largest  specimen  we  have  seen,  10  inches  ;  height  of  do.  9  inches. 

Locality  and  position.  White  River  above  the  Bad  Lands,  in  upper  part  of 
formation  No.  4. 

Inoceramus  Balchii,  M.  &  H. — Shell  large,  subquadrate,  or  broad  oblong- 
oval,  much  compressed  ;  anterior  side  truncate  obliquely  forward  above,  at  an 
angle  of  about  115°  with  the  hinge,  rounding  into  the  base  below;  ventral 
margin  forming  a  broad  curve,  the  most  prominent  part  of  which  is  a  little 
behind  the  middle  ;  posterior  side  longer  and  wider  than  the  other,  broadly 
rounded,  (sometimes  subtruncate  above  ?) ;  hinge  line  rather  long,  forming  an 

[May, 


NATURAL   SCIENCES   OF   PHILADELPHIA.  181 

angle  of  about  60°  with  the  umbonal  axis.  Beaks  narrow,  rising  somewhat 
above  the  hinge,  scarcely  incurved,  located  about  halfway  between  the  middle 
and  the  most  prominent  part  of  the  anterior  border.  Surface  ornamented  by 
very  slightly  elevated,  broadly  rounded,  rather  irregular  undulations,  which 
become  entirely  obsolete  on  large  specimens  below  the  middle,  find  on  the  pos- 
terior as  well  as  the  lower  anterior  regions.  Attains  a  diameter  of  3j  to  4 
inches. 

Named  after  Lieut.  G.  T.  Balch,  of  U.  S.  Ordinance — who  discovered  the 
only  specimens  of  the  species  we  have  seen. 

Locality  and  position.     White  River  above  the  Mauvaises  Terres. 

Inoceramus  subcompressds,  M.  &  H. — Shell  rhombic-oval,  compressed,  very 
thin  ;  anterior  side  rounded  below  the  beaks  ;  base  forming  a  long  semiovate 
curve,  the  most  prominent  part  of  which  is  behind  the  middle  ;  posterior  side 
long,  very  narrowly  rounded  and  prominent  below  the  middle,  subtruncate  ob- 
liquely forward  above  ;  hinge  of  moderate  length,  forming  an  angle  of  about  40° 
with  the  umbonal  axis.  Beaks  small,  scarcely  rising  above  the  hinge,  located 
nearly  over  the  anterior  extremity.  Surface  ornamented  by  somewhat  regular 
concentric  undulations.     Length  2-55  inches  ;  height  1-T0  inches. 

Locality  and  position.  Mouth  of  Judith  River,  formation  No.  1  ?  of  Nebraska 
section. 

Inoceramus  avicdloids,  M.  &  H. — Shell  compressed,  often  broad  ovate  or 
subcircular  when  young,  but  becoming  obliquely  oval  or  subrhomboidal  in 
outline  as  it  advanced  in  age ;  substance  thin  and  fragile.  Anterior  and  basal 
margins  forming  a  broad  gentle  curve ;  posterior  extremity  narrowly  rounded 
below,  ascending  obliquely  forward,  with  a  slightly  convex  outline  above,  and 
meeting  the  hinge  at  an  angle  of  about  120°.  Hinge  margin  long,  straight  and 
compressed,  so  as  to  form  an  alate  expansion  behind.  Beaks  nearly  terminal, 
scarcely  rising  above  the  hinge,  not  gibbous  or  distinctly  incurved.  Surface 
ornamented  by  more  or  less  regular  concentric  undulations  and  obscure  lines 
of  growth.  Length  from  the  beaks  obliquely  backward  and  downward  to  the 
postero-basal  edge,  about  3  inches  ;  height  from  base  to  hinge,  2-30  inches. 

Locality  and  position.     Little  Blue  River,  formation  No.  3. 

Anomia  obliqua,  M.  &  H. — Shell  thin,  broad  oval,  subcircular,  or  somewhat 
irregular,  and  more  or  less  oblique;  upper  valve  rather  convex,  beak  nearly  or 
quite  marginal,  and  placed  nearer  the  anterior  side,  moderately  gibbous  ;  sur- 
face marked  concentrically  by  fine  obscure  lines,  and  small  wrinkles  of  growth. 
Length  about  1-32  inches  ;  breadth  1*16  inches. 

Locality  and  position.  Near  mouth  of  Niobrara  River,  in  formation  No.  3  of 
the  Nebraska  section. 

Anomia  subtrigonalis,  M.  &  H. — Shell  subtrigonal,  approaching  subcircular, 
extremely  thin  and  fragile  ;  upper  valve  moderately  convex  ;  anterior  side  sub- 
truncate,  with  a  slightly  convex  outline,  rounding  abruptly  at  its  junction  with 
the  ventral  margin;  posterior  side  obliquely  truncate' from  the  beak,  and  very 
narrowly  rounded  at  its  connection  with  the  ventral  border,  provided  with  a 
broad,  oblique,  rounded  fold  ;  pallial  margin  nearly  straight,  or  but  slightly 
convex ;  umbo  marginal  and  rather  prominent.  Lower  valve  nearly  flat,  or 
compressed,  and  more  irregular  than  the  other.  Surface  marked  by  small, 
irregular,  concentric  wrinkles,  and  very  obscure  lines  of  growth.  Length  1*57 
inch;  breadth  1-14  inch. 

Locality  and  position.     Bijou  Hill,  on  the  Missouri,  formation  No.  4. 

Ostrea  inornata,  M.  &  H. — Shell  small,  narrow  subovate,  rather  thin, 
attached  by  the  whole  under  surface  of  the  lower  valve  ;  beaks  pointed  and 
curved  usually  to  the  left  side;  under  valve  conforming  to  the  contour  of  the 
surface  to  which  it  adhered,  moderately  concave,  area  small  and  narrow  ;  upper 
valve  rather  convex,  having  its  beak  less  pointed  than  that  of  the  other  valve  ; 

I860.] 


182  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  ACADEMY  OF 

surface  smooth,  or  only  marked  by  very  obscure  lines  of  growth,  with  sometimes 
a  few  very  small,  irregular,  nearly  obsolete  radiating  wrinkles  near  the  lower 
border.     Length  about  1-40  inches;  breadth  0-87  inch. 

Locality  and  position.  Great  Bend  of  the  Missouri,  below  Fort  Pierre — lower 
part  of  No.  4,  Nebraska  section. 

JURASSIC  SPECIES. 
CONCHIFERA. 

Pholadomya  humilis,  M.  &  H. — Shell  transversely  oblong-oval,  ventricose ; 
posterior  end  rounded,  and  more  or  less  gaping;  base  nearly  straight  along  the 
middle  ;  anterior  end  very  short,  narrowly  rounded  below  the  beaks ;  dorsum 
nearly  parallel  with  the  base,  slightly  concave  in  outline ;  escutcheon  lanceo- 
late, and  bounded  by  an  obscure  angle  on  each  side ;  beaks  depressed,  gib- 
bous, incurved,  and  located  in  advance  of  the  middle;  surface  ornamented  by 
small,  regular,  concentric  wrinkles,  crossed  by  a  few  raised  lines,  or  obscure, 
distant,  radiating  costae,  extending  from  the  back  part  of  the  beaks,  to  the  pos- 
terior, and  postero-basal  margins.  Length  about  1-06  inch  :  height  0-52  inch  ; 
breadth  0-52  inch. 

Locality  and  position.  Lower  Jurassic  series,  at  the  south-west  base  of  the 
Black  Hills. 

Myacites  Nebrascensis,  M.  &  H. — Shell  elongate,  subelliptical,  rather  convex  ; 
extremities  narrowly  rounded,  the  posterior  end  being  sometimes  apparently 
obliquely  subtruncate,  and  more  or  less  gaping  above  ;  base  nearly  straight,  or 
very  slightly  sinuous  along  the  middle,  rounding  up  gradually  towards  the 
ends;  dorsum  behind  the  beaks  concave  in  outline ;  posterior  umbonal  slopes 
gibbous,  or  prominently  rounded  ;  antero-  ventral  region  a  little  compressed, 
or  contracted  from  near  the  middle  of  the  base  obliquely  forward  and  upward  ; 
beaks  moderately  elevated,  gibbous,  incurved,  and  located  near  the  anterior 
end ;  surface  ornamented  by  concentric  striae,  and  small,  very  obscure,  irregu- 
lar parallel  wrinkles.  Length  about  1-43  inch  ;  height  0-69  inch  ;  breadth  0-59 
inch. 

Locality  and  position.     South-west  base  Black  Hills.     Jurassic. 

Thracia?  sublevis,  M.  &  H. — Shell  narrow  oblong-oval,  rather  compressed  ; 
anterior  end  narrowly  rounded ;  base  nearly  straight  along  the  middle,  round- 
ing up  toward  the  ends  ;  posterior  side  longer  than  the  other,  rounded  or 
slightly  truncate,  and  apparently  gaping  a  little  at  the  extremity;  dorsal  bor- 
der concave  in  outline,  and  nearly  horizontal  behind  the  beaks,  declining  more 
abruptly  in  front;  beaks  moderately  elevated,  the  right  one  being  usually  a 
little  higher  than  the  other,  located  in  advance  of  the  middle  ;  posterior  um- 
bonal slopes  prominently  rounded ;  surface  concentrically  striate  ;  hinge  and 
interior  unknown.  Length  1-17  inch;  height  060  inch  ;  breadth  about  0-32 
inch. 

Locality  and  position.  Near  the  middle  of  the  Jurassic  deposits  at  the  south- 
west base  of  the  Black  Hills. 

Thracia?  arcuata,  M.  &  H. — Shell  small,  transversely  subovate,  more  or 
less  arcuate,  moderately  convex  ;  extremities  rather  narrowly  rounded,  and  a 
little  gaping;  cardinal  margin  sloping  from  the  beaks,  anterior  slope  more 
abrupt  than  the  other  ;  beaks  rather  elevated  and  unequal,  that  of  the  right 
valve  being  higher  than  the  other,  located  in  advance  of  the  middle  ;  posterior 
and  anterior  umbonal  slopes  prominent;  sides  of  the  valves  flattened  or  slightly 
concave  in  the  central  region  near  the  base;  surface  of  cast  retaining  small 
concentric  marks  of  growth  ;  hinge  and  interior  unknown.  Length,  0  62  inch  ; 
height,  0-37  inch  ;  thickness  or  convexity.  0-23  inch. 

Locality  and  position.     Same  as  last. 

Cardium  Shumardi,  M.  &  H. — Shell  small,  subcircular,  rather  gibbous  ;   an- 

[May, 


NATURAL   SCIENCES   OP  PHILADELPHIA.  183 

terior  side  rounded  ;  base  more  broadly  rounded  ;  posterior  side  obliquely  sub- 
truncate  above  and  passing  with  an  abrupt  curve  into  the  base  below  ;  hinge 
margin  rather  short,  and  sloping  slightly  from  the  beaks,  which  are  moderately 
elevated,  gibbous  and  nearly  central ;  posterior  umbonal  slopes  angular ;  sur- 
face of  cast  retaining  only  traces  of  small  radiating  costae  or  lines  on  the  pro- 
minent posterior  umbonal  slopes,  and  flattened  postero-dorsal  region ;  hinge 
and  interior  unknown.  Length  0-44  inch  ;  height  0-37  inch  ;  thickness  0-32 
inch. 

Named  in  honor  of  Dr.  George  G.  Shumard,  of  the  Texas  Geological  Survey. 

Locality  and  position.     Jurassic,  beds  south-west  base  of  Black  Hills. 

Tancredia?  jsquilateralis,  M.  &  H. — Shell  very  nearly  equilateral,  mode- 
rately convex  ;  anterior  end  rather  narrowly  rounded  ;  base  forming  a  broad, 
regular,  semielliptic  curve;  posterior  end  slightly  truncate  on  the  upper  oblique 
slope,  narrowly  rounded  below,  apparently  not  gaping  ;  beaks  depressed,  loca- 
ted a  little  in  advance  of  the  middle;  surface  of  cast  retaining  traces  of  con- 
centric striae  ;  hinge  and  interior  unknown.  Length  1  inch  ;  height  0-64  inch  ; 
breadth  about  0-16  inch. 

Locality  and  position.     South-west  base  Black  Hills — Jurassic. 

Tancredia  Warrenana,  M.  &  H. — Shell  small,  trigonal  ovate,  moderately 
convex,  anterior  half  a  little  narrower  and  more  compressed  than  the  other, 
narrowly  rounded  at  the  extremity  ;  base  forming  a  broad  gentle  curve  ;  pos- 
terior side  subtruncate,  angular,  or  abruptly  rounded  below;  dorsum  sloping 
from  the  beaks,  the  anterior  slope  being  slightly  concave  in  outline,  and  the 
other  nearly  straight,  or  a  little  convex;  beaks  elevated,  but  not  extending 
much  above  the  cardinal  edge  ;  posterior  umbonal  slopes  prominent,  or  sub- 
angular ;  surface  and  hinge  unknown. 

Named  in  honor  of  Lieut.  G.  K.  Warren,  U.  S.  Top.  Engineers. 

Length  0-50  inch;  height  0-33  inch  ;  breadth  about  014  inch. 

Locality  and  position.     Same  as  last. 

Astarte  fragilis,  M.  &  H. — Shell  small,  rather  broad  oval,  thin,  moderately 
compressed;  anterior  end  rounded;  base  nearly  straight  along  the  middle, 
rounding  up  regularly  in  front,  and  more  abruptly  behind  :  posterior  extremity 
obscurely  subtruncate;  dorsum  straight  and  slightly  declining  behind  the 
beaks,  which  are  small,  obtuse,  rather  depressed,  and  located  a  little  in  advance 
of  the  middle;  posterior  umbonal  slopes  prominent;  surface  ornamented  by 
distinct,  irregular  concentric  wrinkles  and  fine  parallel  striae  ;  hinge  and  interior 
unknown  ;  pallial  margin  crenulate  within.  Length  0-45  inch  ;  height  0-32 
inch  ;  breadth  or  convexity  0-18  inch. 

Locality  and  position.     South-west  base  of  the  Black  Hills — Jurassic. 

Astarte  inornata,  M.  &  H. — Shell  subelliptical,  compressed;  extremities 
rounded,  the  posterior  margin  forming  a  broader  curve  than  the  other;  base 
semielliptical  in  outline;  dorsum  declining  from  the  beaks,  the  anterior  slope 
being  a  little  concave,  and  the  other  nearly  straight  or  slightly  convex  ;  beaks 
moderately  elevated,  compressed,  angular  in  front,  located  just  in  advance  of 
the  middle  ;  lunule  rather  deep,  lance-oval,  bounded  on  each  side  by  a  more 
or  less  distinct  angle  ;  surface  marked  by  concentric  stria?,  with  a  tendency  to 
develop  small,  very  obscure  concentric  wrinkles.  Length  1-15  inches  ;  height 
0-79  inch  :  breadth  or  convexity  0-44  inch. 

Locality  and  position.     Same  as  last. 

Trigonia  Conradi,  M.  &  H. — Shell  rather  small,  subtrigonal,  moderately 
convex;  anterior  side  truncate;  base  rounded  ;  posterior  side  sloping  obliquely 
frorn  the  beaks  above,  and  apparently  vertically  truncate  at  the  extremity;  beaks 
elevated,  narrow,  incurved,  and  located  in  advance  of  the  middle  ;  posterior 
umbonal  slopes  distinctly  angular  ;  surface  ornamented  by  rather  small, 
obscure  concentric  costa?,  which  on  the  posterior  side  of  the  valves,    descend 

I860.] 


184  PROCEEDINGS  OP  THE  ACADEMY  OF 

at  first  perpendicularly,  after  which  they  are  deflected  forward  parallel  to  the 
basal  and  anterior  borders.  Length  and  height,  each  about  097  inch  ;  con- 
vexity 0-58  inch. 

Locality  and  position.     Sonth-west  base  Black  Hills,  Jurassic. 

Named  in  honor  of  Mr.  T.  A.  Conrad,  the  well  known  palaeontologist,  of 
Philadelphia. 

Pecten  extenuatds,  M.  &  H. — Shell  broad  ovate,  or  sub-circular,  thin, 
compressed;  basal  mtrgin  rounded;  beaks  small;  hinge  line  rather  short; 
ear3  unknown  ;  surface  apparently  having  only  concentric  striae  of  growth. 
Height  0-98  inch,  length  0-90  inch;  convexity  0-28  inch. 

Locality  and  position.  South-west  base  of  Black  Hills,  in  a  sandstone  of  lower 
Jurassic  age. 

PALEOZOIC. 

Myalina  aviculoides,  M.  &  H. — Shell  subtrigonal,  higher  than  long,  very 
convex,  or  sometimes  subangular  down  the  umbonal  slopes  ;  anterior  margin 
distinctly  sinuous  above  the  middle,  thence  descending  with  a  slightly  convex 
curve,  nearly  at  right  angles  with  the  hinge,  to  the  basal  extremity,  which  is 
narrowly  rounded ;  posterior  side  compressed,  its  margin  curving  a  little 
forward  above,  or  intersecting  the  hinge  at  right  angles,  slightly  convex,  and 
nearly  perpendicular  along  the  middle,  below  which  it  curves  obliquely  forward 
to  the  abruptly  rounded  basal  extremity;  hinge  straight,  nearly  equalling  the 
length  of  the  shell ;  beaks  very  convex,  subangular,  and  curving  rather  abruptly 
forward,  so  as  to  become  nearly,  or  quite  terminal  ;  surface  having  moderately 
distinct  marks  of  growth.  Length,  1-48  inch ;  height,  1-66  inch  ;  convexity, 
(of  left  valve),  0-32  inch. 

This  will  be  readily  distinguished  from  all  the  other  species  of  the  genus 
known  to  us,  by  its  more  accurate  front,  and  the  extension  of  its  anterior  margin 
under  the  beaks,  above  its  most  sinuous  part. 

Locality  end  position.  From  the  upper  beds,  containing  Permian  types  of 
fossils,  on  Cottonwood  creek,  Kanzas  Territory. 

Note.  In  going  carefully  over  these  extensive  collections,  we  have  in  addition 
to  finding  the  new  species  here  described,  succeeded  in  working  from  the  matrix, 
better  specimens  of  many  of  those  already  published  by  us,  than  had  been  pre- 
viously obtained.  The  additional  information  derived  from  these,  and  a  more 
careful  review  of  the  subject  has  enabled  us  to  make  several  corrections 
in  the  synonyma,  as  well  as  in  the  generic  references,  a  list  of  which  is  given 
below. 

It  will  also  be  observed,  that  we  have  made  quite  a  number  of  other  changes, 
in  order  to  range  the  species  under  the  oldest  generic  names  proposed  after  the 
introduction  by  Linnaeus,  of  the  binomial  system.  We  must  confess,  however, 
that  we  have  some  doubts  whether  science  is  to  be  much  benefitted  by  a  strict 
observance  of  the  law  of  priority,  in  such  cases  as  those  where  it  becomes 
necessary  to  change  long  established  names.  We  nevertheless  make  some 
such  changes  in  conformity  with  usages  rapidly  gaining  ground,  and  probably 
destined  soon  to  become  universal  amongst  conchologists  and  laborers  in  other 
departments  of  Natural  History. 

The  transfer  of  several  species  formerly  published  under  the  names  Hamites, 
Ancylocerasl  and  Turrilites,  to  the  genus  Helicoceras,  has  been  made  in  accord- 
ance with  the  views  of  Mr.  Daniel  Sharpe,  (Fossil  Mol.  Chalk,  England,  part 
3d,  Cephalopoda,  p.  59,  Paleont.  Soc.)  who  refers  all  the  so  called  Turrilites 
having  rounded  whorls,  with  the  siphuncle  placed  on  the  dorsal  or  outer  side,  to 
the  genus  Helicoceras,  whether  the  whorls  are  in  contact  or  not.  The  genus 
Turrilites,  he  restricts  to  those  forms  having  more  or  less  angular  contiguous 
whorls,  with  the  siphuncle  located  near  the  suture.  The  fact  of  the  whorls  of 
those  forms  with  rounded  volutions  being  in  contact  or  not,   can  scarcely  be 

[May, 


NATURAL    SCIENCES    OF   PHILADELPHIA. 


185 


regarded  in  all  cases,  of  even  specific  importance,  since  it  is  now  well  known 
that  in  some  instances  the  same  species  presents  both  these  peculiarities,  and 
sometimes  the  whorls  of  one  part  of  the  spire  are  in  contact,  and  in  others  dis- 
connected, even  in  the  same  individual. 

Our  specimens  confirm  Mr.  Sharp's  views,  for  although  they  are  but  mere 
fragments,  it  is  evident  they  are  parts  of  spiral  shells,  presenting  intermediate 
gradations  between  forms  with  whorls  barely  in  contact,  and  others  in  which 
they  are  clearly  disconnected. 

Mr.  D'Orbigny  describes  the  septa  of  the  genus  Helicoceras  as  being  un- 
symmetrical,  like  those  of  Turrilites,  this,  however,  is  not  always  the  case  in 
species,  the  whorls  of  which  make  a  very  broad  curve  around  a  large  umbilical 
cavity,  for  in  some  of  our  specimens  of  this  kind,  the  corresponding  lobes  on 
opposite  sides  of  the  siphuncle,  present  scarcely  the  slightest  inequality,  and 
in  other  instances  seem  to  be  as  nearly  symmetrical  as  in  Hamites,  or  any  of 
the  allied  genera. 


Names  formerly  used. 

Hamites  Mortoni,  Hall  &  Meek.  1 

Helicoceras  tenuicostatum,  Meek  &  Hayden.   j 
Turrilites  (Helicoceras)  cochleatus,  M.  &  H. 
Ancyloceras?  Nebrascensis,  Meek  &  Hayden. 

Turrilites  Nebrascensis,  Meek  &  Hayden. 
Ancyloceras  ?  Cheyennensis,  Meek  &  Hayden. 

Turrilites  Cheyennensis,  Meek  &  Hayden. 
Turrilites  umbilicatus,  Meek  &  Hayden. 
Ammonites  percarinatus,  Hall  &  Meek, 

presents  extremely    different  characters,    at 
various  stages  of  its  growth  ;  probably  not 
distinct  from  A.  Woolgari,  of  Mantell. 
Ammonites  cordiformis.  Meek  &  Hayden, 

probably  identical  with  A.  Cordatus,  Sowerby. 
Planorbis  fragilis,*  M.  &  H.  (non  Dunker.) 
Planorbis  subumbilicatus,  Meek  &  Hayden. 
Planorbis  amplexus.  Meek  &  Hayden. 
Paludina  Conradi,  Meek  &  Hayden. 
Paludina  moltilineata,  Meek  &  Hayden. 
Paludina  Leai,  Meek  &  Hayden. 
Paludina  retusa,  Meek  &  Mayden. 
Paludina  trochiformis,  Meek  &  Hayden. 
Turritella  Moreauensis,  Meek  &  Hayden. 
Scalaria  cerithiformis,  Meek  &  Hayden. 
Turbo  Nebrascensis.  Meek  &  Hayden. 
Rostellaria  biangulata.  Meek  &  Hayden. 
Fusus  contortus.  Meek  &  Hayden. 
Buccinum  ?  vinculum,  Hall  k  Meek. 
Acteon  attenuatus,  Meek  k  Hayden. 
Acteon  concinnus,  Hall  &  Meek,  \ 

Avellana  subglobosa,  Meek  &  Hayden.  j 
Acteon  subellipticus,  Meek  &  Hayden. 
Natica  paludinjEformis,*  Hall  &  Meek. 

(non  N paludiniformis,  D'Orbigny.) 
Bulla  subcylindrica,*  Meek  &  Hayden. 
Corbula  ventricosa,  Meek  &  Hayden. 
Corbula  Moreauensis,  Meek  &  Hayden. 
Cytherea  tenuis.  Hall  &  Meek. 
Cytherea  pelluclda,  Meek  Ik  Hayden. 
Cytherea  Deweyi,  Meek  8c  Hayden. 
Cytherea  Owenana,  Meek  St  Hayden. 
Cytherea  orbiculata,  Meek  &  Hayden. 
Cyclas  Formosa,  Meek  &  Hayden. 
Cyclas  fragilis,  Meek  &  Hayden. 
Cyclas  subelliptica,  Meek  &  Hayden. 
Hettangia  Americana,  Meek  &  Hayden. 
Nucula  Evansi,  Meek  &  Hayden. 
Nucula  scitula,  Meek  &  Hayden. 
Cucull^a  Shumardi,  Meek  &  Hayden. 
Pectunculus  Siouxensis,  Hall  &  Meek. 
Pectunculus  subimbricatus,  Meek  &  Hayden. 


Names  here  adopted. 

Helicoceras  Mortoni. 
Helicoceras  cochleatum. 
Helicoceras  Nebrascense. 
Helicoceras  Cheyennense. 

Helicoceras  umbilicatum. 


Planorris  planoconvexus. 

Valvata  subumbilicata. 

Helix  (Polygyra)  amplexus. 

Vivipara  Conradi. 

vlvipara  multilineata. 

Vivipara  Leai. 

Vivipara  retusa. 

Vivipara  trochiformis. 

Cerithiopsis  Moreauensis.' 

Turbonilla  (Chemnitizia)  cerithiformis. 

Margarita  Nebrascensis. 

Aporrhais  biangulatus. 

Pleurotoma  contorta. 

Fusus  vinculum. 

Solidulus  attenuatus. 

Avellana  concinna. 

Solidulus  (Acteonina  ?)  subellipticus. 

Amadropsis  paludiniformis. 

Bulla  speciosa. 
Ne^ra  ventricosa. 
Ne^ra  Moreauensis. 
Meretrix  tenuis. 
Meretrix  pellucid  a. 
Meretrix  Deweyi. 
Meretrix  Owenana. 
Meretrix  orbiculata. 
Sph^erium  formosum. 
sph.erium  fragile. 
sph.erium  subellipticum. 
Tancredia  Americana. 
Leda  Evansi. 

IiEDA    SCITULA. 

Cucull^a  fibrosa,  Sowerby. 
AXW.EA  Siouxensis. 
AXIN.SA  subimbricata. 


I860.] 


*The  names  followed  by  an  asterisk,  were  pre-occupied. 


186  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  ACADEMY  OF 

Descriptions  of  Fourteen  new  species  of  Schizostomae,  Anculosae  and  Lithasiae. 

BY    ISAAC   LEA. 

It  will  be  observed  that  I  have  in  this  paper  adopted  my  first  name  (Schizos- 
toma) for  the   division  of  those  Melanida  which  have  a  cut  or  fissure   in  the 
upper  portion  of  the  last  whorl.     This  name  I  proposed  in  December,  1842. 
Subsequently  finding  that  it  was  used  by  Bronn  in  1835  I  abandoned   it,  and 
proposed  the  name   of  Sckizochilus  as  a  substitute,  (Obs.  on  the  Genus   Unio, 
v.  5,  p.  51,  1852.)     I  am  now  satisfied  that  Bronn's  name  was  applied  to  the  same 
genus — Euomphalus — which  Sowerby  established  in  1814,  (Min.  Conch,  tab.  45.) 
This  evidently  liberates  my  original  name,  and  Herrrcannsen,  in  the  Appendix 
to  his"Generum  Malacozorum,"  very  properly  restores  it.     It  was  supposed 
that  this  was  the  Melatoma  of  Swainson,  and  Mr.  Anthony  adopted  this  name. 
But  it  is  evident  that  Mr.  Swainson's  Melatoma  is  not  my  Schizostoma.     By  refe- 
rence to  his  figure  (Malacology,  p.  342,  f.  104)  it  will  be  observed  at  once  that 
there  has  never  been  observed  in  the  United  States  any  of  the  group  of  which 
that  figure  is  the  type,  while  it  is  known  that  they  exist  in  the  islands  of  the 
Indian  Ocean.     Mr.  Swainson  says  (p.  202)  that  his  Melatoma  was  "founded 
upon  a  remarkable  Ohio  shell  "  sent  by  Rafinesque.     Now,  as  no  member  of  the 
family  Melanidce  with  a  cut  in  the  lip  has  ever  been  found  in  the  Ohio,  where 
such  hosts  of  active  collectors  have  since  pursued  their  investigations,  it  is 
perhaps  beyond  the  bounds  of  possibility  that  the  specimen  sent  by  Rafinesque, 
so  eminently  careless  and  reckless  as  he  always  was,  should   ever  have  been 
found  there.     Indeed,  if  the  specimen  figured  was  sent  by  Mr.  Rafinesque  to 
Mr.  Swainson,  then  the  question  would  arise  whether  it  had  not  been  obtained 
by  Mr.  R.  from  some  dealer  or  collector,  who  may  have  obtained  it  from  Asia. 
I   have  no  doubt  of  the    Melatoma  costata,  which  Mr.  Swainson  has  figured, 
being  exotic,  and  belonging  to  a  group  probably  from  the  Philippine  Islands. 
Mr.  Anthony  says,  page  64,  Proc.  A.  N.  S.   1860,  that  "it  may  be  doubted 
whether  Mr.  Lea's  first  name  will  not  eventually  prevail,  since,  before  he  pub- 
lished Schizostoma,  Bronn's  genus  of  the  same  name  had  been  called  a  synonym 
of  Bifrontia,  Desh."     And  that  "  H.  and  A.  Adams  (Gen.  Rec.  Moll.  1,  105)  do 
not  appear  correct  in  giving  preference  to  Gyroloma  over  Schizostoma,  Lea,"  &c. 
Notwithstanding  this,  Mr.  Anthony  in  this  paper,  where  he  describes  nine  sup- 
posed new  species  of  this  genus,  adopts  the  generic  name  of  Oyrotoma.     It  may 
be  added  here  that  Dr.  Gray,  in  his  Genera  of  Recent  Mollusca,  gives  Melatoma  to 
Mr.  Anthony,  not  to  Swainson,  while  he  does  not  notice  the  name  of  Schizos- 
toma.    Mr.  A.  does  not  pretend  to  claim  it,  of  course,  but  adopts  Gxjrotoma, 
Mr.  Shuttleworth's   name,  proposed  in  1845,  which   being  three  years  later 
cannot  have  precedence. 

The  genus  Schizostoma  seems  to  be  capable  of  being  divided  into  two  natural 
groups  in  the  form  of  the  fissura,  the  cut  in  the  lip.  In  one  group  this  fissura 
is  deep  and  direct,  that  is  parallel  with  the  suture  or  upper  edge  of  the 
whorl ;  in  the  other  it  is  not  deep  and  is  oblique  to  the  suture. 

In  Mr.  Anthony's  paper  (Proc.  Acad.  Nat.  Sci.  Feb.,  1860)  I  recognize  several 
of  my  old  species.  His  Gyrotoma  demissa  I  believe  to  be  my  Schizostoma  con- 
stricta.     His  G.  quadrata  to  be  my  S.  incisa. 

Schizostoma  castanea. — Testa,  carinata,  conica,  subcrassa,  tenebroso-fusca,, 
imperforate. ;  spira.  elevata  ;  suturis  valde  impressis  ;  anfractibus  senis,  planu- 
latis,  unicarinatis,  quadrivittatis  ;  fissura  recta,  angusta  profundaque  ;  apertura 
parviuscula,  elliptica,  intus  vittata,  ad  basim  subrotundata, ;  columella  alba,  in- 
crassata.;  labro  acuto,  vix  sinuato. 

Hab.— Coosa  River,  Alab.     E.  R.  Showalter,  M.  D. 

Schizostoma  glans. — Testa,  laevi,  ovato-conica,  infiata,  subcrassa,  luteo-cor- 
nea,  striata,  imperforate. ;  spira.  obtuse  elevata;  suturis  regulariter  impressis  j 
anfractibus   senis,  obsolete  vittatis,  ultimo  subgrandi ;  fissura  recta,  angusta 

[May, 


NATURAL   SCIENCES    OF  PHILADELPHIA.  187 

profundaque  ;   apertura  parviuscula,  elliptica,   intus  albida,  ad  basim   obtuse 
angulata  ;  columella  albida,  superne  incrassata ;  labro-acuto,  subsiuuato. 
Hab.— Coosa  River,  Alab.     E.  R.  Showalter,  M.  D. 

Schizostoma  globosa. — Testa  transverse  striata,  globosa,  subtenui,  luteola, 
imperforate,;  spira  curta,  obtuse  conoidea  ;  suturis  impressis  ;  anfractibus  qua- 
ternis,  trivittatis,  ultimo  grandi ;  fissura  recta,  angusta,  brevique ;  apertura 
subgrandi,  elliptica,  intus  vittata.  ad  basim  angulata ;  columella  alba,  incur- 
vata  ;  labro  acuto,  expanso. 

Hab.— Alabama.     E.  R.  Showalter,  M.  D. 

Schizostoma  virens. — Testa  subnodulosa,,  curta,  inflata,  subcrassa,  tenebroso- 
viridi,  exilissime  striata,  imperforata ;  spira  obtusa  ;  suturis  impressis  ;  anfrac- 
tibus subplanulatis  et  trivittatis  ;  fissura  obliqua  brevique  ;  apertura  elongata, 
subpyriformi,  intus  tenebroso-vittata  ;  columella  superne  purpurata  et  incras- 
sata ;  labro  acuto,  sinuato. 

Hab. — Coosa  River,  Alab.     E.  R.  Showalter,  M.  D. 

Schizostoma  glandula. — Testa  laevi,  curta.,  inflata,  subcrassa,  luteo-cornea,, 
exilissime  striata,  imperforata  ;  spira  obtusa;  suturis  valde  impressis;  anfrac- 
tibus senis,  vittatis,  ultimo  magno  et  tumido  ;  fissura  obliqua  brevique  ;  aper- 
tura. subgrandi,  elliptica,  intus  albida ;  columella  albida,  superne  iucrassata  ; 
labro  acuto,  subsinuato. 

Hab. — Coosa  River,  Alab.     E.  R.  Showalter,  M.  D. 

Schizostoma  Wetumpkaensis. — Testa,  striata,  ovato-cylindracea,  crassa,  pal- 
lido-fusca,  perforata ;  spira  obtusa,  conoidea  ;  suturis  valde  impressis  ;  anfrac- 
tibus senis,  vittatis,  planulatis,  ultimo  grandi ;  fissura  obliqua  brevique  ;  aper- 
tura. grandi,  ovata,  intus  vittata,  ad  basim  obtuse  angulata  ;  columella  alba, 
superne  incrassata;  labro  acuto,  sinuato. 

Hab. — Coosa  River,  at  Wetumpka,  Alabama.     E.  R.  Showalter,  M.  D. 

Schizostoma  Alabamensis. — Testa  striata,  elliptica,  robusta,  luteo-olivacea, 
imperforata,  spira.  obtuso-conoidea. ;  suturis  valde  impressis  ;  anfractibus  senis, 
vittatis,  subinflatis,  ultimo  pergrandi ;  fissura  obliqua  subbreviqne  ;  apertura 
subgrandi,  ovata,  intus  vittata,  ad  basim  rotundata. ;  columella  alba,  interne  et 
superne  paulisper  incrassata;  labro  acuto,  sinuato. 

Hab.— Alabama.     B.  W.  Budd,  M.  D.,  and  E.  R.  Showalter,  M.  D. 

Schizostoma  Hartmanii. — Testa,  laevi,  Bubcylindracea,  crassa,  luteo-cornea, 
imperforata;  spira,  elevata;  suturis  valde  impressis;  anfractibus  planulatis, 
ultimo  subgrandi;  fissura  recta  subbreviqne;  apertura  parviuscula,  ovata, 
intus  alba,  ad  basim  obtuse  angulata  ;  columella  alba,  incurva,  inferne  paulis- 
per incrassata  ;  labro  acuto,  sinuato. 

Hab. — Coosa  River,  Alab.     W.  D.  Hartman,  M.  D. 

Schizostoma  pumila. — Testa,  striata,  turbonata,  subtenui,  pallido-cornea.' 
imperforata  ;  spira  valde  obtusa  ;  suturis  valde  impressis  ;  anfractibus  senis, 
ventricosis,  ultimo  permagno  ;  fissura.  recta  subbrevique;  apertura  parviuscula, 
ovata,  intus  alba,  ad  basim  angulata  et  subcanaliculata, ;  columella  alba,  con- 
torta,  inferne  incrassata  ;  labro  acuto,  sinuato. 

Hab.— Alabama.     B.  W.  Budd,  M.  D. 

Anculosa  Formosa. — Testa,  -laevi,  globosa,  subtenui,  diaphana,  vel  luteola 
vel  crocata,  valde  vittata  et  maculata  ;  spira  depressa  vix  conspicua  ;  suturis 
impressis ;  anfractibus  ternis,  ultimo  magno  et  valde  ventricoso  ;  apertura 
grandi,  subrotunda,,  intus  pallido-crocata,  et  tenebroso-vittata  ;  columella  in- 
ferne et  superne  incrassata  et  pallido-purpurata. ;  labro  acuto  et  valde  expanso. 

Hab. — Coosa  River,  Shelby  Co.,  Alabama.     E.  R.  Showalter,  M.  D. 

Anculosa  contorta. — Testa,  laevi,  globoso-ovoidea.,  crassa,  luteo-cornea.  ; 
spira.  elevata  ;  suturis  valde  impressis ;  anfractibus  inflatis,  obsolete  transverse 

1860.J 


188  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  ACADEMY  OF 

striatis  ;  apertura,  parva,  subrotunda,  contracts,  intus  luteo-alba;  columella  in- 
crassata; labro  acuto,  expanse 

Hab. — Coosa  River,  at  Watumpka,  Alab.     E.  R.  Showalter,  M.  D. 

Anculosa  vittata. — Testa,  laevi,  subglobosa,  crassa,  luteola,  valde  vittata  ; 
spira  obtusa,  ;  suturis  impressis ;  anfractibus  quarternis,  inflatis,  ultimo  magno 
et  ventricoso  ;  apertura  rotunda,  in  faucibus  valde  constricta,  intus  vittata ; 
columella  valde  incrassata,  planulata.,  purpurata.;  labro  acuto,  expanso. 

Hab. — Coosa  River,  at  Watumpka,  Alabama.     E.  R.  Showalter,  M.  D. 

Lithasia  Showalterii. — Testa  laevi,  ovato-cylindracea,  subcrassa,  luteo-cor- 
nea,  vittata ;  spira,  obtuse  conoidea  ;  suturis  valde  impressis,  anfractibus  senis, 
ultimo  magno  et  planulato :  apertura  grandi,  subovata,  elongata,  intus  albida, 
tenebroso-vittata,  ad  basim  obtuse  angulata, ;  columella  inferne  et  superne  in- 
crassata, incurva;  labro  acuto  et  subconstricto. 

Hab. — Coosa  River,  at  Watumpka,  Alabama.     E.  R.  Showalter,  M.  D. 

Lithasia  nuclea. — Testa,  laevi,  elliptica,  luteo-oliva.,  crassa,  solida,  trivittata ; 
spira,  obtuse  conoidea  ;  suturis  impressis  ;  anfractibus  quinis,  ultimo  magno  et 
paulisper  inflato  ;  apertura.  parviuscula,  ovato-rotunda,  intus  albida,  trivittata, 
ad  basim  recurvata ;  columella1  inferne  et  superne  incrassata,  incurva ;  labro 
acuto. 

Hab. — Coosa  River,  Alabama.     E.  R.  Showalter,  M.  D. 


Catalogue  of  Birds  collected  during  a  survey  of  a  route  for  a  ship  Canal  across 
the  Isthmus  of  Darien,  by  order  of  the  Government  of  the  United  States, 
made  by  Lieut.  N.  Michler,  of  the  TJ.  S.  Topographical  Engineers,  with  notes 
and  descriptions  of  new  species. 

BY   JOHN    CASSIN. 

(Continued  from  page  144.) 

84.  Thamnophilus  atricapillds,  (Gmelin). 

Lanius  atricapillus,  Gm.  Syst.  Nat.  i.  p.  303,  (1 T88). 
Lanius  pileatus,  Lath.  Ind.  Orn.  i.  p.  76,  (1790). 
Vieill.  Ois.  D'Am.  Sept.  pi.  48,  49.    Buff.  PI.  Enl.  479,  fig.  2. 
From  Carthagena. 

"  On  the  Popa  mountain  at  Carthagena,  constantly  flying  across  the  pathway, 
and  was  evidently  catching  small  Lepidopiera  and  Diptera.  Has  a  prolonged 
note  somewhat  like  one  note  of  the  Cat  bird  of  the  United  States.  Very  shy, 
and  not  easily  obtained,  though  abundant."     (Mr.  W.  S.  Wood,  Jr.) 

85.  Thamnophilus  naevids,  (Gmelin). 

Lanius  naevius,  Gm.  Syst.  Nat.  i.  p.  308,  (1788). 
Leach,  Zool.  Misc.  i.  pi.  17.     Sw.  B.  of  Braz.  pi.  59. 
From  the  River  Truando. 

"  Frequently  seen,  and  generally  on  the  ground,  in  patches  of  a  plant  called 
"Spanish  Bayonet,"  by  the  people  of  the  country,  on  which  it  seemed 
to  be  catching  insects.  At  Camp  Toucey,  in  January,  1858."  (Mr.  W.  S. 
Wood,  Jr.) 

86.  Thamnophilus  transandeus,  Sclater. 

Thamnophilus  transandeus,  Sclat.  Proc.  Zool.  Soc.  Lond.  1855.  p.  18. 
From  Turbo. 

Appears  to  be  this  species,  having  the  under  tail  coverts  tipped  with  white, 
and  is  rather  larger  than  specimens  of  T.  melanurus,  in  the  Acad.  Coll.  Very 
nearly  allied,  though,  to  that  species. 

"  In  very  thick  bushes  on  the  banks  of  a  creek  near  Turbo,  seen  only  once, 

[May, 


NATURAL   SCIENCES   OF   PHILADELPHIA.  189 

and  very  shy.     Has  a  harsh  loud  note,  and  appeared  to   be  pursuing  large 
insects,  occasionally  alighting  on  the  ground."     (Mr.  W.  S.  Wood,  Jr.) 

87.  Thamnophilus. 
From  Turbo. 

Two  specimens  labelled  as  females,  nearly  allied  to  T.  caesius,  (Cuv).  and 
T.  cethiops,  Sclater. 

88.  Thamnophilus, 

From  the  River  Truando. 

Several  specimens,  all  in  young  plumage,  probably  of  a  species  allied  to 
T.  atricapillus. 

"  All  of  the  preceding  five  species  live  in  the  bushes,  and  are  often  to  be 
seen  on  the  ground,  and  appear  to  subsist  by  capturing  insects  in  various 
stages,  which  are  exceedingly  abundant.  All  of  them  are  more  or  less  noisy, 
having  harsh,  though  not  always  disagreeable  notes,  which  can  constantly  be 
heard  where  they  frequent.  When  alarmed,  they  take  long  flights  very  pre- 
cipitately, and  are  not  easily  collected."     (Mr.  W.  S.  Wood,  Jr.) 

89.  Pachyrhamphus  rufescens,  (Spix)  ? 

From  Turbo.     A  single  specimen  in  young  plumage. 

"  On  the  Cremantina,  a  high  tree  with  very  abundant  foliage.  Has  much 
the  habits  of  a  Fly-catcher,  darting  out  in  pursuit  of  insects,  and  returning  to 
its  perch,  and  moving  his  tail  in  the  same  manner."     (Mr.  W.  S.  Wood,  Jr.) 

Genus  Pittasoma,  nobis. 

General  aspect  of  Conopophaga,  Vieillot,  but  larger,  and  bearing  about  the 
same  relation  to  that  genus  as  Grallaria,  Vieillot,  does  to  Grallaricula,  Sclater. 
Also  resembling  Pitta,  Vieillot,  but  differing  from  all  the  genera  here  men- 
tioned, except  Conopophaga,  in  having  the  bill  wide  and  depressed,  not  com- 
pressed. 

Form  robust,  wings  short,  concave,  rounded,  fifth,  sixth  and  seventh  quills 
longest ;  tail  very  short ;  bill  strong,  wide  at  base  and  narrowing  gradually, 
depressed,  upper  mandible  notched  near  the  tip,  and  with  the  culmen  distinct, 
a  few  rudimentary  bristles  at  base  ;  nostrils  oval,  inserted  in  a  large  membrane  ; 
legs  long,  very  strong,  tarsus  with  about  five  large  scales  in  front,  which 
become  nearly  integral  on  the  outside,  and  quite  so  behind ;  toes  moderate  ; 
claws  curved,  sharp. 

90.  Pittasoma  Michleri,  nobis. 

tf  Head  above  black,  the  shafts  of  the  feathers  lustrous,  large  space  on  the 
cheek,  extending  completely  around  the  neck  behind,  bright  chestnut,  throat 
black,  many  of  the  feathers  tipped  with  white,  and  with  chestnut,  lores  white  ; 
back  reddish  olive,  many  feathers  edged  with  black  on  each  side  ;  rump,  upper 
tail  coverts  and  wing  coverts  greenish  rufous,  the  last  (wing  coverts)  with 
small  terminal  spots  of  white,  which  spots  are  edged  and  nearly  enclosed  with 
black  ;  under  parts  white,  every  feather  having  two  or  three  rather  wide, 
transverse,  waved  or  crescent- shaped  bands  of  deep  black;  abdomen  and 
under  tail  coverts,  tinged  with  ferruginous,  but  transversely  striped  with  black, 
same  as  other  under  parts  of  body;  under  wing  coverts,  dull  greenish  brown, 
striped  and  spotted  with  white  and  black ;  quills  greenish  rufous,  some  of  the 
shorter  quills  having  sub-terminal  spots  of  light  rufous,  edged  with  black  ; 
tail  greenish  rufous ;  upper  mandible  dark  bluish  horn  color,  lighter  towards 
the  tip  ;  under  mandible  yellow,  legs  light  horn  color. 

Total  length  from  tip  of  bill  to  end  of  tail,  about  7  inches,  wing  3|,  tail  If, 
bill  from  gape  If,  tarsus  If  inches. 

Hab.  River  Truando,  New  Grenada.  Discovered  by  Mr.  William  S.  Wood, 
Jr.  and  Mr.  Charles  J.  Wood.  (Panama,  Mr.  J.  McLeannan).  Spec,  in  Nat. 
Mus.  Washington. 

This  is  the  most  remarkable  bird  in  the  collection  of  the  expedition,  and  is 
one  of  the  most  handsome  of  the  Ant  Thrushes,  if  indeed  to  that  group  it  and  the 

I860.] 


190  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  ACADEMY  OP 

genus  Conopophaga  belong.  Though  with  the  general  form  and  appearance  of 
Pitta  and  Grallaria,  this  bird  differs  from  them  in  having  a  very  strong  depressed 
and  rather  wide  bill,  not  compressed  as  in  those  genera.  In  this  respect,  and 
other  structural  characters,  it  approximates  to  Conopophaga,  and  also  in  having 
more  variegated  and  agreeable  colors  than  in  Grallaria.  This  bird  is  in  fact, 
the  most  handsome  bird  of  its  group  yet  discovered  in  America.  The  only 
specimen  in  the  collection  of  the  expedition  is  labelled  as  a  male. 

Another  and  very  fine  specimen  of  this  bird,   kindly   loaned  to  me  by  Mr.  ^ 
Lawrence,  of  New  York,  belongs  to  the  collection  of  J.  McLeannan,  Esq.,  offr 
that  city,  and  was  obtained  by  him  on  the  Isthmus  of  Panama. 

"  On  the  river  Truando.  January  22d,  1858,  above  its  junction  with  the  Atrato, 
but  before  reaching  the  Cordilleras.  In  the  woody  places  running  on  the  ground 
very  swiftly,  and  scratching  among  the  leaves,  not  common."  (Mr.  C.  J. 
Wood). 

This  handsome  bird  I  have  named  in  honor  of  the  commanding  officer  of  the 
expedition,  Lieut.  N.  Michler,  of  the  U.  S.  Topographical  Engineers,  under 
whose  direction,  and  with  whose  judicious  advice  and  assistance,  the  present 
interesting  collection  was  made,  as  stated  in  the  preliminary  note  to  this  paper. 

91.  Formicivoba  grisea,  (Boddsert). 

Turdus  griseus,  Bodd.  Tab.  PI.  Enl.  p.  39,  (1783). 
Formicivora  nigricollis,  Swains.  Zool.  Jour.  ii.  p.  147. 
Spix.  Av.  Bras.  ii.  pi.  41.     Buff.  PI.  Enl.  643. 
From  Carthagena. 

"  On  the  '  Popa'  mountain,  at  Carthagena.  Very  abundant  in  the  bushes, 
but  very  quick  in  motion,  and  shv,  flying  off  on  slight  noise  or  alarm.  Novem- 
ber, 1857."     (Mr.  W.  S.  Wood,  Jr.) 

92.  Formicivora  quixensis,  (Cornalia). 

"  Thamnophilus  quixensis,  et  rufiventris,  Corn.     Sclater." 
"  Myiothera  perlata."     Label  in  Mus.  Acad.  Philadelphia. 

From  the  river  Truando. 

Both  sexes,  much  as  given  in  the  descriptions  above  cited  and  labelled  by 
the  collectors  as  male  and  female  of  the  same  species. 

"  Abundant  at  the  camp  in  the  Cordilleras,  on  the  Rio  Truando.  In  the 
high  trees,  actively  capturing  insects,  and  never  observed  descending  to  the 
bushes.  The  two  plumages  labelled  as  male  and  female,  were  constantly  seen 
together,  and  were  thought  by  my  brother  and  myself  to  be  the  same  bird." 
(Mr.  W.  S.  Wood,  Jr.) 

93.  Hypocnemis  NvBvioides,  (Lafresnaye). 

Conopophaga  nsevioides,  Lafr.  Rev.  Zool.  1847,  p.  69. 

From  the  falls  of  the  Truando. 

"  At  camp  Floyd,  on  the  south  side  of  the  river  Truando,  before  reaching 
the  first  range  of  the  Cordilleras.  Running  on  the  ground  amongst  bushes, 
and  always  in  damp  or  marshy  places,  much  resembling  in  its  actions  the 
Water  Thrush  of  the  United  States,  (Seiurus  noveboracensis) .  Frequently  seen 
in  January  and  February,  1858."     (Mr.  W.  S.  Wood,  Jr). 

94.  Myrmotherula  pygm-SA,  (Gmelin). 

Muscicapa  pygmaea,  Gm.  Syst.  Nat.  i.  p.  983,  (1788). 
Buff.  PI.  Enl.  831. 
From  the  river  Truando. 

"Abundant  on  the  'Cremantina'  trees,  especially  at  Camp  Toucey,  in  Janu- 
ary, 1853.  Frequently  seen  also  in  the  Plaintains  or  Bananas,  constantly 
searching  for  insects  amongst  the  fruit  and  leaves."     (Mr.  W.  S.  Wood,  Jr.) 

95.  Myrmotherula  surinamensis,  (Gmelin). 

Sitta  surinamensis,  Gm.  Syst.  Nat.  i.  p.  442,  (1788). 
Lath.  Gen.  Hist.  iv.  pi.  62.     Proc.  Zool.  Soc.  London,  1858,  pi.  141. 
From  Turbo. 
"  Frequently  seen  in  the  trees  at  Turbo,  and  the  male  was  at  first  supposed 

[May, 


NATURAL   SCIENCES   OP  PHILADELPHIA.  191 

by  my  brother  and  myself,  to  be  the  black  and  white  creeper  of  the  United 
States,  (Mniotilta  varia).  It  has  habits  exactly  like  those  of  that  bird,  running 
along  the  upper  or  lower  sides  of  the  branches  frequently  with  its  head  down- 
wards.    In  April,  1858."     (Mr.  W.  S.  Wood,  Jr.) 

96.  Myrmotherula  melaena,  (Sclater). 

Formicivora  melaena,  Sclat.  Proc.  Zool.  Soc.  London,  1857,  p.  130. 

From  the  river  Truando. 

"  At  Camp  Toucey  on  the  Truando,  before  reaching  the  Cordilleras.  In  the 
bushes,  and  very  active  in  pursuit  of  insects.  Has  a  short,  rather  loud  note, 
often  repeated,  rendering  pursuit  very  easy  ;  solitary,  but  frequently  seen." 
(Mr.  W.  S.  Wood,  Jr.) 

97.  Myrmotherula  ornata,  (Sclater)  ? 

Formicivora  ornata,  Sclat.  Rev.  et  Mag.  Zool.  1853,  p.  480? 

From  the  river  Truando. 

Several  specimens,  apparently  immature,  and  not  easily  to  be  referred  to 
either  M.  gularis  or  its  allies,  but  unmistakeably  of  that  ilk. 

"  At  Camp  Toucey,  on  the  Truando,  and  previously  at  Turbo.  Seen  in  the 
high  trees  and  also  occasionally  in  the  bushes,  very  active,  and  constantly  in 
motion."     (Mr.  W.  S.  Wood,  Jr.) 

98.  Myrmeciza  exsdl,  Sclater. 

Myrmeciza  exsul,  Sclat.  Proc.  Zool.  Soc.  London,  1858,  p.  540. 
From  Turbo. 

One  specimen  only,  labelled  as  a  male  and  very  nearly  a3  described  by  Mr. 
Sclater  as  above  cited. 

99.  Myrmeciza  exsdl,  Sclater  ? 

Very  similar  to  the  preceding,  and  probably  the  same  species,  but  with  the 
entire  under  parts  reddish  chestnut  brown,  nearly  uniform  with  the  upper  parts, 
throat  only  ashy  black. 

From  Turbo. 

"  These  two  birds  were  considered  to  be  the  same  species  by  my  brother  and 
myself,  notwithstanding  the  difference  in  the  color  of  the  under  parts.  We 
met  with  this  species  in  the  thick  and  dry  parts  of  the  forest  at  Turbo,  rather 
plenty,  but  not  easily  shot  on  account  of  their  running  on  the  ground  very 
swiftly,  and  concealing  themselves  amongst  the  leaves.  It  utters  loud,  rather 
musical  notes,  somewhat  similar  to  those  of  the  Golden-crowned  Thrush. 
(Seivrus)  of  the  United  States."     (Mr.  W.  S.  Wood,  Jr.) 

100.  Pipra  auricapilla,  (Brisson). 

Manacus  auricapillus,  Briss.  Orn.  iv.  p.  448,  (1760). 
Desm.  Manak.  pi.  60.     Hahn  &  Kiister,  Orn.  Atlas,  pi.  92. 
From  Turbo. 

101.  Ptilochloris  rufo-olivaceus,  Lafresnaye. 

Ptilochloris  rufo-olivaceus,  Lafres.  Rev.  Zool.  1838,  p.  238. 
From  the  Truando. 
"  At  camp  Toucey.  On  the  ground,  seen  once  only."     (Mr.  W.  S.  Wood,  Jr.') 

102.  Seiurcs  noveboracensis,  (Gmelin). 

Motacilla  noveboracensis,  Gm.  Syst.  Nat.  i.  p.  958,  (1788). 
And.  B.  of  Am.  pi.  433.     Oct.  ed.  iii.  pi.  149. 
From  Carthagena. 

"Seen  once  only,  in  a  small  stream  of  water  on  the  '  Popa'  mountain,  in 
November,  1857."     (Mr.  W.  S.  Wood,  Jr.) 

103.  Dendroica  ;estiva,  (Gmelin). 

Motacilla  sestiva,  Gm.  Syst.  Nat.  i.  p.  996,  (1788). 

Sylvia  citrinella,  Wilson,  Am.  Orn.  ii.  p.  Ill,  (1810). 
Wilson,  Am.  Orn.  ii.  pi.  15.     Aud.  B.  of  Am.  pi.  95.     Oct.  ed.  ii.  pi.  88 
From  Turbo. 
"  Seen  for  a  few  days  at  Turbo,  early  in  April,  1858."     (Mr.  W.  S.  Wood,  Jr.) 

I860.] 


192  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  ACADEMY  OP 

104.  Dendroica  Vieilloti,  nobis. 

Sylvia  ruficapila,  Vieill.  Nouv.  Diet.  xi.  p.  228,  (but  not  of  same  vol.  p. 
179,  and  not  Sylvia  ruficapilla,   Lath.   Ind.   Orn.   ii.  p.  540,  which  is 
Motacilla  petechia,  Linnaeus,  a  distinct  species). 
"Chloris  erithrachorides,    Feuille,"  Baird,  Rept.  Pac.  R.  R.  Surv.  ix.  p. 
283,  hence  Dendroica  erilhachorides,  Baird,  same  vol.  p.  283,  (but  not 
Chloris  erithrachorides,  Feuille,  Jour.  Obs.  Phys.  iii.   p.  413,  (1725), 
which  is  Motacilla  petechia,  Linnaeus). 
Entire  head  and  neck  in  front  light  reddish  chestnut.     Plumage  of  all  other 
parts  much  resembling  that  of  D.  cesliva,  of  the  United  States,  but  darker  on 
the  back    wings  and  tail,  size  rather  larger,   and  with  the  bill  slightly  longer 
and  more  gradually  pointed.     Total  length,  4J  to  4|  inches. 

Hab. — South  America,  Central  America.     (Panama,  Mr.  J.  G.  Bell). 
From  Carthagena. 

I  have  been  quite  unsuccessful  in  attempting  to  find  a  name  really  applicable 
to  this  well  marked  and  not  uncommon  species.  It  is  usually,  I  believe,  regard- 
ed as  Sylvia  ruficapilla  of  authors,  and  is  unmistakeably  described  by  Vieillot, 
as  above  cited,  but  erroneously  so  far  as  relates  to  the  name,  which  is  applied 
by  all  other  authors  to  Motacilla  petechia,  Linnaeus,  a  species  not  uncommon 
from  the  West  Indies,  and  accurately  figured  by  Vieillot,  Ois  d'Am.  Sept.  pi. 
91.     Under  these  circumstances  I  propose  the  name  above  given.* 

*There  are  at  least  five  species  of  Dendroica,  resembling  each  other,  and  all  having 
the  general  appearance  of  D.  cestiva  of  the  United  Slates.  The  first  four  of  these  have 
been  much  confused  and  mistaken  for  each  other : 

1.  Dendroica  estiva,  (Gmelin.) 

Motacilla  ajstiva,  Gm.  Syst.  Nat.  ii.  p.  996,  (1788). 
Hab.  United  States,  Mexico,  Central  America,  New  Grenada,  West  Indies  ? 

2.  Dendroica  albicollis,  (Gmelin). 

Motacilla  albicollis,  Gm.  Syst.  Nat.  ii.  p.  983,  (1788), 

Hab.  Cuba,  (Gundlach),  St.  Domingo,  (Brisson). 

This  is  the  bird  usually  regarded  as  D.  cesliva,  by  the  Cuban  ornithologists,  but  is  a  dis- 
tinct species  as  I  suspected  long  before  examining  authentic  specimens.  The  habits  of 
this  bird,  as  given  by  those  very  accurate  naturalists,  are  different  from  those  of  the  com- 
mon bird  of  the  United  States.  Brisson  (Orn.  iii.  p.  494)  carefully  describes  the  present 
species,  though  his  specimens  do  not  appear  to  have  been  mature.  The  young  bird  only 
has  the  throat  and  neck  in  front  nearly  pure  white. 
2.  Dendroica  petechia,  (Linnaeus). 

Motacilla  petechia,  Linn.  Syst.  Nat.   i.  p.  334,  (1776). 
Motacilla  ruficapilla,  Gm.  Syst.  JNat.  ii.  p.  971,  (1768). 

Hab.  West  Indies,  Central  America  ?  Jamaica  ?  Martinique  (Brisson). 

I  have  frequently  seen  specimens  precisely  in  the  plumage  as  figured  by  Vieillot,  as 
above  cited,  and  by  Edwards,  Birds  v.  pi.  256,  fig.  2,  but  I  am  not  confident  of  the  exact 
locality.  This  is  very  probably  the  Sylvicola  cesliva,  of  Gosse,  B.  of  Jamaica,  p.  157, 
and  probably  of  Messrs.  Newton,  B.  of  St.  Croix,  in  Sclater's  Ibis,  1859,  p.  153.  This 
bird  is  also  very  carefully  described  by  Brisson,  (Orn.  iii.  p.  490),  in  mature  plumage,  with 
the  top  of  head,  clear,  well  defined  rufous. 
4    Dendroica  Vieilloti,  Cassin,  ut  supra. 

Sylvia  ruficapilla,  Vieill.  Nouv.  Diet.  xi.  p.  228. 

Hab.  South  America  and  Central  America,  JNew  Grenada,  (W.  S.  Wood,  Jr.)  Panama, 
(J.  G.  Bell). 
5.  Dendroica  aureola,  (Gould). 

Sylvicola  aureola,  Gould,  Voy.  Beagle,  Birds,  p.  86,  (1841). 

Hab.  Galapagos  Islands,  (Gould). 

Very  similar  to  D.  petechia,  as  above.  This  species,  or  at  least  specimens  from  the 
Galapagos  Islands,  I  have  not  seen.  Of  all  ihe  others  several  specimens  of  each  are  now 
before  me,  and  1  have  not  the  smallest  doubt  of  their  specific  distinctness,  which  I  hope 
to  fully  demonstrate  in  a  subsequent  paper.  Having  called  the  attention  of  my  friend 
Mr.  Lawrence,  of  New  York,  >o  ihe  distinctness  of  the  Cuban  species,  his  views  will 
probably  appear  in  his  notes  on  Birds  of  Cnba,  about  to  be  published  in  the  Annals  of  the 
Lyceum,  New  York. 

[May, 


NATURAL   SCIENCES   OP   PHILADELPHIA.  19o 

"Frequently  seen  on  the  '  Popa'  mountain  atCarthagena,  in  November,  1857  . 
Very  active  and  constantly  moving  in  the  lower  trees  and  bushes."     (Mr.  W 
S.  Wood,  Jr.) 

105.  Dendeoica  castanea,  (Wilson). 

Sylvia  castanea,  Wilson,  Am.  Orn.  ii.  p.  97,  (1810). 
Wilson,  Am.  Orn.  ii.  pi.  14.     Aud.  B.  of  Am.  pi.  69,  Oct.  ed.  ii.  pi.  80. 
From  Turbo  and  the  River  Truando. 

"On  the  Truando,  in  January,  and  at  Turbo  early  in  April,  1858.  In  small 
flocks  of  ten  or  twelve,  in  the  high  trees,  very  much  as  in  autumn  in  the 
United  States."     (Mr.  W.  S.  Wood,  Jr.) 

106.  Thryothorus  nigricapillus,  Sclater. 

Thryothorus  nigricapillus,  Sclater,  Proc.  Zool.  Soc.  London,  1860,  p.  84. 

From  the  River  Truando. 

Two  specimens  appear  to  be  this  species,  or  at  least  very  closely  allied. 
They  differ  only  in  having  the  throat  transversely  banded  with  black  lines, 
same  as  on  other  parts. 

"  In  low  bushes  and  on  the  ground,  on  the  banks  of  the  Rio  Truando,  in 
the  Cordilleras.  Frequently  seen,  and  runs  on  the  ground,  more  than  usual  in 
the  larger  Wrens  of  the  United  States,  but  has  similar  sreneral  habits."  (Mr. 
W.  S.  Wood,  Jr.) 

107.  Thryothorus. 

A  large  plain  colored  species,  for  which  I  have  found  no  name,  but  am  not 
sufficiently  acquainted  with  the  group  of  Troglodytince  to  feel  warranted  in 
proposing  a  species.     Several  specimens  from  Turbo  and  Carthagena. 

108.  Sclerurus  brunnecs,  Sclater. 

Sclerurus  brunneus,  Sclat.  Proc.  Zool.  Soc.  London,  1857,  p.  17. 

From  the  river  Ingador. 

One  specimen  only  in  the  collection  of  the  Expedition  appears  to  be  this 
species.  "On  the  banks  of  a  small  stream  called  the  Ingador,  near  the  coast 
of  the  Pacific  Ocean.  In  the  Palm  trees,  clinging  to  the  leaves  and  searching 
for  insects.     March,  1858."     (Mr.  W.  S.  Wood,  Jr.) 

109.  Synallaxis  Candei,  D'Orb.  et  Lafres. 

Synallaxis  Candei,  D'Orb.  et  Lafres.  Rev.  Zool.  1838,  p.  165. 
From  Carthagena. 

110.  Xenops  ruficauda,  (Vieillot). 

Synallaxis  ruficauda,  Vieil.  Nouv.  Diet,  xxxii.  p.  310,  (1818). 
Temm.  PI.  Col.  150. 
From  Turbo. 

111.  Dendrornis  triangularis,  (Lafresnaye). 

Dendrocalaptes  triangularis,  Lafr.  Mag.  Zool.  1843. 
Guerin,  Mag.  Zool.  1843,  pi.  32. 

From  the  river  Truando. 

"  These  kinds  of  birds  were  very  abundant  on  the  trees  in  the  Cordilleras, 
and  a  few  were  seen  at  camp  Toucey,  on  the  Rio  Truando,  within  20  or  30 
miles  of  the  mountains.  They  run  on  the  trunks  and  branches  very  rapidly, 
and  appear  to  be  very  greedy  and  rapacious.  Not  shy,  and  easily  approached, 
but  not  easily  shot,  on  account  of  their  quick  movements.  When  they  have 
ascended  a  tree,  they  fly  down  to  the  base  of  another,  like  the  Brown  Creeper 
of  the  United  States,  (Certhia)."     (Mr.  W.  S.  Wood,  Jr.) 

112.  Dendrornis  guttatus,  (Lichtenstein). 

Dendrocolaptes  guttatus,  Licht.Verz.  p.  16,  (1823). 
Le  Vaill.  Prom.  pi.  30. 
From  the  river  Truando. 

I860.]  12 


194  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  ACADEMY  OF 

113.  DKNDEOENIS.  . 
One  specimen  from  the  river  Truando,  with  large  elongated  spots  for  which  I 

have  not  succeeded  in  finding  a  name. 

114.  Malacoptila  ? 
From  the  river  Truando. 

A  single  specimen  in  immature  plumage,  referable  to  no  species  with  which 
I  am  acquainted. 

115.  Certhiola  luteola,  Cabanis. 

Certhiola  luteola,  Cab. 
From  Turbo  and  Carthagena. 

116.  Juxiamyia  Julls:,  (Bourcier). 

Juliamyia  typica,'  Bonap.  Rev.  Zool.  1854,  p.  255. 
Ornismyia  Juliae,  Bourc.  Ann.  Soc.  Lyons,  1842,  p.  345. 
Gould,  Monog.  pt.  xviii.  pi.  (not  numbered). 
From  Turbo.  _,.  .m 

;'  Seen  occasionally  in  April,  1858,  but  not  very  common.  Flies  yery  swittly, 
and  ia  shy,  darting  away  on  the  least  alarm."     (Mr.  W.  S.  Wood,  Jr.) 

117.  Chrysolampis  moschitus,  (Linnaeus.) 

Trochilus  moschitus,  Linn.  Syst.  Nat.  i.  p.  192,  (1766). 
Gould,  Monog.  pt.  xii.  pi. 
From  Carthagena. 

•'  About  an  old  fort  in  the  «  Popa'  mountain,  which  was  completely  overgrown 
with  vines  and  flowering  plants,  this  humming  bird  and  other3  were  exceeding- 
ly abundant.  Constantly  flying  and  fighting  with  each  other,  and  nowhere 
seen  so  abundant  as  here,  in  the  month  of  November,  1857."  (Mr.  W.  S. 
Wood,  Jr.) 

118.  Lampornis  mango,  (Linnaeus). 

Trochilus  mango,  Linn.  Syst.  Nat.  i.  p.  191,  (1766). 
Gould,  Monog.  pt.  xii.  pi. 
From  Carthagena. 
Appears  to  be  the  true  mango  of  authors. 

119.  EUCEPHALA    C-SRULEA,  (Vieillot). 

Trochilus  caeruleus,  Vieill.  Nouv.  Diet.  vii.  p.  361.  (1817). 
Gould,  Monog.  pt.  xiv.  pi. 
From  Carthagena. 

120.  Ionolaima. 
From  Turbo. 

One  specimen  only,  in  bad  condition  and  immature  plumage,  appears  to  be 

of  this  genus. 

121.  Phaethornis  yaruqui,  (Bourcier). 

Trochilus  yaruqui,  Bourc.  Compt.  Rend,  xxxii.  p.  187. 
Gould,  Monog.  pt.  iv.  pi. 
From  the  River  Truando. 

"  Plain  plumaged  humming  birds  were  frequently  seen  in  the  Cordilleras,  but 
never  very  abundant.  We  rarely  saw  the  brighter  colored  in  the  mountains. 
Generally  about  the  vines  and  shrubbery."     (Mr.  W.  S.  Wood,  Jr.) 

122.  Phaethornis. 
From  Turbo. 

A  single  specimen,  in  immature  plumage,  of  a  small  species. 

123.  ChloraenaS  rufina,  (Temminck). 

Columba  rufina,  Temm.  Pig.  et  Gall.  i.  p.  467,  (1813). 
Knip,  Pigeons  i.  pi.  24. 
From  Turbo  and  the  Delta  of  the  River  Atrato. 

[May, 


NATURAL    SCIENCES    OF  PHILADELPHIA.  19? 

"  Seen  once  only  at  Turbo  in  a  small  flock,  sitting  in  a  high  tree,  and  once 
only  at  the  mouth  of  the  Atrato  ;  seemed  to  be  a  stranger.  Early  in  January. 
1858."     (Mr.  W.  S.  Wood,  Jr.) 

124.  Leptoptila  Verreacxii,  (Bonaparte). 

Leptoptila  Verreauxi,  Bonap.  Consp.  Av.  ii.  p.  73,  (1854). 
From  Turbo  and  the  River  Truando. 

"  In  a  secluded  part  of  the  forest  at  Turbo,  in  the  trees,  and  afterwards  oe 
the  Truando."     (Mr.  W.  S.  Wood,  Jr.) 

125.  Chamaepelia  granatina,  Bonaparte.* 

Chamaepelia  granatina,  Bonap.  Comp.  Av.  ii.  p.  77,  (1854). 

From  Carthagena. 

i:  Abundant  and  in  large  flocks  among  the  bushes  on  the  shores  of  the  sea  at 
Carthagena,  in  November,  1857.  Seemed  to  be  searching  for  food  in  the  sand 
and  short  grass,  and  not  very  easily  approached,  flying  away  very  rapidly,  and 
frequently  alighting  on  trees."     (Mr.  W.  S.  Wood,  Jr.) 

126.  Tinamus  major,  (Gmelin). 

Tetrao  major,  Gm.,  Syst.  Nat.  i.  p.  767,  (1788). 
Pezus  serratus,  Spix,  Av.  Bras,  ii,  p.  61,  (1825). 
BurT.  PI.  Enl.  476.     Spix.  Av.  Bras.  ii.  pi.  76. 
From  the  River  Truando. 

One  specimen  only,  labelled  as  a  female,  which  appears  to  be  identical  with 
specimens  from  Brazil. 

"  Frequently  heard  on  the  Truando,  near  the  first  range  of  the  Cordilleras. 
It  has  a  very  loud,  continued  note,  not  inappropriately  compared  by  the  mem- 
bers of  our  party  to  the  whistle  of  a  locomotive  engine.  Not  easily  seen,  beinp 
exceedingly  shy  and  running  very  rapidly."     (Mr.  W.  S.  Wood,  Jr.) 

127.  Sqdatarola  helvetica,  (Linnaeus). 

Tringa  helvetica,  Linn.  Syst.  Nat.  i.  p.  250,  (1766). 
Charadrius  apricarius,  Wilson,  Am.  Orn.  vii.  p.  41,  (1813). 
Wilson,  Am.  Orn.  vii.  pi.  57.     Aud.  B.  of  Am.  pi.  334.  Oct.  Ed.  v.  pi.  315. 
From  Carthagena. 

1 28.  Symphemia  semipalmata,  (Gmelin). 

Scolopax  semipalmatus.  Gm.  Syst.  Nat.  i.  p.  659,  (1788). 
Wilson,  Am.  Orn.  vii.  pi.  56.     Aud.  B.  of  Am.  pi.  274.  Oct.  Ed.  v.  pi.  347. 
From  Carthagena. 

129.  Gambetta  melanoleuca,  (Gmelin). 

Scolopax  melanoleucus,  Gm.  Syst.  Nat.  i.  p.  659,  (1788). 
Scolopax  vociferus,  Wilson. 
Wilson,  Am.  Orn.  vii.  pi.  58.     Aud.  B.  of  Am.  pi.  308.  Oct.  ed.  v.  pi.  345. 
From  Carthagena. 

130.  Gambetta  pla vipes,  (Gmelin). 

Scolopax  flavipes,  Gm.  Syst.  Nat.  i.  p.  659,  (1788). 
Wilson,  Am.  Orn.  vii.  pi.  58.     Aud.  B.  of  Am.  pi.  228.  Oct.  ed.  v.  pi.  344. 
From  Carthagena. 

131.  Calidris  arenahia,  (Linnaeus). 

Tringa  arenaria,  Linn.  Syst.  Nat.  i.  p.  251,  (1766). 
Calidris  americana,  Brehm. 
Wilson  Am.  Orn.  vii.  pi.  59,  63.  Aud.  B.  of  Am.  pi.  230.  Oct.  ed.  v.  pi.  338. 
From  Carthagena. 

132.  Ereunetes  posilla,  (Linnaeus). 

Tringa  pusilla,  Linn.  Syst.  Nat.  i.  p.  252,  (1766). 
Tringa  semipalmata,  Wilson. 
Ereunetes  petrifactus,  Uliger. 
I860.] 


196  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  ACADEMY  OP 

Wilson  Am.  Orn.  vii.  pi.  63.     Aud.  B.  of  Am.  pi.  408.  Oct.  ed.  v.  pi.  336. 
From  Carthagena. 
This  is,  I  have  no  doubt,  the  true  Tringa  pusilla  of  Linnaeus. 

133.  Tringa  Wilsonii,  Nuttall. 

Tringa  Wilsonii,  Nutt.  Man.  ii.  p.  121,  (1834). 
Tringa  pusilla,  Wilson. 
Wilson,  Am.  Orn.  v.  pi.  37.      Aud.  B.  of  Am.  pi.  320.  Oct.  ed.  v.  pi.  337. 
From  Carthagena. 

"  The  preceding  seven  species,  and  in  fact  nearly  all  the  small  wading  birds 
that  we  had  been  accustomed  to  seeing  on  the  coast  of  New  Jersey,  were  very 
abundant  on  the  sea  coast  at  Carthagena,  in  November,  1857.  The  most  abun- 
dant were  perhaps  the  two  small  Sandpipers  (E.  pusilla  and  T.  Wilsonii),  and 
the  yellow  Shanks  (G.flavipes).  Though  easily  shot,  they  were  not  so  easily 
obtained,  on  account  of  the  marshy  or  boggy  character  of  many  localities  which 
they  particularly  frequented.  All  of  these  species  were  in  flocks,  as  seen  on 
the  coast  of  the  United  States  in  Autumn."     (Mr.  W.  S.  Wood,  Jr.) 

134.  Parra  hypomelaena,  G.  R.  Gray. 

Parra  hypomelaena,  Gray,  Gen.  iii.  p.  589,  (1846). 
Gray.  Gen.  iii.  pi.  159. 
Atrato  River. 

•'  In  open  places  which  are  very  marshy  on  the  River  Atrato,  late  in  Decem- 
ber, 1857.  Two  or  three  together,  generally  on  the  ground,  frequently  stretch- 
ing out  their  wings,  and  often  wading  in  the  water.  Quite  shy  and  watchful." 
(Mr.  W.  S.  Wood,  Jr.) 

135.  Aramides  cayennensis,  (Gmelin). 

Fulica  cayennensis,  Gm.  Syst.  Nat.  i.  p.  700,  (1788). 
Buff.  PI.  Enl.  352. 
From  Turbo. 
,:  In  a  salt  water  marsh  at  Turbo  ;  seen  once  only."     (Mr.  Wm.  S.  Wood,  Jr.) 

136.  Ardea  Herodias,  Linnaeus. 

Ardea  Herodias,  Linn.  Syst.  Nat.  i.  p.  237,  (1766). 
Wilson,  Am.  Orn.  viii.  pi.  65.    Aud.  B.  of  Am.  pi.  211.  Oct.  ed.  vi.  pi.  369. 
From  the  delta  of  the  Atrato. 

"  Frequently  seen  about  the  mouth  of  the  Atrato,  in  December."  (Mr.  W. 
S.  Wood,  Jr.) 

137.  Butorides  grisea,  (Boddasrt). 

Cancroma  grisea,  Bodd.  Tab.  PI.  Enl.  p.  54,  (1783). 
Ardea  scapularis,  Illiger. 
Buff.  PI.  Enl.  908. 
From  Carthagena. 

138.  Garzetta  candidissima,  (Gmelin). 

Ardea  candidissima,  Gm.  Syst.  Nat.  i.  p.  633,  (1788). 
Wilson,  Am.  Orn.  vii.  pi.  62.     Aud.  B.  of  Am.  pi.  242.  Oct.  ed.  vi.  pi.  374. 
From  Carthagena  and  the  River  Atrato. 

"  Abundant  on  the  Rio  Atrato,  in  February,  1858.  Generally  seen  sitting 
on  the  low  trees  on  the  edge  of  the  river."     (Mr.  W.  S   Wood,  Jr.) 

139.  Tigrisoma  brasiliense,  (Linnaeus). 

Ardea  brasiliensis,  Linn.  Syst.  Nat.  i.  p.  239,  (1766). 
Buff.  PI.  Enl.  860. 
From  the  delta  of  the  Atrato. 

140.  Tigrisoma  tigrinum,  (Gmelin)  ? 

Ardea  tigrina,  Gm.  Syst.  Nat.  ii.  p.  638,  (1788). 
From  the  delta  of  the  Atrato. 

[May, 


NATURAL  SCIENCES  OF  PHILADELPHIA.  197 

141.  Habpiprion  cayennensis,  (Gmelin). 

Tantalus  cayennensis,  Gm.  Syst.  Nat.  i.  p.  652,  (1788). 
Buffon.  PI.  Enl.  820. 
From  the  River  Nercua. 

■'In  the  mountains,  before  reaching  the  main  ridge  on  the  Rio  Nercua." 
(Mr.  W.  S.  Wood,  Jr.) 

142.  Dendrocygna  autumnalis,  (Linnaeus  ) 

Anas  autumnalis,  Linn.  Syst.  Nat.  i.  p.  205,  (1766). 
Baird,  B.  of  N.  Am.  pi.  63.     Rept.  Mex.  Bound.  Surv.  Birds,  pi.  25. 
From  the  River  Truando. 

143.  Carbo  brasilianus,  (Gmelin)  ? 

Procellaria  brasiliana,  Gm.  Syst.  Nat.  i.  p.  564  ? 
Gillis,  Astr.  Exp.  Birds,  pi.  28  ? 
From  the  River  Truando. 

i:  On  the  Truando  and  Atrato,  frequently  seen  in  the  water  and  also  on  trees. 
When  perched,  drop  very  suddenly  into  the  water  on  being  alarmed,  and  dis- 
appear by  diving."     (Mr.  W.  S.  Wood,  Jr.) 

144.  Plotcs  anhinga,  Linnaeus. 

Plotus  anhinga,  Linn.  Syst.  Nat.  i.  p.  580,  {1766). 
Plotus  melanogaster,  Wilson. 
Wilson,  Am.  Orn.  ix.  pi.  74.     Aud.  B.  of  Am.  pi.  316,    Oct.  ed.  vi.  pi.  420. 
From  the  Rivers  Atrato  and  Truando. 

Several  specimens  in  immature  plumage,  but  all  apparently  of  this  species. 
"Abundant  in  the  months  of  January,  February  and  March,  on  all  the  rivers 
from  the  Gulf  of  Darien,  on  the  Atlantic,  to  the  coast  of  the  Pacific."     (Mr   W 
S.  Wood,  Jr.) 


Descriptions  of  some  new  species  of  Cretaceous  Fossils  from  South  America, 
in  the  Collection  of  the  Academy. 

BY    W.    M.    GABB. 

Eulima  s  e  m  i  n  o  s  a ,  pi.  3,  fig.  6.  Shell  fusiform,  spire  elevated,  whorls 
five,  mouth  small,  shell  thick  and  marked  by  irregular  lines  of  growth. 

From  a  greyish  brown  limestone  from  Chili,  in  connection  with  Tri^onia 
Hanetiana  Z>'  Orb . ,  and  many  of  the  other  species  described  by  that  author 
in  the  "Voyage  de  1' Astrolabe  et  Zelee." 

Scalaria  (Clathrus)  C  h  i  1  i  e  n  s  e ,  pi,  3,  fig.  4.  Shell  fscalariform,  spire 
very  elevated,  whorls  six  or  seven,  rounded  and  marked  by  about  fourteen 
prominent,  longitudinal,  rounded  ribs.  Mouth  small,  subcircular;  a  reflec- 
tion of  the  inner  lip  covers  the  base  of  the  body  whorl  so  as  to  hide  the  lower 
part  of  some  of  the  ribs. 

Pugnellus  t  u  m  i  d  u  s,  pi.  3,  fig.  13  and  14.  Shell  heavy,  scalariform,  spire  ele- 
vated, five  whorls,  which  are  angular  at  the  upper  part,  and  marked  by  a  series 
of  small  nodes  on  the  angle ;  body  whorl  large,  mouth  expanded,  superior 
sinus  very  deep,  outer  lip  very  much  thickened,  especially  the  extreme  outer 
portion  or  callosity,  which  is  nearly  as  thick  as  long.  The  thickening  of  the 
superior  and  lateral  edges  of  the  outer  lip,  produces  a  deep  fosset  on  the  poste- 
rior portion  of  the  body  whorl,  immediately  behind  the  expansion  of  the  lip  • 
the  inner  lip  is  reflected  over  a  portion  of  the  spire ;  canal  long  and  curved 
anteriorly. 

This  species  is  the  one  to  which  Mr.  Conrad,  in  his  note  on  the  genus  refer* 
I860.] 


198  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  ACADEMY  OF 

as   occurring  in   South  America.     There  is  another  species,  (P.)  Strombus 
semicostatus  D' Orb.,  that  occurs  in  the  same  deposit. 

Pleurotoma  D'Orbignyana,  pi.  3,  fig.  7.  Shell  scalariform,  spire  ele- 
vated, whorls  five,  body  whorl  angular  above  ;  shell  marked  by  a  series  of 
small  nodes  on  the  shoulder  of  the  whorls  and  by  fine  lines  of  growth. 

P.  arata,  pi.  3,  fig.  9.  Shell  scalariform,  spire  elevated,  whorls  three  or 
four,  subangular  above  and  marked  by  a  shallow,  revolving  groove  imme- 
diately below  the  angle ;  surface  marked  by  numerous  revolving  striae,  crossed 
by  faint  lines. 

Patella  Auca,  pi.  3,  fig.  11.  Shell  small,  thin,  circular;  apex  small, 
acuminate  and  very  excentrio ;  surface  marked  by  irregular  concentric  undu- 
lations. 

Cultellus  Australis,  pi.  3,  fig.  8.  Shell  elongate,  narrow,  beaks  very 
small,  incurved,  near  the  anterior  end  ;  posterior  end  gaping,  and  a  little  nar- 
rowed ;  anterior  end  rounded ;  surface  marked  by  concentric  striae. 

Mactra  Chiliensis,  pi.  3,  fig.  5.  Shell  thin,  equilateral,  slightly  convex; 
beaks  small,  incurved ;  umbones  large,  prominent ;  hinge  teeth  small ;  ante- 
rior end  slightly  subangular,  posterior  rounded  ;  surface  marked  by  distinct 
concentric  lines. 

M.  Araucana,  D'Orb.  sp.  var.  pi.  3,  fig.  12.  This  specimen  differs  a  lit- 
tle from  the  one  figured  by  D'Orbigny,  in  the  Voyage  de  l'Astrolabe  et  Zelee, 
in  being  less  angular  anteriorly,  and  in  having  the  umbonal  ridge  less  strongly 
developed. 

Thracia  corbulopsis,  pi.  3,  fig.  1.  Shell  nearly  equilateral,  beaks 
small,  slightly  curved  anteriorly,  umbones  prominent  and  rounded,  umbonal 
ridge  angular,  and  extends  to  the  margin  of  the  shell ;  anterior  end  rounded, 
posterior  acutely  angular ;  surface  marked  by  numerous  fine  concentric  lines 

Venus  D'Orbignyanus,  pi.  3,  fig\  2.  Shell  inequilateral,  somewhat 
convex,  beaks  small  and  inclined  anteriorly,  umbones  large  and  rounded ; 
cardinal  margin  curved;  anterior  end  rounded,  posterior  subangular ;  surface 
marked  by  strong  concentric  lines.  This  species  resembles,  in  its  outline,  the 
common  V.  mercenaria,  (M.  violacea)of  our  coast.  It  differs  from 
V.  Auca  d'Orb.  in  having  the  cardinal  margin  more  strongly  curved,  in  be- 
ing more  angular  posteriorly,  and  in  not  being  so  regularly  marked  on  the 
surface.  • 

Pinna  m  i  n  u  t  a,  pi.  3,  fig.  10.  Shell  small,  robust,  narrow  ;  umbonal  ridge 
subangular  and  nearly  parallel  with  the  cardinal  line  ;  cardinal  and  basal  mar- 
gins straight ;  posterior  end  sub-biangular ;  surface  marked  by  strong  lines  of 
growth. 

Modiola  cretacea,  pi.  3,  fig.  3.  Shell  small;  beaks  small,  anterior; 
umbonal  ridge  rounded,  continued  to  the  posterior  basal  margin,  gradually 
losing  itself  in  the  general  curve  of  the  shell,  cardinal  line  arcuate,  basal  edge 
sinuous  ;  surface  concentrically  striate. 

Anomia  parva,  pi.  3,  fig.  15.  Shell  thin,  orbicular,  very  slightly  convex, 
pearly ;  beak  small  but  acute ;  surface  marked  by  concentric  undulations, 
crossed  by  delicate  radiating  lines. 


[May, 


NATURAL   SCIENCES   OF  PHILADELPHIA 


199 


June  bth. 
Vice  President  Bridges  in  the  Chair 

Thirty-seven  members  present. 

The  following  papers  were  presented  for  publication  : 

"  The  Cutting  Ant  of  Texas/'  by  S.  B.  Buckley. 

"  Synonymy  of  the  Cyclades,  a  family  of  Acephalous  Mollusca,  part 
1st,"  by  Temple  Prime. 

"  Catalogue  of  the  Colubridse  in  the  museum  of  the  Academy  of  Natu- 
ral Sciences  of  Philadelphia,  with  note3  and  descriptions  of  new  spe- 
cies," by  E.  D.  Cope. 

"  Notes  on  Shells,"  by  T.  A.  Conrad. 

"  Contributions  to  the  Carboniferous  Flora  of  the  United  States," 
by  Horatio  C.  Wood,  Jr. 

And  were  referred  to  Committees. 

Dr.  Darrach  presented  the  following  Catalogue  of  Plants  appearing  in 
flower,  in  the  neighborhood  of  Philadelphia,  during  the  month  of  May. 


1.  RANUNCULACEiE. 

Ranunculus  aquatilis. 
sceleratus. 
recurvatus. 
bulbosus. 

2.  Magnoliaceaje. 

Magnolia  glauca. 
Liriodendron  tulipifera. 

3.  Beeberidace^. 
Podophyllum  peltatum. 

4.  Ntmph^bacea. 

Nymphaea  odorata. 
Nuphar  advena. 

5.    SARRACENIACE.S. 

Sarracenia  purpurea. 

6.  Papaverace^. 
Chelidoneum  majus. 

7.    FuMARIACEiE. 

Fumaria  officinalis. 

8.  Crucifer.8. 

Arabis  lyrata. 

"    laevigata. 
Sisymbrium  officinalis. 
Sinapis  Nigra. 

9.  Viol  ace  a. 

Solea  concolor. 
Tiola  lanceolata. 

"    primulaefolia- 

' '    striata. 

"    pubescens: 


10.  Cistace-«. 
Helianthemum  corymbosum. 
Hudsonia  tomentosa. 

11.  Caryophtllacb*. 

Silene  Pennsylvanica. 

' '      antirrhina. 
Arenaria  serpyllifolia. 
Stellaria  longifolia. 
"        uliginosa. 
Cerastium  arvense. 
*Spergula  saginoides. 
Scleranthus  annuus. 
Sagina  procumbens. 

12.  Ox  ALU)  ACE  j& 

Oxalis  violacea. 
"      stricta. 

13.  Geraniace.s. 
Geranium  maculatum. 

"        Carolinianum. 
"        Robertianum. 

14.  Suacardiace,* 
Rhus  toxicodendron. 

15.  Sapindace^. 
Staphylea  trifolia. 

16.  Leguminos* 

Lupinus  perennis. 
Trifolium  arvense. 

pratense. 

repens. 

procumbens. 
Vicia  hirsuta. 
Circis  Canadensis. 


1860] 


*  Barton. 


200 


PROCEEDINGS   OP   THE   ACADEMY   OF 


17.  Rosacea. 

Prunus  serotina. 
Crataegus  coccinea. 
Pyrus  arbutifolia. 
Rubus  villosus. 
"     Canadensis. 

18.    OnAGBACEJE. 

(Enothera  sinuata. 

19.  Saxifkageace^:. 
Saxifraga  Pennsylvania. 
Heuchera  Americana. 

20.  Umbellifeb^. 

Heracleum  lanatum. 
Thaspium  barbinode. 

"        trifolium. 

"        v.  atropurpureum. 
Osmorrhiza  longistylis. 

"  brevistylis. 

21.  Abaliace*. 
Aralia  nudicaculis. 

22.  Cobnace.e. 
Cornus  Florida. 

23.  Capbifoliace.£. 

Triosteum  angustifoleum. 
Viburnum  lentago. 
"         acerifolium. 

24.  Valebianaceje. 

Fedia  radiata. 
' '    olitoria. 

25.  Composite. 

Lucanthemum  vulgare. 
Senicio  aureus. 
Krigia  Virginica. 
Cyntbia  Virginica. 
Hieracium  venosum. 

26.  Ebicace-E. 

G-aylussacia  resinosa. 
Vaccinium  stamineum. 

' '         Pennsylvanicum. 

"  vaccillans. 

"         corymbosum. 

"         v.  glabrum. 
Leucotbe  racemosa. 
Andromeda  Mariana. 
Kalmia  latifolia. 

"      angustifolia. 
Azalea  nudiflora. 
Leiopbyllum  buxifolium. 
Pyrola  cblorantha. 


27.    PLANTAGINACEiE. 

Plantago  lanceolata. 
"       Virginica. 

28.  Lentibulace^. 

Utricularia  subulata. 

29.  Oeobanchace^. 

Apbyllon  uniflora. 
Conopholis  Americana. 

30.    SCBOPHULAEIACEJE. 

Linaria  Canadensis. 
Veronica  Americana. 

"      officinalis. 

"       perigrina. 

"      arvensis. 
Castillaea  coccinea. 

31.  Labiate. 

Salvia  lyrata. 

32.    BoBEAGINACE-ffi. 

Symphytum  officinalis. 
Mertensia  Virginica. 
Myosotis  palustris. 
"      arvensis. 

33.  Hydeophyllace;e. 

Hydropbyllum  Virginicum. 

34.    POLEMONIACE-E. 

Polemonium  reptans. 

35.  Polygon ace«. 

Rumex  crispus. 
"      acetosella. 

36.  SANTALACEiE. 

Comandra  umbellata. 

37.   EPPHOBBIACE-aE. 

Euphorbia  ipecacuanhas. 

38.  Mybicace-s. 

Myrica  cerifera. 

39.  Abace^e. 

Arissema  dracontium. 

40.  Obchidace^. 

Aretbusa  bulbosa. 
Cypripedium  acaule. 

41.  Amaetllipace^:. 
Hypoxis  erecta. 

42.    iBIDACEa:. 

Iris  versicolor. 


[June, 


NATURAL   SCIENCES   OF   PHILADELPHIA. 


201 


43.  Smilace-S. 

Smilax  rotundifolia. 

"     herbacea. 
Trillium  cernuum. 
Mediola  Virginica. 

44.  Lilliaceje. 

Asparagus  officinalis. 
Polygonatum  biflorum. 
Smilacena  racemosa. 

"         trifolia. 

"        bifolia. 
Ornitbogalum  umbellatum. 
Allium  Canadense. 


45.    MELANTHACEjE. 

Uvularia  perfoliata. 
"       sessilifolia. 
Veratrum  viride. 

46.  COMMELYNACE.S. 

Tradescantia  Virginica. 

47.  ERIOCAULONACEiE. 

Eriocaulon  gnaplialodes. 

Orders  47. 
Species  130. 


June  9  th. 


SPECIAL   MEETING. 

Vice  President  Bridges  in  the  Chair. 

The  Vice  President  announced  the  object  of  the  meeting  to  be  to 
express  the  sense  of  the  Academy  at  its  loss  in  the  death  of  Mr. 
George  W.  Carpenter,  its  late  Treasurer,  which  occurred  on  the  7th 
inst.  On  motion  of  Mr.  Cassin,  a  committee  consisting  of  Messrs. 
Cassin,  Vaux,  Rand,  Bridges  and  Jeanes,  was  appointed,  who,  after 
a  recess,  presented  the  following  resolutions,  which  were  unanimously 
adopted : 

Resolved,  That  the  Academy  has  learned  with  the  deepest  regret  of 
the  decease  of  our  late  esteemed  fellow  member,  George  W.  Carpen- 
ter, who  has  been  associated  with  this  Institution  for  a  period  of  thirty 
five  years,  and  who,  on  account  of  his  able  and  active  exertions  as  a 
member,  and  faithful  discharge  of  the  responsible  duties  of  Treasurer, 
during  the  long  official  term  of  thirty-three  years,  has  been  strictly 
identified  with,  and  efficiently  co-operative  in  its  progress. 

Resolved,  That  the  members  of  this  Academy  do  cordially  sympa- 
thize with  the  bereaved  family  of  Mr.  Carpenter,  and  do  hereby  tender 
to  them  their  sincere  condolence. 

Resolved,  That  the  Recording  Secretary  be  instructed  to  send  to 
the  family  of  our  deceased  member  a  copy  of  these  resolutions,  and 
that  they  be  published  in  the  daily  journals  of  this  city. 

June  12th. 
Mr.  Wm.  S.  Vaux  in  the  Chair. 

Forty  members  present. 

The  following  papers  were  presented  for  publication  : 

"  Contributions  to  American  Lepidopterology,  No.  5,"  by  Bracken- 
vidge  Clemens,  M.  D. 

"  Hemiptera  of  the  North  Pacific  Exploring  Expedition,  under 
Commanders  Rodgers  and  Ringgold,"  by  P.  R.  Uhler. 

And  were  referred  to  Committees. 
I860.]  13 


202  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  ACADEMY  OF 

Prof.  Robert  E.  Rogers  made  some  remarks  on  the  fallacies  that  arose  from 
'.he  ordinary  use  of  language,  when  applied  to  the  description  of  phenomena  in 
a  scientific  manner.  He  adverted  to  the  subject  of  combustion  to  illustrate  his 
views,  and  showed  that  our  ordinary  explanation  of  what  is  called  by  this 
r.ame,  where  one  of  the  substances  is  styled  a  combustible,  and  the  other  a  sup- 
porter of  combustion,  as  for  example,  in  the  burning  of  an  ordinary  gas  light, 
was  fallacious,  because  we  only  looked  at  it  from  one  point  of  view.  The  gas 
to  be  burned  was  comparatively  small  in  quantity,  and  the  oxygen  surround- 
ing it  was  in  large  amount ;  hence  the  gas  alone  appeared  to  burn — the  oxy- 
gen of  the  air  to  support  it.  When,  however,  we  surround  the  oxygen  with  a 
large  quantity  of  gas,  or,  so  to  speak,  with  an  atmosphere  of  gas,  thus  reversing 
entirely  the  conditions,  then  the  oxygen  burns,  and  the  gas  becomes  a  support- 
er of  combustion.  We  have  then  no  right  to  call  the  gas  a  combustible  any 
more  than  the  oxygen  ;  or  the  oxygen  a  supporter  of  combustion,  any  more 
than  the  gas.  The  action  between  the  two  bodies  is  mutual,  and  the  various 
phenomena  witnessed  are  the  result  of  that  mutual  action.  The  Professor 
then  exhibited  a  beautiful  experiment,  in  which,  after  first  burning  the  com- 
mon illuminating  gas  in  the  ordinary  way,  he  reversed  the  conditions,  and 
burned  a  jet  of  common  air  in  an  atmosphere  of  gas. 


June  19  th. 
Mr.  Lea,  President,  in  the  Chair. 

Twenty-one  members  present. 

The  following  papers  were  presented  for  publication : 

"  On  the  identity  of  Ammonites  Texanus,  Roemer,  and  A.  vesper- 
tinus  Morton,"  by  Wm.  M.  Gabb. 

"  Descriptions  of  three  new  species  of  Gorgonidse  in  the  Collection 
of  the  Academy  of  Natural  Sciences  of  Philadelphia,"  by  George  W. 
Horn. 

And  were  referred  to  Committees. 


June  26th. 
Mr.  Lea,  President,  in  the  Chair. 
Thirty-one  members  present. 

The  following  papers  were,  on  the  report  of  the  Committees  to  which 
they  had  been  referred,  ordered  to  be  published  in  the  Proceedings  : 

(to  the  Identity  of  Ammonites  Texanus,  Koemer,  and  A.  vespertinus,  Morton. 

BY    W.  M.  GABB. 

In  1834,  Dr.  Morton  described,  an  ammonite  from  Arkansas,  in  his  synopsis, 
under  the  name  of  A.  vespertinus.  The  type,  consisting  of  two  fragments 
of  an  individual,  apparently  about  fifteen  inches  in  diameter,  is  in  the  collec- 
tion of  the  Academy. 

As  long  ago  as  September  of  last  year,  I  was  struck  with  the  resemblance 
of  these  specimens  to  the  species  described  by  Roemer,  in  "  Kreidebildungen 
von  Texas,"  1852,  under  the  name  of  A.  Texanus.  The  originals  of 
Dr.  Morton's  species  were  so  weathered  that  I  was  unable  to  make  out  the 
septum. 

More  recently,  however,  through  the  kindness  of  Dr.  Moore,  I  have  been 
enabled  to  procure  an  undoubted  specimen  of  A.  Texanus,  consisting  of 
nearly  the  whole  outer  whorl  of  an  individual,  about  a  foot  in  diameter.  On 
comparing  this  with  Morton's  specimens,  I  became  convinced  of  their  identity. 
The  names  will  therefore  have  to  be  A.  vespertinus,  Morton;  A. 
Texanus,  Roemer,  being  a  synonyme. 

[Jane, 


NATURAL   SCIENCES   OF   PHILADELPHIA.  203 


Contributions  to  American  Lepidopterology.— No.  5. 
BY   BRACKENRIDGE   CLEMENS,    M-    D, 

PYRALID^.— CRAMB1TES. 

Crambcs  Fabricius. 

C.  agitatellus  . — Head  and  thorax  pale  luteous  ;  labial  palpi  somewhat 
tfuscous,  white  beneath.  Pore  wings  ochreous,  tinted  with  orange,  beneath 
•the  fold  and  toward  the  tip,  with  a  broad  silvery  white  median  streak  divided 
longitudinally  by  a  chrome  yellow  line.  The  costa  is  dark  fuscous  from  the 
base,  and  beyond  the  middle  are  two  oblique  fusco-luteous  lines,  the  first  of 
which  is  joined  at  an  angle  by  another  in  the  middle  of  the  wing.  On  the 
middle  of  the  apical  third  is  a  silvery  white  patch,  another  in  the  costa  above 
it,  a  small  one  in  the  middle  of  hind  margin,  and  one  at  the  tip,  margined 
internally  by  a  small  fuscous  patch.  Along  the  nervules,  above  and  beneath 
the  middle  of  the  wing,  are  fuscous  lines  containing  dull  silvery  scales,  with 
•a  subterminal  angulated  silvery  line,  and  a  few  marginal  dots  beneath  the 
middle  of  the  wing.     Cilia  silvery-hued.     Hind  wings  whitish. 

C.  laqueatellus. — Head  luteous.  Thorax  and  labial  palpi  fuscous,  the 
latter  whitish  beneath.  Fore  wings  with  two  silvery  white  streaks,  separated 
by  a  fuscous  streak  ;  the  upper  silvery  streak  is  margined  on  the  costa  with 
fuscous,  and  the  lower  one,  which  extends  beyond  the  apical  third,  is  edged 
on  the  fold  by  the  same  hue.  Beneath  the  fold,  the  wing  is  pale  yellowish 
with  a  fuscous  streak  along  submedian  nervure.  The  apical  portion  of  the 
wing  is  tinted  with  ochreous-yellow,  in  which  the  nervules  are  streaked  with 
silvery ;  on  the  costa,  near  the  tip,  is  an  oblique  silvery  streak,  dark  mar- 
gined on  both  sides.  The  subterminal  silvery  line  is  much  angulated,  and 
beneath  the  middle  of  the  wing,  is  a  large  marginal  whitish  patch,  containing 
black  lines  on  the  nervules.  The  tip  of  the  wing  is  silvery,  with  an  ochreous- 
yellow  patch.     Cilix  silvery-hued.      Hind  wings  pale  fuscous,  cilia  white. 

C.  involutellus. — Labial  palpi  dark  fuscous,  whitish  at  the  base  be- 
neath. Head  and  thorax  dark  yellowish  with  a  brassy  hue.  Fore  wings 
fusco-ochreous,  with  a  brassy  lustre,  with  a  median  silvery  white  streak 
pointed  behind  and  extended  nearly  to  the  hind  margin.  The  subterminal 
line  is  silvery,  with  a  short  white  streak  on  each  side  of  it  on  the  costa.  At 
the  tip  is  a  small  white  spot,  and  on  the  hinder  margin  beneath  the  middle  is 
a  whitish  patch,  containing  marginal  black  dots.  Cilia  silvery-hued.  Hind 
wings  pale  bluish  white. 

In  some  specimens  the  general  hue  of  the  fore  wings  is  paler  than  the 
above. 

C.  camurellus.  Labial  palpi  fuscous,  whitish  above.  Head  whitish. 
Fore  wings  ratherj  pale,  dull  reddish  fuscous  or  pale  ochreous,  dusted  with 
fuscous,  with  an  irregular  patch  of  fuscous  scales  on  the  middle  of  the  wing, 
where  it  is  crossed  by  an  angulated,  rather  ferruginous  line,  and  one  of  the 
same  hue  near  the  hinder  margin,  edged  externally  by  dull  silvery.  Th* 
nervules  are  faintly  marked  by  silvery  lines,  and  on  the  hind  margin  is  a 
row  of  black  dots.     Cilia  dark  but  silvery-hued.     Hind  wings  grayish. 

C.  luteolellus. — Labial  palpi  pale  yellowish,  dusted  externally  with 
fuscous.  Head,  thorax  and  fore  wings  yellowish  white,  sometimes  dusted 
with  fuscous,  with  a  patch  of  fuscous  scales  on  the  end  of  the  disc,  and  an 
irregular  line  of  the  same  hue  near  hinder  margin.  The  hind  margin  marked 
by  a  slender  dark  brown  line  ;  cilia  yellowish  white.  Hind  wings  fuscous. 
cilia  whitish. 

I860.] 


204  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  ACADEMY  OF 

C.  caliginosellus . — Head,  thorax  and  labial  palpi  dark  fuscous.  Fore 
wings  dark  fuscous,  with  two  angulated  umber  brown  lines,  one  about  the 
middle  of  the  wing,  and  rather  indistinct,  and  one  near  the  hind  margin  ;  on 
the  hinder  margin  is  a  blackish  brown  line  ;  cilia  fuscous.  Hind  wings  rather 
dark  fuscous  ;  cilia  whitish. 

C.  mutabilis. — Grayish  fuscous,  varied  beneath  the  fold  with  luteous. 
Labial  palpi  dark  fuscous.  Fore  wings  with  a  grayish  median  stripe,  not  ex- 
tending beyond  the  disk,  more  or  less  tinted  with  luteous  beneath  the  fold, 
and  with  fuscous  along  the  base  of  the  costa.  On  the  end  of  the  median  ner- 
vure  is  a  dark  brown  dot,  and  sometimes  streaked  with  dark  fuscous  beneath 
the  nervure.  The  subterminal  line  is  faint  and  bluish,  usually  containing  a 
row  of  faint  brownish  dots.     Hind  wings  yellowish,  gray  or  pale  fuscous. 

This  species  appears  to  be  highly  variable,  the  general  hue  being  sometimes 
pale  ochreous,  and  in  specimens  somewhat  worn,  scarcely  to  be  identified. 

C.  vulgi vagellus.  —  Labial  palpi  luteous,  dark  fuscous  externally. 
Head  and  thorax  luteous  ;  teguloe  with  a  fuscous  stripe.  Fore  wings  luteous, 
with  numerous  fuscous  streaks  in  atoms,  along  the  veins  and  two  in  the  disk. 
Hind  margin  with  a  row  of  terminal  black  dots ;  cilia  golden  hued.  Hind 
wings  yellowish  ;  cilia  whitish. 

C.  albellus. — Pure  white,  with  a  row  of  black  dots  on  the  hind  margin 
of  the  fore  wings,  with  an  oblique  pale  yellow  acutely  angulated  line  from 
near  the  middle  of  costa,  and  an  angulated  silvery  subterminal  line  margined 
on  both  sides  with  pale  yellowish.  Above  the  marginal  dots  at  the  base  of 
the  cilia  is  a  short  blackish  marginal  line.  Hind  wings  pale  brownish -gray  or 
whitish. 

C.  elegans. — Whitish.  Fore  wings  at  the  base  of  costa  ratheT  broadly 
streaked  with  brown,  having  a  brassy  lustre,  with  a  patch  of  brown  scales  on 
the  inner  margin  near  the  base,  and  a  short,  curved  streak  of  the  same  hue 
about  its  middle,  which  forms  with  its  opposite  when  the  wings  are  closed  a 
semi-circular  dorsal  line,  behind  which  the  wing  is  dusted  with  brown.  On 
the  apical  third  of  the  wing  is  a  broad,  brown  band,  broadest  on  the  costa, 
where  it  encloses  a  small  white  spot,  and  with  a  straight  brown  subterminal 
line  exterior  to  it,  on  a  silvery  white  ground.  The  hinder  margin  is  dotted 
with  black  points ;  cilia  silvery.     Hind  wings  pale  brownish  white. 

Variety.  Costa  slightly  touched  at  the  base  with  dark  fuscous.  No  distinct 
broad  band  on  the  apical  third,  but  the  costa  from  nearly  the  middle,  dark 
fuscous,  containing  two  small,  white  costal  spots.  The  subterminal  line 
whitish,  margined  on  each  side  with  fuscous.  The  spot  on  middle  of  inner 
margin  rather  diffuse,  not  linear,  and  the  wing  behind  it  but  little  dusted. 
Hind  wings  whitish. 

C.  Girardellus. — Labial  palpi  pale  fuscous  externally,  above  and  be- 
neath silvery  white.  Fore  wings  silvery  white,  with  an  orange  yellow  stripe 
beneath  the  median  nervure,  somewhat  turned  upwards  at  its  tip  toward  the 
apex  of  the  wing,  and  extended  on  the  sides  of  the  thorax  to  the  head  ;  it  is 
slightly  margined  toward  the  costa  of  the  wing  with  dark  reddish  fuscous. 
The  hind  margin  is  dotted  with  blackish  dots,  and  at  the  base  of  the  cilia  is  a 
dark  brown  marginal  line ;  cilia  silvery.     Head  wings  white. 

Mass.     From  Dr.  Chas.  GHrard. 

C.  auratellus . — Labial  palpi  and  antennae  orange  yellow,  the  former 
silvery  white  above.  Fore  wings  silvery  white,  with  an  orange  yellow  band, 
from  the  apical  third  of  the  costa  to  the  middle  of  inner  margin,  where  it  is 
broadest,  and  somewhat  produced  along  the  costa  toward  the  tip,  and  the 
inner  margin  to  the  anal  angle.  Cilia  orange  yellow,  with  a  dark  reddish 
fuscous,  somewhat  crenated  basal  line.     Head  wings  white. 

Mass.     From  Mr.  S.  H.  Scudder,  Jr. 

[June, 


NATURAL   SCIENCES   OF  PHILADELPHIA.  205 

Chilo  Zincken. 
C.  longirostrallu  s. — Labial  palpi,  head  and  thorax  ochreous  white. 
Fore  wings  pale  yellowish-white,  with  a  fuscous  line  from  the  tip  to  the  inner 
margin.     Hind  wings  pale  ochreous  white.     Abdomen  tufted  at  the  tip. 

C.  melinellus . — Ochreous  yellow.  Fore  wings  with  a  pale  fuscous 
streak  along  the  middle  of  the  fold,  extended  nearly  to  the  tip,  and  a  faint 
oblique  line  of  the  same  hue,  from  the  tip,  not  extended  to  the  hind  margin. 
Hind  wings  pale  yellowish-white.     Abdomen  tufted. 

C.  aquilellus. — Dark  fuscous.  Fore  wings  with  an  ochreous  streak 
along  the  submedian  nervure  and  its  nervules,  and  those  beneath  likewise 
touched  with  the  same  hue.     Hind  wings  yellowish  fuscous. 

PHYCITES. 
Nephopteryx  Hiibner. 

N.  undulatella . — Labial  palpi,  head  and  thorax  grayish  fuscous.  Fore 
wings  grayish  fuscous,  with  an  augulated  white  line  crossing  the  disk,  some- 
times obsolete  above  the  fold,  margined  with  dark  brownish,  and  a  subtermi- 
nal  line  of  the  same  hue  dark  margined  on  both  sides.  At  the  end  of  the 
disk  is  a  short  blackish  transverse  line,  slightly  margined  exteriorly  with 
whitish.  Hinder  margin  tipped  with  blackish  ;  cilia  grayish  fuscous.  Hind 
wings  grayish  testaceous  ;  cilia  paler. 

Penna.,  Canada  and  Mass.     From  Dr.  Chas.  Girard,  Washington,  D.  C. 

Early  in  October,  I  found  pupse  of  this  insect  at  Niagara  Falls,  on  the  Ca- 
nada side,  under  shelter  of  loosened  portions  of  the  bark  of  the  American 
Elm.  They  were  enclosed  in  a  cocoon  of  silk,  mixed  with  particles  of  bark. 
On  the  same  tree  I  took  a  number  of  larvae  which  were  descending  the  trunk 
to  undergo  pupation.  I  did  not,  however,  obtain  imagos  from  any  of  the 
specimens.  The  body  was  nearly  uniform  in  diameter,  with  the  ordinary 
number  of  feet.  Head  as  broad  as  the  body  and  dark  green.  Body  dark 
green,  between  the  segments  yellowish  and  dotted  with  yellow  ;  first  rings 
with  two  black  dots  on  the  sides. 

N.?  u  lmi-arr  o  s  o  r  ella  . — Female.  Grayish-fuscous.  Fore  wings  with 
a  slender,  dark  fuscous  angulated  line,  edged  on  the  costa  internally  by  a  pale 
grayish  spot,  and  on  the  inner  margin  externally  by  another  of  the  same  hue. 
The  subterminal  line  pale  gray,  dark  margined  internally.  Hind  wings  pale 
brownish,  darker  on  the  margin. 

The  larva  is  found  on  the  American  elm  in  August.  The  head  is  pale 
brown,  dotted  with  dark  brown.  The  body  dark  green,  with  a  dorsal,  double 
line  of  pale  green  patches,  and  a  slight  subdorsal  and  stigmatal  line  of  the 
same  hue.  On  the  1st,  2d,  4th,  5th  and  10th  rings,  are  brown  subdorsal 
points.  It  weaves  a  web  on  the  surface  of  the  leaves,  feeding  beneath  it. 
The  pupa  is  contained  in  a  web  between  united  leaves,  in  the  vivarium.  It 
becomes  a  pupa  about  the  middle  of  August,  and  an  imago  about  twelve  or 
fourteen  days  after  transformation. 

Pempelia?  Hiibner. 

Male.  Labial  palpi  moderately  long,  scarcely  exceeding  the  vertex ;  Jirst  and 
second  joints  thick,  third  extremely  short  and  slender.  Maxillary  palpi  with  a 
short  pencil  of  hairs.  Tongue  nearly  as  long  as  the  thorax  beneath:  scaled  at 
base. 

P.?  virgatella  . — Brownish  luteous.  Fore  wings  varied  with  pale  gray- 
ish toward  the  base  and  tip,  with  dull  pale  reddish  at  the  base  and  middle  of 
inner  margin  ;  on  the  middle  of  the  costa  is  a  blackish  blotch,  containing  a 
short  line  of  the  same  hue,  and  opposite,  an  angulated  whitish  line,  with  few 
black  spots  exterior  to  the  costal  line  ;  a  blotch  of  the  same  hue  towards  the 

I860.] 


206  PROCEEDINGS   OF   THE  ACADEMY   OF 

base  of  submedian  nervure,  and  a  pale  grayish  subterminal  line  margined  inter- 
nally by  a  blackish  line,  and  externally  by  black  streaks  on  the  nervnles. 
The  internal  black  margin  is  edged  on  the  costa  and  middle  of  the  wing  with 
pale  grayish.  Hinder  margin  spotted  with  black ;  cilia  grayish  fuscous.  Hind 
wings  pale  brownish. 

P.?  subcaesiella . — Male.  Pale  bluish  gray,  dusted  with  fuscous.  Fore 
wings  with  a  reddish  luteous  band  at  the  base,  broadest  on  the  inner  margin, 
and  a  rather  broad,  dark  fuscous  band  on  the  basal  third.  The  subterminal 
line  is  pale  grayish,  edged  behind  by  dark  fuscous.  Hind  wings  pale  brownish. 

Ephestia  ? 

E.  ostrinella . — Reddish-purple  varied  with  blackish.  Fore  wings  with 
the  basal  third  and  the  apical  portion  reddish  purple,  with  a  broad  blackish 
band  in  the  middle  edged  internally  by  a  straight  whitish  line,  and  an  exte- 
rior costal  patch  of  the  same  hue  containing  two  blackish  dots  on  a  short 
streak.  The  subterminal  line  is  pale  grayish.  Hind  wings  pale  brownish 
gray. 

The  larvae  lives  in  the  fruit  heads  of  Sumack,  passing  the  winter  in  the 
larval  state.  It  is  dark  reddish-brown,  head  brown  ;  cervical  and  terminal 
shields  blackish  brown.  The  body  is  supplied  with  a  few  isolated  hairs,  and 
one  or  two  rows  of  obscure  dark  brown  subdorsal  dots. 

The  larvae  make  galleries  through  the  fruit  heads,  and  desert  them  in  the 
spring,  to  form  their  cocoons,  which  are  slight  silken  webs,  and  appear  as 
imagos  about  the  middle  of  April. 

E.  Zeae. — Tinea  Zeae,  Fitch,  Rept.  2d,  321.  Fore  wings  with  the  basal 
third  pale  ochreous-yellow  or  yellowish-white,  and  the  remainder  fuscous, 
with  a  reddish-luteons  spot  on  the  end  of  the  disk,  or  dark  grayish-fuscous 
varied  with  reddish  luteous. 

The  larvaa  is  a  frequent  inhabitant  of  houses,  and  feeds  on  a  variety  of  dry 
goods,  rye,  corn,  clover  seed,  on  garlic  heads,  preserves,  especially  those  con- 
tained in  jars.  The  seeds  are  bound  together  with  a  silken  web  in  which 
galleries  are  left.  It  would  be  well  if  Dr.  Fitch  changed  the  specific  name  of 
this  insect  as  corn  is  by  no  means  its  favorite  or  usiial  food. 

The  labial  palpi  of  the  imago  are  more  decidedly  porrected  than  in  the 
foregoing  species,  but  I  do  not  think  the  difference  between  them  is  generic. 
I  have  no  males  of  Z  e  a  e  in  my  collection  and  do  not  know  whether  they  have 
the  tuft  beneath  the  fore  wing. 

Lanthaphe. 

Male.  The  discoidal  cell  of  the  fore  wings  is  narrow  and  appears  to  be  un- 
closed. The  costal  and  subcostal  nervures  run  very  close  to  each  other,  if 
not  united,  in  the  basal  third  of  the  wing  ;  the  former,  from  union  with  the 
first  subcosto-marginal  branch  much  thickened,  or  indistinctly  furcate.  The 
subcostal  subdivides  into  two  branches  near  the  basal  third  of  the  wing,  the 
upper  one  subdividing  again  in  the  middle  of  the  wing,  sending  a  branch  with 
a  long  fork  to  the  costa  near  the  tip  and  a  simple  branch  to  the  apex.  The 
lower  branch  is  thickened  towards  its  origin,  simple,  and  is  the  post-apical 
nervule.  The  median  is  thickened  towards  its  end,  and  is  four-branched. 
Hind  wings  neuration  pyraliform. 

Head  with  ocelli.  Eyes  large  and  salient.  Labial  palpi  ascending,  applied 
closely  to  the  front  and  with  the  tips  much  elevated  above  the  vertex  ;  first 
and  second  joints  very  short,  first  almost  rudimental ;  the  third  very  long, 
folded  longitudinally  like  a  sheath.  Maxillary  palpi  rather  short,  with  a  pencil 
of  very  long,  silky  hairs,  capable  of  being  expanded,  and  carried  concealed  in 
the  sheath  formed  by  the  third  joint  of  labial  palpi.  Antennae  ciliated  beneath; 
basal  joint  thick,  with  a  short  horn-like  appendage  behind  having  a  tuft  of 
hairs.     Fore  wings  with  a  small  discal  vitreous  spot,  and  the  under  surface  from 

[June, 


NATURAL   SCIENCES   OF   PHILADELPHIA.  207 

the  base  of  the  costa  to  the  middle,  thickly  covered  with  long  scales  placed  trans- 
versely. 

Female.  Fore  wings  without  discal  vitreous  spot.  Discoidal  cell  closed  by 
an  arcuate  nervure  ;  with  costal  and  subcostal  nervures  distinct,  the  latter 
with  a  single  marginal  branch  from  the  cell,  and  at  the  apical  third  of  the 
wing  subdividing  into  an  apical  and  marginal  branch,  which  is  furcate  ;  the 
subcosto  post-apical  from  the  superior  angle  of  the  cell.  Submedian  four 
branched. 

With  ocelli.  Labial  palpi  ascending,  with  tips  but  little  elevated  above  the 
vertex ;  nearly  cylindrical ;  second  joint  somewhat  thickened  and  long*,  ex- 
tending above  the  eyes ;  the  third  short,  slender  and  pointed-  Maxillary 
short,  without  pencil  of  hairs.  Antenu=ie  simple  and  setaceous  :  basal  joint 
thick,  without  appendage  behind. 

The  tongue  in  both  sexes  is  scaled  at  the  base,  and  moderately  long  ;  and 
the  fore  wings  "with  distinct  strigse  and  tufts  of  scales. 

This  genus  appears  to  be  congeneric  with  Acrobasis  of  Zeller. 

L.  platanella . — Labial  palpi  pale  brownish-red,  touched  in  front  with 
pale  gray.  Head  and  thorax  brownish-red,  the  latter  varied  with  grayish  and 
dark  fuscous.  Fore  wings  grayish  fuscous,  with  the  costa  touched  with 
brownish  red,  and  a  patch  of  the  same  hue  in  the  female,  near  the  base  of  the 
inner  margin  containing  a  tuft  of  raised  scales ;  in  the  male,  blackish  brown, 
touched  with  brownish  red.  The  base  of  the  wing  is  whitish.  In  the  middle 
of  the  wing  is  a  broad  white  band,  obsolete  toward  the  costa,  with  two  straight 
blackish-brown  lines  internally,  and  in  the  male  shaded  internally  with  the 
same  hue.  The  subterminal  line  is  irregular  and  whitish,  dark  margined 
internally.  The  hinder  margin  of  the  wing  is  touched  with  blackish-brown. 
Hind  wings  pale  brown,  somewhat  darker  toward  the  hinder  margin. 

The  larva?  is  tortriciform  in  appearance.  Head  pale  brown,  mottled  with 
whitish.  Body  with  isolated  hairs,  pale  green,  with  a  dark  brown  dorsal  line 
and  a  fainter  stigmatal  line  of  the  same  hixe,  or  pale  reddish,  with  a  brown 
dorsal  line  on  each  side  of  the  vascular. 

It  makes  a  web  on  the  under  surface  of  the  leaf  of  Sycamore,  (Platanus  o  c- 
ciden talis),  drawing  it  together  and  living  within  a  silken  tube. 

The  cocoon  is  woven  on  the  surface  of  the  ground,  in  form  of  a  flattened  oval, 
consisting  of  brown  silk  covered  exteriorly  with  grains  of  earth.  The  larva- 
remain  in  it  unchanged  during  the  winter.  It  may  be  taken  in  July,  and 
enters  the  pupa  state  during  the  latter  part  of  August,  to  appear  as  an  imago 
in  May  or  June. 

L.  asperatella. — Labial  palpi  blackish  brown,  varied  with  whitish. 
Thorax  pale  grayish,  varied  with  grayish  or  dark  gray.  Fore  wings  dark 
brownish-gray,  with  a  blackish  brown  tuft  of  scales  in  the  basal  part  of  the 
fold,  and  a  smaller  one  of  the  same  hue  on  the  disk  above  it,  a  whitish  me- 
dian band,  sometimes  almost  obsolete,  containing  on  the  disk  a  small  black- 
ish-brown tuft  in  the  female,  with  an  internal  crenated  blackish  line,  and 
shaded  toward  the  base  with  blackish ;  on  its  external  margin  is  a  line  of 
raised  scales.  The  subterminal  line  is  pale  grayish,  angulated  and  margined 
internally  by  a  blackish  line,  and  externally  by  a  fainter  one  produced  into 
points  on  the  nervules.  The  hinder  marginal  line  is  black.  Sometimes  in 
the  female  the  base  of  the  wing  is  whitish,  slightly  touched  with  luteous. 

Penna.  and  Mass.     From  Dr.  Chas.  Girard. 

TINEINA. 

Lithocolletis.     (See  Paper  No.  2.) 

L.  Fitchella. — Argyromiges  quercifoliella,  Fitch,  Report  v.,  Section 
327.  Head,  face  and  thorax  silvery  white.  Labial  palpi  tipped  with  pale 
ochreous.     Antenna?  pale  saffron  ;  basal  joint  silvery  white.     Fore  wings  pale 

I860.] 


208  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  ACADEMY  OF 

reddish-saffron,  with  a  slight  brassy  hue.  Along  the  costa  are  five  silvery  white, 
costal  streaks,  all  black  margined  internally  except  the  first,  which  is  very 
oblique  and  continued  along  the  costa  to  the  base  of  the  wing.  All  the  costal 
streaks  are  short,  except  the  first.  On  the  inner  margin  are  two  conspicuous 
silvery  dorsal  streaks,  dark  margined  internally,  the  first,  very  large,  and  placed 
near  the  middle  of  the  inner  margin,  the  second  opposite  the  third  costal 
streak.  At  the  tip  is  a  small,  round  black  spot,  placed  above  the  middle  of 
the  wing  ;  cilia  silvery  gray,  tinted  with  saffron.  Hind  wings  grayish-fuscous, 
cilia  paler. 

The  specific  name  used  by  Dr.  Fitch  being  already  in  use  to  designate  a 
European  species  of  this  genus,  it  was  necessary  to  change  it.  I  feel  pleasure, 
therefore,  in  dedicating  it  to  the  industrious  observer  who  first  described  it, 
and  who  is  adding  so  much  to  our  knowledge  of  entomological  Natural  His- 
tory. 

L.  tubiferella . — Head  silvery  white.  Antenna?  fuscous,  slightly  annu- 
lated  with  white  ;  basal  joint  pale  saffron.  Fore  wings  pale  saffron,  with  two 
silvery  white,  moderately  broad  bands,  black  margined  externally,  one  near 
the  base  and  the  other  on  the  middle  of  the  wing,  and  both  somewhat  oblique  ; 
cilia  of  the  general  hue.     Hind  wings  dark  grayish,  cilia  the  same. 

The  larva  belongs  to  the  second  larval  group  of  this  genus,  but  the  body 
much  more  contracted  than  that  of  any  other  larva  I  have  seen.  Its  form  is 
almost  that  of  a  flattened  ovoid,  the  rings  separated  by  deep  incisions,  and  each 
forming  in  the  sides  a  projecting  mammilla. 

The  larva  mines  the  upper  surface  of  the  leaves  of  oaks  in  September,  and 
doubtless  also  in  the  summer  months.  The  mine  is  a  linear  tract,  sometimes 
curved  or  wavy,  gradually  increasing  in  breadth  from  the  beginning  to  the 
end,  or  as  the  larva  increases  in  length,  with  the  "frass"  deposited  on  each 
side  of  the  tract  and  marking  its  outlines  by  two  black  lines.  The  position 
of  the  larva  within  the  mine  is  likewise  a  peculiar  one,  as  it  is  always  placed 
transversely  to  its  course,  and  hence  the  deposition  of  the  "frass"  on  the 
sides,  and  the  gradual  increase  in  breadth  as  the  larva  grows  in  length.  Its 
head  is  blackish  brown  ;  the  body  pale  greenish,  with  pale  brown  dorsal  ma- 
cula?, darker  on  their  edges.  It  undergoes  transformation  in  the  end  of  the 
mine,  preparing  a  circular  cell  or  slightly  silk-lined  cavity,  and  leaves  the 
last  larval  cast  outside  of  it.  The  fall  brood  of  larva  become  imagos  about 
the  middle  of  May. 

L.  cratfegella . — This  insect  is  found  on  the  apple  and  wild  cherry,  (P. 
serotina),  without  undergoing  any  variation,  which  I  can  detect.  I  thought 
beyond  doubt,  that  that  in  the  leaf  of  wild  cherry,  must  be  a  distinct  species, 
for  the  larva  has  a  habit  unusual  to  larvse  of  this  group,  and  which  I  have  not 
noticed  in  those  on  the  thorn  and  apple,  although,  doubtless,  they  correspond. 
The  habit  I  refer  to  in  wild  cherry  miners,  consists  in  deserting  an  old  mine  to 
form  a  new  one,  reminding  one  strongly  of  the  early  habits  of  the  Ornix  larv«. 
The  larva  enters  along  the  midrib  to  form  a  new  mine,  which  I  have  found  in 
various  stages  of  advancement,  besides  the  old  and  tenantless  mine  in  another 
portion  of  the  leaf. 

Tischeria.     (See  Paper  No.  2.) 

T.  malifoliella. — Head  and  antennae  shining  dark  brown ;  face  ochre- 
ous.  Fore  wings  uniform,  shining  dark  brown  with  a  purplish  tinge,  slightly 
dusted  with  pale  ochreous  ;  cilia  of  the  general  hue.  Hind  wings  dark  gray  : 
cilia  with  a  rufous  tinge. 

The  larva  mines  the  upper  surface  of  the  apple  leaf.  The  mine  is  flat,  at 
least  until  the  larva  enters  the  pupa  state,  and  begins  as  a  slender  white  line, 
dilating  as  it  increases,  and  is  ultimately  formed  into  an  irregular  brownish 
colored  patch,  which  is  sometimes  extended  over  the  beginning.  This  is  then 
shown  on  the  separated  epidermis  as  a  white  line  or  streak.     The  head  of  the 

[June, 


NATURAL   SCIENCES   OF  PHILADELPHIA.  209 

larva  is  brown ;  the  body  uniform  pale  green  ;  first  segment  brownish,  with  a 
short,  vascular  greenish  streak.  When  the  pupation  begins  the  leaf  is  thrown 
into  a  fold,  which  is  carpeted  with  silk,  and  the  pupa  lies  within  it.  This 
state  begins  about  the  latter  part  of  September,  and  the  imago  appears  early 
in  May. 

Antispila.     (See  Paper  No.  3.) 

A.  Isabella . — Head  golden.  Antennae  purplish  brown.  Fore  wings  pur- 
plish brown,  without  violet  and  greenish  reflections,  with  a  pale  golden  band  near 
the  base,  inclined  toward  the  base,  not  constricted  on  the  fold,  but  broadest 
on  the  inner  margin.  Near  the  tip  of  the  wing  is  a  small  pale  golden  costal 
spot,  and  one  of  the  same  hue  nearly  opposite  on  the  inner  margin.  The 
hind  wings  have  a  greenish  reflection ;  in  Nysssefoliella,  they  are  rather  deep 
purple. 

The  larva  mines  the  leaf  of  Isabella  grape  in  September.  Its  head  is  brown  ; 
the  body  yellowish  white,  with  a  few  black  dorsal  spots  on  a  dark  green  ground, 
on  the  middle  segments  and  beneath  a  spot  on  the  fourth  and  fifth  segments  : 
first  segment  dark  green.  It  cuts  out  a  very  large,  nearly  round  disk,  during 
the  latter  part  of  September,  and  appears  as  an  imago  in  the  latter  part  of 
May. 

A.  viticordifoliella  . — The  larva  mines  the  leaves  of  wild  grapes.  Its 
head  is  brown  ;  the  body  yellowish  green,  without  dorsal  or  ventral  spots  ; 
the  first  ring  brown.  It  may  be  taken  in  August,  and  in  the  beginning  of 
September  it  cuts  out  a  small  oval  disk  and  enters  the  pupa  state.  I  have  not 
succeeded  in  breeding  the  imago,  but  have  no  doubt  it  is  specifically  distinct 
from  any  heretofore  described. 

Aspidisca. 
(See  Proceedings,  Jan'y.,  1880,  p.  11.) 
The  diagnosis  of  this  genus  was  made  from  two  specimens  of  A.  splendorife- 
r  e  1 1  a.  In  insects  so  extremely  small  and  fragile,  even  when  relaxed  by  mois- 
ture, it  is  no  simple  task  to  make  a  correct  diagnosis  from  a  single  examina- 
tion. The  reader  will  therefore  please  correct  in  the  January  number  of  the 
Proceedings  as  follows  :  Labial  palpi  extremely  short  and  slender,  much  separated. 
Tongue  naked  and  scarcely  as  long  as  the  anterior  coxa;. 

A.  lucifluella. — Head  silvery.  Antennae  rather  dark  fuscous.  Fore 
wings  silvery  from  the  base  to  the  middle,  and  thence  to  the  tip  dark  fuscous 
varied  with  golden.  Near  the  tip  are  three  short,  costal  silvery  streaks  adjacent 
to  each  other ;  the  first  is  longer  than  the  others,  with  converging  dark  mar- 
gins, and  a  golden  patch  on  its  internal  side  ;  the  second  with  straight  dark 
margins,  and  a  golden  patch  beneath  and  adjoining  it  ;  the  third  is  unmar- 
gined  except  by  the  external  margin  of  the  second  streak  which  separates 
them.  Opposite  the  first  costal  streak  is  a  dorsal,  tapering  streak  of  the  same 
hue,  and  placed  in  the  dark  fuscous  portion  of  the  wing.  From  the  second 
golden  spot  to  the  middle  of  the  hinder  margin  is  an  oblique  silvery  streak, 
sometimes  separated  into  two  spots.  At  the  extreme  apex  is  a  deep  black 
triangular  spot ;  the  cilia  grayish,  tinged  with  pale  brownish. 

The  larva  may  be  found  in  September  and  October  mining  the  leaves  of 
hickories.  The  head,  first  and  second  segments  are  brownish,  with  a  reddish 
tinge  ;  body  brownish-green,  with  a  dark  green  vascular  line  and  three  black- 
ish dorsal  spots  on  the  middle  segments.  Early  in  October  the  larva  cuts  out 
an  oval  disk  and  enters  the  pupa  state,  to  appear  as  an  imago  early  in  June. 
The  perfect  insect  is  larger  than  splendoriferella. 

Pakectopa. 

The  fore  wings  are  lanceolate.  The  disk  is  acutely  closed  behind,  at  the 
apical  third  of  the  wing  and  narrow.     No  costal  nervure.     The  subcostal  sends 

I860.] 


210  PROCEEDINGS   OF   THE   ACADEMY   OP 

off  quite  near  the  base  of  the  wing  a  long  marginal  branch,  and  near  its  end, 
two  other  branches  to  the  costa..  From  the  acute  apex  of  the  disk  arises  the 
apical  branch,  which,  near  its  origin  sends  a  branch  to  the  costa,  and  about 
its  middle  becomes  bifid,  sending  one  branch  to  the  costa  near  the  tip,  and 
the  other  to  the  inner  margin  beneath  it.  The  median  is  three-branched,  the 
posterior  vein  arising  somewhat  interiorly  to  the  costal  origin  of  the  second 
marginal,  and  is  most  distinct  on  the  inner  margin,  being  faintly  indicated  from 
its  middle  to  its  origin. 

Hind  wings  very  narrow,  almost  setiform.  The  disk  unclosed.  The  costal 
nervure  is  well  indicated  and  long,  reaching  almost  to  the  tip  of  the  wing. 
The  subcostal  is  furcate  beyond  the  middle  of  the  wing  and  is  attenuated  to- 
ward the  base  almost  from  its  bifurcation  ;  it  runs  close  to  the  costal  trunk. 
The  median  nervure  is  furcate  within  the  middle  of  the  wing,  on  the  inner 
margin. 

Head  with  long,  loose  scales  above,  forming  a  slight  tuft  between  the  an- 
tennae. Forehead  rounded.  Face  narrow  and  short,  somewhat  retreating  and 
smooth.  No  ocelli.  Eyes  small,  round,  salient  and  naked.  Labial  palpi 
moderately  long,  slender,  smooth,  pointed  and  drooping,  (in  the  living  insect 
most  probably  ascending) ;  second  joint  slightly  thickened  at  its  end.  Max- 
illary palpi  not  perceptible.  Antennae  inserted  on  the  front ;  filiform  and  sim- 
ple ;  basal  joint  scarcely  thicker  than  the  stalk  and  short ;  nearly  as  long  as 
the  fore  wings.     Tongue  naked,  slender,  nearly  as  long  as  the  thorax  beneath. 

P.  lespedezsefoliella. — Head  and  face  white.  Labial  palpi,  second 
joint  dark  fuscous,  the  third  white.  Antenna?  dark  grayish  fuscous.  Thorax 
blackish  brown.  Fore  wings  blackish  brown,  with  three  silvery  white  spots 
along  the  inner  margin,  one  almost  at  the  base  of  the  wing,  one  at  the  apical 
third,  and  the  other  intermediate  between  them.  On  the  costa  are  two  silvery 
white  spots,  the  first  a  little  exterior  to  the  second  dorsal ;  the  second  costal 
opposite  the  third  dorsal.  Along  the  hinder  margin  is  a  black  hinder  margi- 
nal line,  or  two  decided  converging  black  streaks,  one  from  the  costa  and  the 
other  from  the  inner  margin,  meeting  at  the  tip  where  there  is  a  small  silvery 
white  spot.  The  cilia  along  the  hinder  margin  are  silvery  white  tipped  with 
blackish,  and  along  the  inner  margin  dark  gray.  Hind  wings  dark  fuscous, 
cilia  the  same. 

The  larva  mines  the  leaves  of  bush-clover,  (Lespedeza  violacea)  early  in 
September.  It  makes  a  whitish  blotch  mine,  with  a  number  of  narrow,  lat- 
eral mines,  or  rather  wide  galleries  running  out  from  it,  on  the  upper  surface 
of  the  leaf.  The  blotch  is  chiefly  in  the  middle  of  the  leaf,  the  larva  mining 
along  the  midrib  in  the  first  instance,  and  when  disturbed  it  conceals  itself 
by  retreating  to  the  midrib,  and  applies  itself  along  the  course  of  it.  Hence 
tenanted  mines  may  easily  be  mistaken  for  deserted  ones.  The  mine  never 
contains  "  frass,"  and  the  larva  seems  to  leave  one  capriciously,  whilst  it  is 
yet  small  in  extent,  to  form  a  new  one  ;  this  it  does  by  penetrating  the  under 
cuticle  of  the  leaf.  In  the  course  of  larval  life,  many  new  mines  are  formed 
and  the  insect  is  a  troublesome  one  to  breed.  The  larva  is  cylindrical,  slightly 
tapering  from  the  first  segment,  and  the  body  bright,  concolorous  green.  It 
deserts  its  food-plant  about  the  middle  of  September  to  form  its  cocoonet ; 
this  is  woven  upon  some  substance  on  the  ground,  in  the  vivarium,  in  a  pucker 
on  a  leaf,  or  under  a  turned-down  portion  of  the  edge,  and  is  white.  It  appears 
as  an  imago  early  in  May. 

I  have  no  good  description  of  this  larva  in  my  notes,  but  have  of  another 
having  precisely  similar  habits,  and  in  appearance  very  like  it.  It  mines  a 
species  of  Desmodium  plants,  nearly  related  to  Lespedeza,  and  is  probably  the 
same  insect,  or  at  least  of  the  same  genus  as  the  above.  The  body  of  this 
larva  tapers  posteriorly;  it  is  submoniliform  and  slightly  flattened,  with  the 
segments  roundly  mammillated  on  the  sides.  The  feet  are  three,  the  abdomi- 
nal three  and  the  terminal  one  pair.     The  head  is  pale  brown ;  the  body 

[June,, 


NATURAL   SCIENCES   OF   PHILADELPHIA.  211 

bright  green,  tinged  with  yellowish.  The  larvae  desert  their  mines  to  form 
new  ones,  hence  they  are  never  extensive,  sometimes  blotches,  and  again  ir- 
regular galleries  along  the  midrib,  with  lateral  branches.  The  "frass"  is 
voided  at  the  entrance  opening  beneath.  I  was  not  successful  in  breeding  the 
larvae  on  Desmodium. 

Bucculatkix   Zeller. 
(See  Paper  No.  3,  Proceedings,  Jan.,  1860.    The  authority  there  given  is  a  mistake.) 

B.  pomif olie  11a. — Head  and  face  very  pale  ochreous,  with  the  tuft 
tipped  with  brownish.  Antennae  pale  ochreous,  dotted  above  with  dark  fus- 
cous. Fore  wings  whitish,  tinged,  with  pale  yellowish,  freely  dusted  with 
brown.  On  the  middle  of  inner  margin  is  a  large  dark  brown,  oval  patch, 
forming,  with  its  opposite  when  the  wings  are  closed,  a  conspicuous,  nearly 
round  dorsal  patch  ;  a  streak  of  the  same  hue,  from  the  costa  opposite  it,  run- 
ning to  the  inner  angle  of  the  wing  and  tapering  from  the  costa  where  it  is 
broadest.  At  the  tip  is  a  round,  dark  brown  apical  spot,  and  in  the  cilia  a 
dark  brown  hinder  marginal  line.  Hind  wings  pale  brownish  ochreous,  cilia 
the  same. 

The  larva  feeds  externally  on  the  leaf  of  apple,  at  least  at  the  time  it  was 
taken,  in  the  latter  part  of  September.  It  is  cylindrical  and  submoniiiform  ; 
tapers  anteriorly  and  posteriorly  ;  with  punctiform  points  and  isolated  hairs, 
first  segment  with  rather  abundant  dorsal  hairs  ;  thoracic  feet  three,  abdomi- 
nal four  and  very  short,  terminal  one  pair.  Head  small,  ellipsoidal,  brown ; 
body  dark  yellowish  green,  tinged  with  reddish  anteriorly  ;  hairs  blackish  and 
short. 

Early  in  October  the  larva  enters  the  pupa  state,  weaving  an  elongated, 
dirty  white,  ribbed  cocoon,  and  appears  as  in  imago  during  the  latter  part  of 
the  following  April  or  early  in  May. 

B.  agnella . — Head  and  face  sordid  white,  the  latter  touched  with  fuscous. 
Antennae  dark  fuscous.  Fore  wings  whitish,  washed  with  pale  luteous-brown, 
which  prevails  especially  towards  the  tip  and  along  the  fold.  About  the 
middle  of  inner  margin,  on  the  fold,  is  a  small  dark  fuscous  mark,  consisting 
of  a  few  scales.  The  costa  is  dark  fuscous  from  the  base,  and  about  the  middle 
of  the  wing  gives  off  a  short  oblique  streak  of  the  same  hue,  and  another 
near  the  apical  third,  which  is  fuscous  near  the  costa  and  pale  luteous-brown 
beyond  it,  and  margined  exteriorly  with  white,  especially  on  the  costa.  The 
long  scales  in  the  cilia  are  tipped  with  dark  brown.  Hind  wings  brownish, 
cilia  brownish  with  a  rufous  tinge. 

Taken  on  wing  about  the  middle  of  May. 

Machimia. 

Fore  wings  with  the  hind  margin  obliquely  pointed.  The  subcostal  nervure 
gives  off  a  marginal  branch  near  the  basal  third,  and  at  the  end  of  the  disk 
subdivides  into  four  nervnles,  of  which  the  apical  is  furcate  near  the  tip. 
The  median  is  four-branched,  the  medio-posterior  remote  from  the  penulti- 
mate. The  submedian  is  furcate  at  the  base.  In  the  disk  is  a  long,  faintly 
indicated  secondary  cell.  The  neuration  of  the  hind  wings  like  that  of  De- 
pressaria.  The  discal  nervure  is  oblique.  The  interior  basal  angle  rounded, 
and  the  margin  slightly  excised  behind  it. 

Head  and  forehead  between  the  antennae,  shaggy.  Face  rather  smooth, 
depressed  and  retreating.  No  ocelli.  Eyes  small,  oval  and  salient.  Labial 
palpi  rather  long,  remote  from  the  face,  slender,  curved  and  ascending  ;  second 
joint  roughened  ivith  scales;  the  third  smooth,  aciculate,  and  about  one-third 
less  long  than  the  second.  Maxillary  palpi  very  short.  Antennae  about  one- 
half  as  long  as  the  fore  wing,  simple  and  filiform  ;  basal  joint  short.  Tongue 
scaled,  about  as  long  as  the  anterior  coxae. 

I860.] 


212  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  ACADEMY  OP 

M.  tentoriferella . — Labial  palpi  pale  yellowish ;  basal  half  of  the 
second  joint  blackish  or  dark  fuscous.  Fore  wings  reddish  ochreous,  with 
dispersed  dark  fuscous  atoms.  The  extreme  base  of  the  costa  is  blackish, 
from  a  small  black  spot  on  its  edge  ;  with  three  blackish  brown  spots  arranged 
in  a  triangle  in  the  middle  of  the  wing,  one  about  the  middle  of  the  disk, 
another  on  its  end,  and  one  in  the  fold  beneath  them ;  cilia  rather  long  and 
russet  colored.  Hind  wings  rufo-fuscous,  along  the  discal  portion  of  costa, 
pale  ochreous. 

The  larva  tapers  posteriorly  from  the  head  ;  terminal  legs  short,  placed 
posteriorly,  projecting  beyond  the  shield  ;  abdominal  legs  short ;  with  papili- 
form  points  in  squares,  each  bearing  a  hair ;  body  cylindric  and  sub-monili- 
form.  The  head  is  large,  carried  horizontally  ;  somewhat  flattened  above,  but 
rounded ;  cervical  shield  doubtfully  indicated,  its  color  dark  green.  Body 
dark  green,  at  first  uniform,  but  after  the  last  moult,  a  double  yellowish - 
green  dorsal  line  is  added. 

It  may  be  found  during  the  latter  part  of  July,  on  the  leaves  of  wild  cherry, 
oaks  and  hickories.  On  the  underside  of  the  leaf  it  throws  a  closely  woven 
sheet  or  web  from  the  midrib  to  the  side  of  the  leaf,  and  draws  it  into  a  shallow 
fold.  This  sheet  or  tent  is  not  much  longer  than  the  larva  itself,  open  at  both 
ends,  transparent,  shining  and  vitreous.  Beneath  this  it  rests  during  the 
day,  and  in  the  night  leaves  it  to  feed  on  the  edges  of  the  leaf,  retreating  to 
its  cover  if  alarmed.  To  this  it  clings  most  tenaciously  if  disturbed,  thrust- 
ing its  head  from  beneath  it,  shaking  it  from  side  to  side,  or  if  disturbed  in 
front,  retreats,  without  leaving  it,  and  defends  itself  stoutly  with  its  mandi- 
bles. Its  length  is  about  half  an  inch.  When  it  leaves  a  leaf  to  form 
a  new  tent  on  another,  it  always  devours  the  silk  of  the  one  it  deserts. 

During  the  latter  part  of  August  or  first  of  September  it  enters  the  pupa 
state  and  forms  its  cocoon,  by  turning  down  a  portion  of  a  leaf,  carpeting  it 
with  silk  and  binding  its  edges  closely.  The  opening  left  at  the  ends,  corres- 
ponding to  the  tail  of  the  pupa,  is  closed  densely,  and  the  other  with  loose 
silken  threads.  The  pupa  case  is  very  dark  reddish  brown,  and  it  remains  in 
situ  when  the  imago  escapes.  The  antennae-cases  as  long  as  the  wing-cases  ; 
abdomen  rather  short  and  blunt;  cylindrico-conical.  The  imago  appears 
during  the  latter  part  of  September. 

Psilocorsis. 

The  neuration  of  the  wings  differs  in  scarcely  any  respect  from  the  foregoing 
genus,  except  that  the  medio-posterior  vein  is  not  remote  from  the  penultimate. 
The  posterior  veins  of  the  median  are  very  much  curved.  The  structure  of 
the  fore  wings  in  both  these  groups  is  much  like  that  in  the  Tortrices. 

Head  smooth.     Face  rounded.     Ocelli  none.     Eyes  large,  round  and  salient. 

Labial  palpi  long,  remote  from  the  face,  recurved,  rather  slender  ;  second 
joint  rather  flattened,  smooth,  with  appressed  scales  ;  third  smooth,  slender  and 
pointed,  nearly  as  long  as  the  second  joint.  Maxillary  palpi  short,  distinct. 
Antennae  about  one  half  as  long  as  the  fore  wings,  simple  and  filiform  ;  basal 
joint  rather  long  and  subclavate.  Tongue  one-half  as  long  as  thorax  beneath, 
scaled. 

P.  quercicella . — Head  and  thorax  dark  yellowish-brown.  Labial  palpi, 
second  joint  ochreous,  with  a  black  line  on  the  edge  beneath;  third  black, 
with  two  yellowish  white  stripes  in  front.  Antennae  ochreous,  with  a  black 
line  above,  terminating  in  black  spots  ;  basal  joint  with  two  black  stripes  in 
front.  Fore  wings  yellowish  brown,  varied  with  blackish  irregular  striae, 
chiefly  from  the  costa,  with  a  black  dot  on  the  end  of  the  disk.  The  posterior 
margin  is  tipped  with  blackish  ;  the  cilia  are  yellowish  brown,  containing  two 
dark  fuscous  hinder  marginal  lines.  Posterior  wings  pale  ochreous,  cilia  the 
same. 

The  larva  tapers  from  the  third  segment  anteriorly  and  posteriorly  :  flattened 

[June 


NATURAL  SCIENCES   OP  PHILADELPHIA.  213 

above  and  beneath,  submoniliform ;  no  dorsal  papilliform  points,  but  two 
rows  on  the  sides  ;  abdominal  and  terminal  feet  Very  short,  the  latter  placed 
posteriorly.  Head  small,  cordate,  horizontal.  The  body  is  yellowish  or  pale 
greenish,  the  head,  1st,  2d,  and  3d  segments  black. 

It  binds  the  leaves  of  oaks  together,  in  August  and  September,  and  picks 
out  the  parenchyma  between  the  network  of  veins.  In  the  latter  part  of  Sep- 
tember it  weaves  a  slight  cocoon  between  two  leaves,  (in  nature  it  is  probably 
made  elsewhere  than  between  the  leaves  of  its  food  plant),  and  becomes  a  ra- 
ther short,  thick  pupa,  with  the  antennae  cases  moniliform  and  longer  than 
the  wing-cases,  beyond  the  end  of  which  they  project  as  an  obtuse  spine.  It 
appears  as  an  imago  in  March  or  April. 

Labial  palpi  very  long  and  recurved,  the  tips  extending  bach  as  far  as  prothorax, 
but  remote  from  the  face  and  head. 

P.  re  flex  el  la. — Head  brownish,  tinged  with  ferruginous.  Labial  palpi 
dark  ochreous,  with  a  black  line  on  the  edge  of  second  joint  beneath,  and 
three  black  lines  on  the  third,  one  in  front  and  one  on  each  side.  Antennae 
dark  ochreous,  annulated  with  dark  fuscous  ;  basal  joint  with  two  black  stripes 
in  front.  Fore  wings  dull  ochreous,  profusely  dusted  with  reddish  fuscous  ; 
cilia  short  and  dark  colored.     Hind  wings  fuscous. 

This  species  very  closely  resembles,  physically,  M.  tentoriferella.  The 
labial  palpi  are  longer,  however,  more  recurved,  and  the  second  joint  perfectly 
smooth,  whilst  in  tentoriferella   it  is  roughened  with  scales. 

Both  these  genera  likewise  closely  approach  the  European  genus  Phibolocera, 
and  it  is  not  impossible  that  one  of  them  may  be  really  identical  with  it,  not- 
withstanding the  longer  antennae  and  shorter  third  joint  of  the  labial  palpi  in 
the  European  species. 

Menesta. 

Fore  wings  obtusely  pointed  above  the  middle,  elongate-ovate.  Disk  closed 
by  a  very  faint  nervure.  The  subcostal  subdivides  into  five  nervules,  the  first 
of  which  is  from  the  middle  of  the  disk,  the  fourth  being  the  apical,  and  the 
fifth  the  post  apical  from  the  middle  of  the  disk  behind.  The  median  is  three- 
branched,  the  medio-posterior  being  opposite  the  third  subcostal  vein.  The 
fold  is  thickened  at  its  end  and  runs  into  the  basal  third  of  the  median.  The 
submedian  curved,  and  shortly  furcate  at  the  base. 

Hind  wings  somewhat  trapezoidal,  slightly  emarginate  on  the  hind  margin 
beneath  the  tip.  The  discoidal  cell  unclosed.  The  costal  nervure  is  long 
and  extended  nearly  to  the  tip.  The  subcostal  somewhat  attenuated  at  its 
base,  distinct  from  the  costal,  and  furcate  at  the  apical  third  of  the  wing.  The 
median  three-branched,  the  superior  and  central  veins  on  a  common  stalk. 

Size  small.  Head  and  face  smooth,  minutely  scaled.  Forehead  and  face 
rounded  and  very  broad.  Ocelli  none.  Eyes  vertically  placed,  minute,  oval, 
salient.  Labial  palpi  smooth,  slender,  curved  and  ascending  equal  to  the 
vertex  ;  second  joint  slightly  thickened  towards  its  end  ;  third  very  slender, 
pointed,  and  not  more  than  one-half  as  long  as  the  second.  Maxillary  palpi 
very  short,  distinct.  Antennae  much  separated  at  their  base,  about  one-half 
as  long  as  the  fore  wings,  filiform  and  ciliated  beneath  microscopically,  with 
one  hair  to  each  article ;  basal  joint  very  short,  scarcely  thicker  than  the 
stalk.  Tongue  scaled  at  the  base,  slender,  and  about  as  long  as  the  anterior 
coxae. 

M.  tortriciformella . — Labial  palpi  fuscous,  towards  the  base  whitish. 
Head,  antennae,  and  face  dark  luteo-fuscous,  the  latter  whitish  beneath.  Fore 
wings  dark  brownish  with  a  purplish  hue,  with  a  small  lunate  white  spot  on 
the  end  of  the  disk.  Hind  wings  dark  fuscous,  cilia  the  same.  Feet  pale 
yellowish,  the  ends  of  middle  and  posterior  tibiae  touched  with  fuscous  ;  the 
middle  tarsi  fuscous  externally,  and  the  hind  tarsi  banded  with  fuscous  at 
the  base. 

I860.] 


214  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  ACADEMY  OF 

Nepticula  Zeller. 

N.  rubifoliella. — Head  dark  luteous.     Palpi  somewhat   paler  luteous- 

Antennse  luteous,  basal  joint  silvery  white.  Fore  wings  blackish-brown, 
with  a  rather  narrow,  curved  silvery  band  about  the  middle  of  the  wing.  The 
band  is  concave  toward  the  base  of  the  wing,  and  shows  a  tendency  to  be 
interrupted  in  the  middle.  Cilia  whitish.  Hind  wings  grayish,  cilia  the 
same. 

I  have  very  carefully  compared  this  insect  with  the  description  and  delinea- 
tion of  N.  anguli  fas  c  iella,  of  Stainton,  in  the  first  volume  of  the  Nat. 
Hist,  of  the  Tineina,  and  though  unwilling  to  believe  the  fact,  I  cannot  resist 
the  conclusion,  that  it  is  the  same  species.  I  have  not  named  the  species  in 
accordance  with  this  conviction,  because  as  yet  I  have  secured  but  a  single 
specimen. 

The  larva  mines  the  leaf  of  blackberry  in  September.  It  makes  a  blotch 
mine  on  the  upper  surface  of  the  leaf,  beginning  as  a  slender  gallery,  extend- 
ing quite  a  distance,  usually  along  a  vein  of  the  leaf,  before  being  enlarged 
into  a  blotch.  The  body  of  the  larva  tapers  posteriorly,  the  terminal  rings 
being  attenuated  ;  color  pale  green,  with  a  bright  dark  green  vascular  line  ; 
head  greenish-brown  and  small.  The  larva  was  not  taken  from  the  mine  for 
description.  It  leaves  the  mine  very  early  in  October  to  spin  an  oval,  very 
dark  reddish  brown  cocoon,  and  appears  as  an  imago  during  the  latter  part 
of  May  or  early  in  June.  There  is,  therefore,  in  all  probability,  a  summer 
brood,  which  may  be  found  in  July  and  August,  if  the  conjecture  is  correct. 

I  have  no  doubt  that  subsequent  observation  will  prove  this  insect  to  be  the 
same  as  angulifasciella,  and  I  am  no  little  astonished  to  find  so  mi- 
nute a  creature  common  to  the  continents  of  Europe  and  America.  During 
the  coming  season  I  will  endeavor  to  record  minutely  the  history  of  the  pre- 
paratory states  of  the  American  species. 

PHALENITES. 
Dokyodes  Guenee. 

I  would  notice  this  genus  here  merely  to  express  my  ideas  respecting  its 
classification.  M.  Guenee  says  of  it,  that  the  insects  belonging  to  it  have  so 
doubtful  an  aspect  that  he  is  uncertain  not  only  in  what  family,  but  in  what 
division  to  place  it.  He  notices  its  superficial  resemblance  to  Crambus,  or 
Chilo,  and  to  the  genera  Senta  and  Meliana  of  his  division  Noctuelites,  but 
says  that  from  the  form  of  antennae  and  labial  palpi,  the  absence  of  ocelli, 
(herein,  however,  M.  Guenee  is  in  error,  for  they  are  not  absent),  and  from 
some  other  characters,  not  designated,  it  cannot  be  mistaken  for  one  of  the 
Noctuelites.  While  acknowledging  the  very  notable  differences  between  this 
genus  and  those  with  which  it  is  associated,  he  does  not  inform  us  what  ruling 
considerations  induced  him  to  prefer  for  it  a  place  in  his  division  Phalenites, 
(Geometrina)  and  the  family  Ligidae. 

In  my  own  view,  this  genus  has  few  or  no  structural  characteristics  of  the 
Geometrina,  and  its  neuration  just  as  undoubtedly  places  it  in  Guenee's  group 
Noctuelites,  (Noctuina);  this,  too,  is  a  position  justified  by  its  general  struc- 
ture. If  the  subpectinated  antennae  of  the  tf,  and  the  comparatively  slender 
body,  are  considerations  sufficient  to  overrule  the  position  of  the  wings  in  re- 
pose, the  partial  folding  of  the  hinder  pair,  the  structure  of  the  legs,  the  pre- 
sence of  ocelli,  and  the  purely  noctuiform  neuration,  then  indeed  does  the 
lesser  amount  of  evidence  overbalance  the  greater.  Had  M.  Guenee  not  over- 
looked the  presence  of  ocelli,  his  decision  might  have  been  different,  for  these 
organs  are  always  absent  in  the  Phalenites,  and  the  possession  of  geometriform 
antennse  is  not  enough  to  neutralize  their  presence  or  to  determine  the  place 
of  the  genus. 

In  the  hope  that  some  of  the  entomological  students  of  New  England,  where 
one  of  the  species  of  this  genus  certainly  is  found,  may  be  able  to  make  out 

[June, 


NATURAL   SCIENCES  OF  PHILADELPHIA.  215 

its  larval  history,  I  will  describe  the  species  in  my  collection,  and  extract  M. 
Guenee's  description  of  the  other.  The  first  species  may  be  easily  recognised 
by  means  of  Guenee's  very  good  figure,  and  as  a  generic  diagnosis  would  not 
facilitate  recognition,  particularly  without  the  means  of  reducing  it  from  a 
general  to  a  special  group,  I  will  omit  any  generic  description. 

D.  acutaria. — Herr.  Sch.  Sup.,  p.  74,  f.  447.  Guene'e  Uranides  and 
Phalinites,  Suites  a  Buffon,  x.  233,  pi.  17,  f.  6. 

The  appearance  of  the  imago  is  somewhat  crambiform.  The  fore  wings  pale 
ochreous,  tinted  with  dark  luteous  (with  clear  grayish  violet,  Gn.)  along  sub- 
costal nervure  and  its  marginal  branches,  and  with  a  rather  broad  blackish 
streak  beneath  the  median  nervure,  extended  from  the  base  and  curving  be- 
hind upwards  toward  the  tip,  bordered  on  the  costal  side  by  a  silvery  line, 
and  one  of  the  same  hue  behind,  along  the  curved  portion.  In  the  disk  are 
two  blackish  dots,  one  on  the  discal  nervure  and  the  other  about  the  middle 
of  the  disk.  Hind  wings  ochreous  white.  Guenee's  sp.  from  Ga.;  mine  from 
Mass.     Col.  of  Dr.  Chas.  Girard. 

D.  s  pad  aria. — Gn.  x.  p.  234.  :' Very  near  the  preceding,  but  larger, 
with  the  wings  more  oblong.  The  superior  wings  are  more  acute,  and  the 
terminal  border  perfectly  straight.  Their  color  is  darker,  grayer,  with  the 
designs  finer  and  less  distinct.  The  inferior  are  more  developed  and  more 
oblong  ;  they  have  the  internal  angle  and  part  of  the  side  tinted  with  blackish 
gray.  The  abdomen  is  perceptibly  longer,  and  the  antennae  also  proportiona- 
lly longer  and  slenderer." 

In  his  generic  diagnosis,  M.  Guenee  says  of  the  abdomen,  "  ddpassant  beau- 
coup  les  ailes  infer ieures, ' '  whereas  in  my  specimens  of  a  c  u  t  a  r  i  a ,  the  abdomen 
exactly  equals  the  length  of  the  hind  wings,  when  the  wings  are  folded.  He 
refers,  doubtless,  to  the  expanded  wings. 

PYRALID2E. 
Desmia  Westwood. 

This  is  one  of  the  few  genera  in  M.  Guenee's  family  Asopidae,  of  his  division 
Pyralites,  the  males  in  which  are  characterized  by  nodosities  or  curvatures  of 
the  antennae.  As  Guenee,  at  the  time  of  writing  his  volume  on  Deltoides  and 
Pyralites,  had  not  seen  the  males  of  this  genus,  and  his  description,  in  the 
general  remarks  on  the  genus,  does  not  accurately  represent  their  structure, 
I  will  describe  these  organs  in  the  male,  of  which  I  have  several  specimens. 
In  noticing  the  singular  conformation  of  the  male  antenna?,  he  says:  "  sont 
d'abord  renflees  en  niassue,  puis  etranglees  et  munies  d'un  gros  article  ovo'ide, 
puis  enfin  greles  et  ciliees  jusqu'  an  sommet." 

About  the  middle  of  the  antennal  stalk,  is  placed  a  transverse,  nearly  ver- 
tical plate,  which  on  the  external  side  has  a  triangular  elevation,  and  adjoin- 
ing this,  toward  the  base,  is  a  narrow  tuft  of  obliquely  placed  scales,  running 
along  the  upper  surface  of  the  stalk.  Toward  the  apex  of  the  organ,  immedi- 
ately following  this  protuberance,  one-half  of  the  stalk  is  excised  from  above 
and  slightly  tufted  internally.  There  is  no  thickening  of  the  stalk  except  at 
the  protuberance,  and  beneath  it  is  microscopically  pubescent  from  the  base 
to  the  tip. 

D.  maculalis. — West.  Mag.  Zool.,  1831,  pi.  2,  Guenee,  vol.  viii.  189. 
Blackish  brown.  Labial  palpi  blackish  brown,  while  beneath.  Fore  wings 
with  an  irregularly  oval  white  spot  placed  partly  on  the  middle  of  the  disk, 
the  median  nervure  and  the  fold  ;  another  of  the  same  hue  and  nearly  round, 
en  the  base  of  the  nervules  behind  the  disk.  Hind  wings  with  a  single,  discal 
white  spot.  Abdomen  with  a  white  band  at  the  base,  a  dorsal  spot  on  the 
middle,  and  a  short  white  dorsal  streak  at  the  tip. 

Mass.  and  111.     Col.  of  Messrs.  Scudder  and  Kennicott. 

I860.] 


216  PROCEEDINGS   OF   THE   ACADEMY   OF 

Eustales. 

Fore  wings  with  two  subcosto-marginal  nervules,  given  off  very  near  the 
posterior-superior  angle  of  the  disk,  the  stalk  of  the  second  almost  in  contact 
with  that  of  the  apical  branch  near  their  origins.  The  apical  and  post-apical 
arise  together  at  the  angle  of  the  disk,  the  former  being  furcate  near  the  tip, 
sending  a  nervulet  to  near  the  costa.  The  disco-central  is  given  off  from  the 
middle  of  the  discal.  Median  four-branched,  the  medio-superior  on  an  ex- 
tremely short,  vertical  peduncle  ;  the  posterior  arising  at  a  point  somewhat 
behind  the  costal  origin  of  the  first  marginal  branch. 

In  the  hind  wings  the  costal  nervure  is  furcate  at  the  tip  of  the  wing  ;  the 
oblique  intercostal  branch  is  long  and  exterior  to  the  cell,  and  the  subcostal 
simple  and  attenuated  at  the  base.  The  median  four-branched,  the  superior 
which  continues  the  curved  discal  nervure,  almost  in  actual  contact  with  the 
following  branch.  The  hind  wings  are  broader  than  the  fore  wings,  and  about 
one-fourth  less  long. 

Head  with  ocelli,  rather  remote  from  the  eyes  ;  face  rounded,  smooth,  and 
rather  narrow.  Eyes  large,  round  and  prominent.  Labial  palpi  rather  thick, 
curved  and  ascending  to  about  the  middle  of  the  face  ;  second  joint  thickened 
beneath  with  scales  ;  the  third  rather  smooth,  elongate  ovoid,  and  about  one- 
half  as  long  as  the  second.  Maxillary  palpi  rather  long,  curved  and  ascend- 
ing, their  tips  nearly  equal  to  those  of  the  labial  palpi,  roughened  with  scales, 
distinctly  three-jointed.  Antennae  about  as  long  as  the  body,  with  triangular 
patches  of  shining  scales  along  the  stalk  above  ;  inserted  above  the  middle  of 
the  eyes,  with  bases  contiguous  and  microscopically  pubescent  beneath. 
Tongue  scaled  at  base  and  when  unrolled,  does  not  extend  beyond  the  tips 
of  the  labial  palpi.  No  abdominal  apron  (tablier)  perceptible.  The  posterior 
coxae  rather  short ;  the  length  of  the  tibiae  and  tarsus,  of  the  hind  pair  of  legs, 
equal  to  that  of  the  entire  body. 

E.  Tedyuscongalis . — Fore'wings  ochreous  yellow,  paler  along  the 
costa,  dusted  somewhat  with  reddish  fuscous,  with  a  moderately  broad  white 
band  from  the  costa  near  the  tip,  curving  toward  the  base  of  the  wing  in  the 
submedian  interspace,  where  it  becomes  rather  broader,  to  the  middle  of  the 
inner  margin.  Behind  this,  near  and  parallel  to  the  hind  border,  is  a  narrow 
white  band,  not  extended  to  the  costa  nor  inner  margin,  and  bordered  exte- 
riorly with  a  blackish-brown  line.  The  exterior  border  of  the  wing  is  paler 
yellow  than  the  general  hue.  Hind  wings  white,  with  an  oblique  fuscous 
band  above  the  middle,  tapering  to  the  external  margin  ;  a  broad  one  of  the 
same  hue  near  the  hinder  margin,  having  a  pale  ochreous-yellow  spot  at  each 
end,  and  margined  behind  with  a  white  streak  having  an  external  delicate  black 
line.  The  terminal  margin  pale  ochreous-yellow,  with  four  black  points  hav- 
ing ochreous-yellow  pupils,  arranged  along  the  margin  from  the  middle  of 
the  wing  toward  the  exterior  angle. 

Lake  Teedyuscong,  Pike  county,  Penna.,  in  the  latter  part  of  June  or  early 
ia  July. 

The  ornamentation  of  this  insect  resembles  in  a  remarkable  degree  that  of 
Oligostigma  j  uncealis  Gu. ;  it  cannot,  however,  be  a  member  of  the  same 
genus. 

Hydrocampa?  Latreille. 

Guenee,  vol.  viii.  273. 

Fore  wings  with  one  subcosto-marginal  from  near  the  superior  angle  of  the 
disk  ;  the  apical  branch,  at  its  basal  third,  gives  off  a  branch  to  the  costa,  and 
somewhat  behind  its  apical  third  becomes  furcate ;  the  post-apical  arises  at 
the  angle,  and  the  discal  nervule  on  the  costal  side  of  the  cell.  Median  four- 
branched  ;  the  superior  on  a  very  noticeable  peduncle  ;  the  posterior  remote 
from  the  penultimate,  which  together  with  the  other  branches  are  aggregated 
at  their  bases. 

[June, 


NATURAL   SCIENCES   OF   PHILADELPHIA.  217 

In  the  hind  wings  the  costal  nervure  has  a  rather  long  fork.  The  intercos- 
tal branch  exterior  to  the  cell  and  extremely  short,  and  from  this  point  poste- 
riorly the  stalks  of  the  two  nervures  are  almost  in  contact.  The  median  ner- 
vure four-branched,  the  superior  on  a  moderate  peduncle. 

The  structural  differences  between  this  and  the  foregoing  genus  are :  the 
labial  palpi  slenderer ;  third  joint  very  short,  about  one-third  as  long  as  the 
second,  which  is  squamous  beneath.  Maxillary  palpi  slender,  smooth,  por- 
rected  ;  with  tips  equal  to  the  end  of  the  second  joint.  Tongue  scaled  at  the 
base,  at  least  one-half  as  long  as  the  body.  The  length  of  the  middle  tibiae  and 
tarsus  equal  to  that  of  the  body ;  the  hind  tibiae  and  tarsus  exceeding  the 
length  of  the  body. 

H.  ?  formosalis  . — Fore  wings  pale  yellow,  with  three  white  patches  on 
the  disk,  the  two  nearest  the  base  small  and  slightly  margined  with  fuscous, 
the  one  on  the  end  of  the  disk  margined  internally  by  an  oblique  fuscous  line  ; 
a  white  patch  on  the  nervules  behind  the  disk,  margined  externally  by  a  fus- 
cous line  convex  toward  the  base  of  the  wing  and  hooked  at  each  end,  with  a 
white  patch  at  the  tip  and  one  beneath  it  at  the  inner  angle,  both  margined 
externally  by  a  submarginal  curved  fuscous  line.  In  the  middle  of  the  sub- 
median  interspace  is  a  nearly  oval  white  patch  encircled  with  fuscous.  Hind 
wings  white,  pale  yellowish  beyond  the  middle,  with  a  fuscous  line  near  the 
base  from  the  inner  margin,  not  extended  to  the  costa  ;  a  wavy  double  line  of 
the  same  hue  rather  external  to  the  middle,  and  a  white  spot  near  the  tip  and 
one  about  the  middle  of  the  hinder  margin,  both  margined  externally  with  a 
fuscous  line.     On  the  disk  is  a  pale  yellowish  spot. 

Lake  Teedyuscong.     Imago,  July. 

Cataclysta  Herrich-Schaffer. 

Fore  wings  with  the  first  subcosto-marginal  vein  and  medio-posterior  oppo- 
site at  their  origins.  The  apical  vein  runs  into  the  costa  before  the  tip,  and 
gives  rise  to  a  marginal  branch  at  its  basal  and  apical  third.  The  post-api- 
cal runs  into  the  produced  tip  of  the  wing  and  gives  origin  to  the  discal  ner- 
vure. Hind  wings,  the  costal  is  shortly  forked  near  the  tip.  The  subcostal 
arises  from  the  costal  within  the  disk  and  is  not  produced  toward  the  base. 
The  median  is  three-branched.  Head  without  ocelli.  Antenna?  of  the  rj1  densely 
pubescent.     Tongue  as  long  as  the  thorax  beneath. 

The  structure  of  the  posterior  wings  in  the  species  described  below  forms 
very  nearly  a  parallel  case  to  C.  d  i  1  u  c  i  d  a  1  i  s  described  by  M.  Gueme.  The 
costal  nervure  ofdilucidalis  is  not,  however,  represented  bifid,  and  the 
branch  which  corresponds  to  the  costal  nervure  does  not  arise  within  the  cell 
and  give  origin  to  the  discal,  but  exterior  to  the  disk  and  the  discal  nervure 
arises  behind  it  from  the  costal.  They  both  concur  in  the  absence  of  the  dis- 
cal, or  independent  nervule,  and  in  the  median  being  three-branched.  May 
not  dilucidalisbean  American  species  ?  I  cannot  determine  the  question, 
as  M.  Guenee's  description  is  imperfect,  from  the  fact  that  it  was  drawn  from 
badly  preserved  specimens. 

C.  fulicalis  . — Fore  wings  white,  fuscous  at  the  costal  portion  of  the  base, 
with  a  broad  band  near  the  base  and  a  narrow  wavy  fuscous  line  crossing  the 
middle  of  the  disk,  sending  from  the  median  nervure  a  curved  line  to  the  in- 
ner margin,  convex  exteriorly.  The  space  between  these  lines  is  frequently 
dusted  with  fuscous.  From  an  elongated  fuscous  patch  limited  below  by  the 
subcostal  nervure,  on  the  middle  of  the  costa,  departs  an  oblique  ochreous 
band,  inclined  to  the  inner  angle  and  margined  along  the  discal  nervure  on 
both  sides,  with  fuscous  ;  and  from  the  posterior  end  of  the  costal  patch,  a 
curved  line  joins  the  external  dark  margin  of  the  band  enclosing  an  oval  spot 
of  the  general  hue.  A  subterminal  band  tapers  to  the  inner  angle,  leaving  on 
each  side  of  it  two  converging  tapering  bands  of  the  general  hue.  Hinder 
margin  ochreous,  margined  internally  with  fuscous.  Hind  wings  white,  with 
I860.]  14 


218  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  ACADEMY  OF 

a  broad  fuscous  band  near  the  base,  corresponding  to  that  on  the  anterior,  and 
touched  with  ochreons  in  its  middle  ;  with  a  median  yellowish  brown  curved 
line,  not  reaching  the  costa,  and  exterior  to  this,  the  apical  half  of  the  wing 
is  dusted  slightly  with  dark  brownish.  Along  the  terminal  margin,  is  a  row 
of  five  black  lunules,  connected  by  intermediate  metallic  violet-blue  spots,  and  on 
the  extreme  margin  behind  these  latter  spots,  arow  of  orange  yellow  dots ;  while 
the  band  is  tinted  interiorly  with  the  same  hue,  limited  by  an  interrupted 
slender  dark  brown  line  near  the  band. 

Pennsylvania,  Easton. 

In  ornamentation  the  following  species  is  very  like  the  foregoing.  It  differs 
from  it  structurally  in  the  following  respects  :  Fore  wings  with  the  first  sub- 
oosto-marginal  and  medio-posterior  opposite  at  their  origins  ;  the  second  mar- 
ginal arises  at  the  angle  of  the  disk  ;  the  apical  vein  forked  at  about  its  middle, 
the  lower  branch  entering  the  costa  before  the  tip.  In  the  hind  Mings  the 
costal  has  a  long  fork  ;  the  intercostal  joins  the  subcostal  at  the  point  of 
departure  of  the  discal  and  seems  to  be  a  continuation  of  it,  and  the  subcostal 
is  continued  to  the  base  of  the  wing.  Head  with  ocelli.  Tongue  as  long  a^ 
the  thorax  beneath.     The  first  joint  of  labial  palpi  thickened  with  scales. 

C.  ?  helopalis  . — Fore  wings  white,  dusted  with  pale  fuscous  toward  the 
base,  and  on  the  fold  behind  ;  with  a  narrow  fuscous  band  crossing  the  base  of 
the  disk.  Near  the  end  of  the  disk  is  a  yellowish  brown  line,  crossing  the 
wing,  deeply  and  acutely  angulated  on  the  fold  ;  and  near  the  tip  are  two  nar- 
row oblique  streaks  of  the  same  hue  converging  to  the  inner  margin  above  the 
angle,  the  first  of  which  is  recurved  toward  the  disk,  encircling  an  obliquely 
placed  oval  spot  of  the  general  hue  on  the  nervules  behind  the  disk.  Alone 
the  hinder  margin,  near  the  inner  angle,  are  a  few  indistinct,  iridescent  spots  ; 
the  margin  and  cilia  yellowish  brown.  Hind  wings  white,  with  a  short  nar- 
row fuscous  band  near  the  base,  corresponding  to  that  on  the  fore  Mings  ;  a 
median  line  of  the  same  hue,  not  attaining  the  exterior  margin  and  the  apical 
portion  of  the  wing  exterior  to  it  sprinkled  thickly  with  fuscous.  Hinder 
margin  with  a  row  of  black  spots,  having  violet- blue  metallic  pupils  and  tint- 
ed with  pale  orange  between  the  spots. 

Lake  Teedyuscong. 

Sikonia. 

In  the  fore  wings  two  distinct  subcosto-marginal  nervules  leave  the  disk, 
the  first  and  the  medio-posterior  opposite  ;  the  second  marginal  arising  at  a 
point  nearly  intermediate  between  the  two  hinder  branches  of  the  median  ; 
the  apical  vein  is  forked  a  little  beyond  its  middle  ;  the  post  apical  and  disco- 
central  arise  near  each  other  on  the  costal  side  of  the  wing.  The  median  is 
four-branched.  In  the  hind  wings  the  intercostal  is  short,  remote  from  and 
exterior  to  the  upper  angle  of  the  disk.  There  is  nothing  characteristic  in  the 
shape  of  the  wings  ;  the  posterior  are  broader  than  the  anterior. 

Head  with  ocelli.  Antennae  pubescent  beneath.  Labial  palpi,  when  un- 
denuded,  moderately  thick  and  squamose  beneath,  ascending  to  the  middle  of 
the  front ;  third  joint  short  and  rather  smooth  ;  denuded;  tapering  to  the  tip 
from  the  base,  slender  and  cylindrical  ;  the  basal  joint  long,  equal  to  the  front : 
the  second  and  third  short  and  equal  in  length.  Maxillary  palpi  two-jointed, 
with  tips  nearly  equal  to  those  of  the  labial,  ascending  and  somewhat 
tufted  at  the  end.  Tongue  scaled  at  base,  exceeding  the  labial  palpi  by  one 
half  its  length.  No  abdominal  apron  peceptib!e ;  the  length  of  the  posterior 
tarsus  and  the  tibia  equal  to  that  of  the  body. 

S.  maculalis. — Fore  wings  white,  dusted  with  fuscous  along  the  base 
of  submedian  nervure  ;  with  a  fuscous  spot  at  the  base  of  the  fold  and  one  of 
the  same  hue  in  the  middle  of  submedian  interspace,  and  a  broad,  irregular 
band  adjoining  the  disk  behind,  extended  from  the  costa  to  the  inner  angle, 
with  the  exterior  half  nearly  square,  and  the  interior  somewhat  paler,  curved 

[June, 


NATURAL   SCIENCES   OF   PHILADELPHIA.  219 

and  tapering.  The  apex  of  the  wing  is  touched  with  fuscous,  and  the  ends  of 
the  nervules  slightly  dotted  with  the  same  hue.  Hind  wings  concolorous, 
pure  white. 

Lake  Teedyuscong.     July. 

Before  concluding  this  paper,  I  desire  to  record  my  views  respecting  the 
unnecessary  amount  of  labor,  loss  of  time  and  uninviting  study,  which  the 
details  of  M.  Guenee's  mode  of  systemization  imposes  on  the  American  stu- 
dent. MM.  Boisduval  and  Guenee,  in  the  important  and  comprehensive  works 
which  engage  their  labors  at  the  present  time,  are  not  writing  treatises  on 
local  faunae,  but  on  that  of  the  entire  world,  in  so  far  at  least  as  lepidopterous 
insects  are  known  ;  and  students  everywhere  have  a  right  to  expect  that 
the  difficulties  of  classification  will  be  diminished,  rather  than  complicated, 
by  their  treatment  of  the  various  groups  which  may  be  included  in  their 
works.  The  author  who  would  be  cosmopolitan  in  his  representation  of  this 
subject,  at  the  present  day,  cannot  neglect,  in  justice  to  those  who  may  fol- 
low his  footsteps  through  nature,  to  endeavor  to  lighten  their  burden  of  study 
and  to  economize  their  time,  by  leading  them  with  all  the  lights  of  his  know- 
ledge, through  the  complicated  mazes  of  doubt,  engendered  by  the  numerous 
and  perplexing  affinities  existing  in  beings  of  the  animated  world.  The  chief 
object  of  classification  is  simply  to  communicate  our  own  systematic  concep- 
tions to  others,  and  to  mark  the  graduations  in  the  arrangement  in  such  a 
manner,  as  will  enable  them  easily  and  quickly  to  recognize  its  groups.  How 
has  M.  Guenee  facilitated  the  recognition  of  genera,  whilst  he  has  greatly  in- 
creased the  number  of  them,  or  lightened  in  any  respect  the  systematic  labor 
of  the  foreign  student  ?  Is  it  enough  that  he  should  content  himself  with 
carefully  written  diagnoses,  and  compel  the  student  to  examine  critically 
and  minutely  every  one  in  any  of  his  family  groups,  before  being  able  to 
decide  whether  the  insect  he  may  wish  to  classify  belongs  to  any  of  them,  or 
is  not  edited  ?  A  system  which  both  reason  and  convenience  approves,  is 
that  which  enables  the  student  easily  to  find  what  he  seeks,  and  not  that 
which  compels  him  to  master  the  genera  peculiar  to  every  other  portion  of 
the  globe,  in  order  to  assure  himself  whether  a  group  has  been  established 
into  which  his  specimens  can  be  admitted. 

The  omission  of  synopses  of  genera,  when  the  number  of  them  in  his  family 
groups  calls  for  such  tables,  as  it  does  so  frequently,  is  a  most  serious,  not  to 
say  unpardonable,  defect  in  the  six  volumes  published  by  M.  Guenpe.  There 
is  no  student  of  American  lepidopterology,  compelled  to  study  his  works,  who 
will  not  regret  that  he  has  so  extensively  described  our  fauna ;  and  the  fact 
that  so  much  time  and  patience  and  labor  are  necessary  to  determine  whether 
a  generic  description  is  given  by  the  author,  of  one  of  our  moths,  of  which 
everything  is  unknown,  perhaps,  except  the  division  to  which  it  belongs  in  his 
system,  is  an  actual  and  real  impediment  to  the  development  of  the  study  in 
our  country.  In  the  examination  and  comparison  of  lepidopterous  insects, 
M.  Guenee  recognizes  beyond  doubt,  each  genus  under  a  family  by  some  dis- 
tinctive structural  trait,  and  why  cannot  all  these  be  presented  to  the  student 
in  synopses,  as  well  as  they  are  apparent  to  his  own  perceptive  faculties  ? 
Without  these  conveniences  of  comparative  study,  the  student  is  compelled 
to  do  the  work  of  the  author  anew,  and,  at  an  immense  disadvantage  and  loss 
of  time,  to  search  for  what  is  distinctive,  in  by  no  means  sharply,  though  dif- 
fusely characterized  groups,  which  include  very  frequently  ornamentation 
as  one  of  their  chief  characteristics.  In  the  cabinet  of  specimens,  all  this  is 
almost  apparent  at  a  glance,  and  it  is  the  result  of  this  educated  sense  that 
seizes  quickly  what  is  distinctive  in  a  variety  of  forms,  that  the  student  has  a 
right  to  look  for  in  synopses. 

M.  Guenee  expressly  declares  in  one  of  his  early  works  in  the  "Suites  a 
Buffon,"  that  in  giving  the  meagre  synopses  of  tribes  and  families,  contained  in 
the  series,  he  is  merely  following  the  custom  of  M.  Boisduval,  and  that  lie 

I860.] 


220  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  ACADEMY  OP 

does  not  consider  them  of  any  value  in  a  natural  system.  It  seems  strange 
that  any  one,  especially  M.  Guenee,  could  entertain  such  an  opinion,  when  a 
slight  amount  of  study  is  sufficient  to  convince  any  naturalist,  that  there  is 
no  severer  test  to  be  applied  to  a  system  than  the  construction  of  synopses 
containing  exclusive  categories  founded  on  structure.  Groups  agreeing  most 
closely  are  brought  into  direct  contrast,  and  if  the  most  trivial  and  unimpor- 
tant structural  peculiarities,  except  in  the  case  of  genera,  are  called  into 
"requisition  to  distinguish  them,  whatever  may  be  their  comprehensiveness,  is 
not  the  fact  very  strongly  suggestive  of  want  of  naturalness,  nay,  of  purely 
artificial,  arbitrary  distinctions,  produced  by  the  desire  to  create  differences 
where  there  are  none  actually  in  nature  ?  But  even  admitting  they  are 
formed  on  a  purely  artificial  basis,  and  that  all  synopses  are  essentially  artifi- 
cial, need  the  fact  in  the  character  of  a  simple  index  to  systematic  concep- 
tions, in  any  manner  affect  the  most  natural  arrangement  of  the  group  in  the 
text  ?  And  could  there  be  any  better  system  than  that  which  unites  the 
convenience  of  the  one  to  the  truthfulness  of  the  other  ? 

One  of  the  chief  objects  in  systematic  and  descriptive  works  certainly  ought 
to  be,  a  ready  and  certain  recognition  of  groups  and  individuals  ;  and  to  facili- 
tate this,  no  care  or  labor  bestowed  on  synopses  intended  to  promote  this 
object  and  prevent  loss  of  time  to  the  inquirer,  can  be  regarded  as  superfluous 
or  as  a  tax  on  authorship.  The  world  is  thus  the  gainer  in  economy  of  time, 
and  science  is  more  rapidly  advanced.  And  surely,  when  one  reflects  how  few 
there  are  who  devote  themselves  to  scientific  study,  the  additional  labor  thus 
expended  by  the  author  carries  into  the  future  the  most  fruitful  results.  It 
is  the  neglect  of  the  synoptical  system  that  has  converted,  even  at  the  present 
day,  the  great  majority  of  entomologists  everywhere  into  a  class  of  mere  col- 
lectors and  picture-recognizers,  and  which  calls  for  a  profuseness  of  illustra- 
tion to  be  met  with  in  no  other  department  of  Natural  History.  And  on  the 
other  hand,  its  tendency  is  to  institute,  if  indeed  it  has  not  already  done  so, 
an  Egyptian  priesthood  over  nature,  in  that  body  of  European  "  authorities" 
skilled  in  the  interpretation  of  its  hieroglyphics,  and  who  furnish  students 
with  a  complicated,  skeleton  method,  all  of  whose  details  they  must  painfully 
acquire,  before  they  can  in  the  humblest  degree,  aspire  to  question  systematic 
nature  for  themselves.  How  laborious,  time  consuming  and  discouraging 
this  is  to  the  American  student,  who  has  "no  authority"  to  consult,  save  the 
ambiguous  phrases  of  diagnoses,  no  classified  collections  to  study,  and  by 
the  comparison  of  forms  to  educate  his  perceptive  powers  in  generic  and  family 
differences,  cannot  be  appreciated  by  those  who  have  all  these  aids,  and  who 
are  the  heirs  to  almost  hereditary  entomological  lore  and  collections,  handed 
down  from  one  generation  to  another. 

The  times,  however,  demand  of  MM.  Guenee  and  Boisduval  a  system  of  con- 
venient study.  The  former,  it  is  true,  attempts  to  meet  this  demand  by 
separating  the  portion  of  the  order  of  which  he  treats,  first,  into  divisions,  and 
these  into  tribes,  and  these  again  into  families  ;  but  scattered  as  they  are 
through  the  body  of  the  work,  or  through  several  volumes,  this  complication 
of  arrangement  is  far  from  fulfilling  the  needs  of  the  student.  It  is  not 
natural,  and  is  therefore  perplexing,  and  has  caused  the  author  to  mistake 
well  marked  groups  within  families,  for  families  themselves,  or  even  higher 
divisions.  When  the  individual  structure  of  two  beings  placed  in  different, 
sometimes  widely  separated  families,  approach  so  intimately  that  they  can  be 
distinguished  only  by  resort  to  trivial  characters,  what  more  conclusive  proof 
of  artificiality,  and  mere  brain  and  paper-created  distinctions,  can  the  natu- 
ralist desire  ? 

The  elaborate  description  of  groups  is  a  highly  commendable  trait  in  a  sys- 
tematic work.  They  should  be,  however,  merely  a  confirmation  of  the  results 
attainable  by  the  study  of  synopses  of  characters,  all  the  categories  of  which 
are  rigidly  exclusive  and  markedly  characteristic  ot  the  groups  they  desig- 

[June, 


NATURAL    SCIENCES    OP   PHILADELPHIA.  221 

nate.  By  this  means,  the  question  of  groups  having  heen  reduced  to  a  few 
which  are  most  closely  coincident,  doubts  which  cannot  be  dispelled  by  the 
best  synopses,  are  either  confirmed  or  dissipated  at  once.  This  subject  I 
think  eminently  worthy  M.  Ghienee's  consideration,  and  that  of  all  systema- 
tists  who  may  succeed  him.  I  would  beg  him  to  think  upon  it  in  connection 
with  his  subsequent  works,  and  at  least  tell  students  why  he  values  less  a 
solid  and  self-satisfying  reputation,  built  on  essential  and  successful  impetus 
given  to  his  favorite  branch  of  study  in  all  parts  of  the  civilized  world,  than  that 
ephemeral  position  of  being  the  temporary  authority  for  the  little  entomologi- 
cal world  ;  and  if  in  addition  to  synopses  of  all  bis  groups,  under  the  next 
most  general  in  value,  he  would  add  to  his  works  delineations  of  the  dis- 
tinctive parts  of  structure  in  every  genus,  instead  of  colored  representations  of 
a  few  moths,  his  works  would  possess  an  enduring  and  permanent  value,  so 
long  as  entomology  as  a  study  engages  the  attention  of  the  student  of  nature. 


Homiptera  of  the  North  Pacific  Exploring  Expedition  under  Com'rs  Kodgers 

and  Ringgold. 

BY   P,   R.  UHLER. 

The  Hemipterous  insects,  brought  home  by  the  Expedition,  furnish  several 
new  and  remarkable  species,  and  much  praise  is  due  the  indefatigable  botanist 
of  this  Expedition,  Mr.  Charles  Wright,  for  displaying  such  zeal  in  bringing 
together  so  many  interesting  objects.  The  insect  fauna  of  many  of  the  countries 
touched  at,  particularly  that  of  Japan,  being  almost  entirely  unknown,  renders 
every  addition  of  species  from  those  localities  exceedingly  desirable,  and  it 
would  be  matter  of  deep  interest  to  have  an  opportunity  of  examining  full 
series  of  them. 

Considering  the  importance  of  the  species  procured,  it  is  much  to  be  regretted 
that  extensive  facilities  were  not  afforded  for  bringing  together  a  general  col- 
lection ;  but,  under  the  existence  of  contingent  circumstances,  this  was  not 
possible. 

The  absence  of  any  extensive  collection  of  exotic  Hemiplera  in  this  country 
renders  it  impossible  to  decide  with  precision  upon  a  few  of  the  species  here 
included  ;  but  should  they  hereafter  be  found  to  have  been  previously  charac- 
terized, the  proper  acknowledgments  will  be  made.  As  there  seems  to  be  no 
settled  opinion  in  the  minds  of  Entomologists  respecting  certain  groups,  par- 
ticularly with  such  families  as  Halydce,  Pentatomidce,  Rliaphigastridce,  &c,  and 
still  further  on,  with  Mictidce,  Nematopidce,  Acanthocoridce,  &c,  and  having  met 
with  a  genus  (Pachycephalus)  which  violates  the  characters  of  the  families 
given,  I  thought  it  better  to  place  the  included  species  in  two  large  groups 
(Pentatomoidea,  Coreoidea),  corresponding  with  the  genera  Pentatoma  and  Coreus, 
of  Fabricius.  « 

SCUTELLERID-iE. 

Callidea,  Burm. 

C.  Stollii,   Wolff,  Icones  Cimicum,  48,  tab.  5,  fig  45.     Hong  Kong. 

Eccorysses,  Amyot  et  Serv. 

E.  superbus  9- — Deep  orange ;  head  bluish-black,  lateral  lobes  and  the 
middle  one  at  tip  sanguineous,  transversely  wrinkled,  rostrum  and  antenno 
black,  pubescent,  eyes  and  ocelli  brownish  ;  thorax  deep  orange,  obsoletely 
punctured,  a  lunulate,  black  depression  just  behind  the  head  densely,  coarsely 
punctured,  exterior  and  anterior  edges  black,  spot  upon  the  disk,  one  upon 
each  humerus,  and  a  connecting  band  upon  the  basal  margin  also  black  ;  be- 
hind each  anterior  angle  is  an  oblong,  rounded,  shallow  impression,  blackish  ; 
corium  black,  punctured  ;  wings  dark-fuliginous  ;  scutellum  finely  punctured, 
with  a  band  at  base,  an  irregular  one  dilated  and  projecting  medially  forward. 
I860.] 


222  PROCEEDINGS    OP   THE    ACADEMY    OF 

upon  the  middle,  one  interrupted  each  side,  with  an  anterior  acute  point  be- 
hind the  middle  and  a  transverse,  roundish  spot  before  the  apex  black  ;  venter 
violaceous,  the  middle  with  a  large  sanguineous  spot,  common  to  the  antepe- 
nultimate a  d  preceding  segments;  caudal  segment,  except  the  anus,  red,  seg- 
ments 1  to  4  with  a  transverse,  lateral  carmine  spot,  the  two  posterior  of  which 
are  obsoletely  connected  with  the  discal  spot,  penultimate  one  at  sides  broadly 
carmine  through  their  marginal  length,  with  an  impression  each  side  against 
the  stigmata;  pectus  punctured,  violaceous  and  black,  a  rounded  spot  upon 
the  sides  of  the  anterior  and  posterior  segments;  legs  black,  yellowish  pubes- 
cent. 

Length  10 — 11  lines.     Humeral  breadth  5 — 5J.    Simoda,  Japan. 

One  specimen  differs  in  having  the  anterior  band  of  the  scutellum  interrupted 
each  side  of  the  middle,  so  as  to  form  three  spots. 

Peltophora,  Burm. 
P.  p  i  c  t  a  ,  Leach,  Zool.  Misc.     Hong  Kong. 

Graphosoma,  Lap. 

G.  rubro-lineatum,  Hope,  Cat.  Hemipt ,  p.  12.  Hakodadi  and  Taka- 
nosima,  Japan. 

PENTATOMOIDEA. 

Brachypelta,  Amyot  et  Serv. 

B.  elevata  . — Black,  shining,  broad,  ovate  ;  head  roughly  punctured,  finely 
emarginate,  rounded,  margins  reflexed,  lateral  lobes  meeting  in  front  of  the  mid- 
dle one ;  thorax  short,  transverse,  finely  but  roughly  punctured,  sides  subparallel, 
margins  trenchant,  ciliate,  anterior  angles  rather  abruptly  rounded,  behind  the 
head  a  deep  lunulate  depression,  bounded  posteriorly  by  a  very  much  elevated 
prominence,  which  is  rather  smoother  than  the  surrounding  surface,  posterior 
margin  truncate  ;  scutellum  finely,  rather  sparsely  punctured,  depressed  behind 
the  middle  to  the  tip,  against  the  basal  corners  more  elevated  and  polished  ; 
hemelytra  finely,  closely  punctured,  corium  sinuated,  ciliated  at  the  basal  mar- 
gins, membranes  testaceo-hyaline ;  abdomen  slightly  dilated,  convex  beneath, 
margins  trenchant,  projecting  a  little  beyond  the  breadth  of  the  corium  poste- 
riorly ;  venter  polished  ;  legs  black,  polished,  femorae  ciliate,  each  with  a  line 
of  impressed  punctures  upon  the  anterior  surface,  tibiae  very  spinous,  exterior, 
spiniform  teeth  of  the  anterior  ones,  subequal. 

Length  10 — 12  millim.     Abdominal  breadth  5 — 7.     Cape  of  Good  Hope. 

This  species  is  very  closely  related  to  and  possesses  many  of  the  characters  of 
B.  t  r  i  s  t  i  s  ,  Fab. ;  it  may  be  distinguished  at  a  single  glance,  however,  from  that 
common  species,  by  the  proportionately  shorter  and  less,  laterally,  oblique 
thorax,  and  by  the  abdomen  being  much  broader  than  the  thorax. 

»  Acatalectos,  Dallas. 

A.  magnus  9  • — Black,  shining,  punctured  ;  head  rounded,  emarginate,  with 
the  anterior  margin  narrowly  recurved,  lateral  lobes  meeting  by  a  point  of  their 
surface,  in  front  of  the  middle  one,  coarsely  and  deeply  rugose-punctate,  eyes 
testaceous,  ocelli  reddish,  antennae  piceous  pubescent,  terminal  joints  paler, 
rostrum  pitchy  black,  second  joint  thickened  ;  thorax  subquadrate,  anterior 
angles  a  little  oblique  and  rounded,  behind  the  head  a  slightly  elevated,  irregu- 
larly crescent-formed  surface,  smooth  and  impunctate,  remaining  surface  very 
deeply,  coarsely  and  confluently  punctured,  a  series  of  very  fine  punctures 
against  the  lateral  margins,  basal  margin  subtruncate,  smooth,  with  a  very  few 
coarse  punctures ;  scutellum  polished,  rugosely  punctured,  impunctured  at  the 
apex ;  corium  subopake,  very  finely  and  closely  punctured,  membrane  fuligin- 
ous, subopake,  freckled  with  spots  of  yellow,  beneath  scabrescently  punctured, 
venter  densely  so,  its  disk  polished,  impunctured,  margins  trenchant;  legs 
deep  black,  polished,  anterior  and  middle  femoras  ciliated  beneath  with  a  row 

[June? 


NATURAL   SCIENCES   OF     PHILADELPHIA.  22'5 

of  long  slender  spines,  those  upon  the  posteriors  very  short,  tibiae  densely 
spinous. 

Length  9  lines.     Abdominal  breadth  5.     Hong  Kong. 

This  species  must  be  closely  allied  to  A.  rugosus,  Dallas  ;  but  in  that  spe- 
cies the  middle  lobe  is  represented  to  form  the  anterior  margin  of  the  head,  and 
nothing  is  said  of  spots  upon  the  membrane. 

Erthesina,  Spin. 
E.  fullo,    Thunb.  Nov.  Ins.   Sp.  42,  tab.   2,  fig.   57,  (1783.)    E.   mucoreus 
Fab.  Ent  Syst.  iv.  117,  147,  (1794.) 

Agonoscelis,  Spin. 
A.  nubilus,  Fab.  Ent.  Syst.  iv.  112,  124.     Loo-Choo  Islands. 

Poecilometis,  Dallas. 

P.  mistus  $. — Brownish-cinereous;  head  rounded  in  front,  middle  lobe 
slightly  longer  than  the  lateral  ones,  surface  densely  punctured  wirh  black,  anten- 
nae yellow,  punctured  with  black,  penultimate  joint  black  in  the  middle,  almost 
to  each  end,  eyes  brownish-glaucous,  with  a  posterior,  narrow  yellow  lobe,  promi- 
nent, subtruncate  posteriorly,  rostrum  reaching  to  the  abdomen,  a  longitudinal 
line,  tips  of  the  articulations  and  apical  segment  black;  thorax  densely  punc- 
tured, a  few  impunctured  yellow  spots  scattered  over  the  surface,  four  of  which 
are  placed  in  a  transverse  row  behind  the  head,  anterior  angles  armed  with  a 
very  minute  denticle,  lateral  margins  smooth,  slightly  sinuated,  humeral  angles 
prominent,  triangularly  rounded ;  scutellum  confidently  punctured,  an  im- 
punctured yellow  spot  against  each  basal  corner ;  sinuated  before  the  tip,  tip 
rounded;  hemelytra  flecked  with  brown,  densely  punctured,  slightly  tinged 
with  reddish  upon  the  apex  of  the  corium,  membrane  yellowish-hyaline,  the 
nervures  having  interrupted  brown  lines  upon  them  ;  beneath  less  closely  punc. 
tured,  upon  the  pectus  several  spots  of  dense  green  punctures,  under  surface 
of  the  head  also  punctured  in  green  spots;  disk  of  the  venter,  with  a  broad, 
smooth,  impunctured  line,  surface  tinged  with  reddish,  stigmata,  and  obsolete- 
spots  upon  the  incisural  middles  of  the  segments  black  ;  legs  reddish-yellow, 
sparsely  pubescent,  punctured  with  black,  unguiculi  with  black  tips. 

Length  to  tip  of  wings  7  J  lines.     Simoda,  Japan,  and  Hong  Kong,  China. 

Pentatoma,  Lat. 

1.  P.  fimbriata,  II.  Schf.  Wanz.  Ins.  v.  63,  tab.  164,  fig.  505.  Loo- 
Ohoo  Islands. 

2.  P.  c  r  u  ci  at  a,  Fab.  Ent.  Syst.  iv.  119,  153.     Hong  Kong,  China. 

3.  P.  dissimilis,  Fab.  Ent.  Syst.  iv.  109,  112.     Hong  Kong,  China. 

4.  P.  humeri  ger  a. — Olivaceous-brown,  shining,  tinged  with  aeneous, 
head  emarginate,  with  the  central  lobe  slightly  projecting  from  the  emargi- 
nation,  surface  closely  punctured,  eyes  prominent,  scarcely  as  wide  as  the 
anterior  breadth  of  the  thorax,  and  closely  applied  against  it,  ocelli  bronzed, 
antennae  fulvous,  second  and  third  joints  equal,  rostrum  reaching  the  posterior 
coxae,  testaceous,  having  a  black  line  above  ;  thorax  brassy  punctured,  humeral 
projections  blackish,  salient,  subconic,  slightly  flattened,  curved  ;  anterior  mar- 
gin deeply  rounded  out,  behind  the  head  a  shallow,  transverse,  interrupted  im- 
pression, "lateral  margins  deeply  arcuated,  with  an  elongated-oval,  impunctured. 
yellow  mark,  beginning  at  the  anterior  subacute  angle  ;  scutellum  closely  punc- 
tured with  black,  slightly  sinuated  before  the  tip,  which  is  bluntly  rounded  ; 
hemelytra  closely  punctured,  nervures  well  defined,  membrane  brownish-ful- 
vous ;  wings  testaceous;  tergum  black,  impunctate,  with  the  lateral  margins 
olivaceous,  punctured;  beneath  polished,  olivaceo-testaceous,  finely  punctured, 
more  deeply  and  closely  so  upon  the  pectus  and  beneath  the  humeral  projec- 
tions, a  common  black  spot  upon  the  fourth  and  fifth  segments,  and  a  minute 
black  point  against  the  lateral  margin  upon  the  incisures  of  the  segments,  stig- 
mata black;  legs  yellowish-testaceous,  pointed  with  black. 

I860.] 


224  PROCEEDINGS  OP  THE  ACADEMY  OF 

Length  3£  lines.     Humeral  breadth  3.     Takanosima,  Japan. 
This  species  bears  some  resemblance  in  form  to  P.  scabricorne,  H.  Schf. : 
but  differs  in  the  form  of  the  humeral  angles. 

Strachia,  Hahn. 

S.  ornata,  Linn.  Fauna  Suecica,  251,  937.     Loo-Choo  Islands. 

A  remarkably  small  variety  of  this  species  was  obtained  at  Petropaulovsk, 
Kamtschatka  ;  it  differs  from  the  type  in  marking,  chiefly,  in  wanting  the  me- 
dial lateral  black  spot ;  the  specimens  are  males,  being  six  millims.  in  length. 

Eysarcoris,  Spin. 

E.  perlatus,  Fab.  Ent.  Syst.  iv.  125,  177.     Simoda  and  Loo-Choo. 
One  specimen  has  the  spots  of  the  base  of  the  scutellum  very  minute,  and  in 
auother  they  are  entirely  wanting. 

Nezara,  Amyot  et  Serv. 

N.  torquata,  Fab.  Ent.  Syst.  iv.  108,  107.     Loo-Choo. 

Rhaphigaster,  Lap. 

R.  disjectu  s. — Grayish-agneous,  shining  ;  head  bluntly  rounded,  middle 
lobe  about  as  long  as  the  lateral  ones  ;  surface  confluently  punctured,  tinged 
with  purplish  green  anteriorly,  eyes  brownish,  ocelli  reddish,  antennae  piceous 
pubescent,  base  of  the  apical  joint  yellow,  rostrum  yellowish,  a  line  above  and 
tip  piceous ;  thorax  brassy-greenish,  tinged  with  purplish,  confluently  punc- 
tured, lateral  margins  regularly  oblique,  smooth,  yellow,  humeral  angles 
slightly  rounded,  a  little  prominent,  margin  against  the  head  yellowish  ;  scu- 
tellum same  color  as  the  thorax,  confluently  punctured,  a  little  sinuated  before 
the  tip,  tip  and  a  geminate  spot  each  side  at  base  yellow  ;  corium  grayish-yel- 
low, punctured  with  black,  punctures  very  dense  upon  the  clavus  and  lateral 
margins  ;  membrane  and  wings  yellowish-testaceous  ;  tergum  black  with  a  vio- 
let reflection,  segments  each  with  a  yellow  spot  upon  the  lateral  margin  ;  be- 
neath grayish-yellow,  coarsely  pointed  with  black,  points  absent  from  the  disk. 
which  is  smooth,  yellow,  points  becoming  confluent  in  spots  posteriorly  and 
upon  the  external  edges  of  the  segmental  incisures  ;  sternum  black,  finely  cari- 
nate  in  the  middle  ;  ventral  spine  reaching  to  the  medio-coxae,  yellow  ;  legs 
yellowish,  pointed  with  black,  a  black  band  upon  the  knees,  and  another  at  the 
tips  of  the  tibife,  tarsi  blackish,  middle  joint  paler. 

Length  5  lines.     Humeral  breadth  2    lines.     Hong-Kong. 

Acanthosoma,  Curtis. 
A.  haeraatogaster,  Burm.  Handb.  ii.  360,  4.     Hong-Kong. 

Tesseratoma,  Lep.  et  Serv. 

T.  chinensis,  Thunb.  Nov.  Ins.  Spec.  45,  tab.  2,  f.  59.     Hong-Kong. 

Dichelops,  H.  Schf. 

D.  affinis. — Elongated-oval,  testaceous-yellow,  punctured  with  black, 
head  elongated-triangular,  deeply  cleft  in  the  middle,  points  applied,  hardly 
divaricating  at  the  tip,  middle  lobe  about  half  the  length  of  the  external  ones, 
punctured,  antennae  reddish,  incisures  and  apical  half  of  the  tip  joint  black, 
rostrum  yellowish,  with  the  extreme  tip  black ;  thorax  transverse,  gradually 
elevated  to  the  middle,  upon  which  a  slightly  elevated,  arcuated  transverse 
carina,  continued  to  the  subacute  humeral  angles,  exists,  surface  finely  wrinkled 
and  punctured,  lateral  margins  lightly  arcuated,  minutely  denticulated  ;  scutel- 
lum transversely  wrinkled,  punctured,  and  having  five  longitudinal  rows  of 
obsolete  granulations;  before  the  tip  sinuated,  much  narrowed  ;  hemelytra  very 
finely  punctured  with  black,  membrane  testaceous  ;  wings  milk-white ;  venter 
finely  punctured  with  black,  extreme  lateral  margin  a  line  just  outside  of  the 

[June, 


NATURAL    SCIENCES   OF   PHILADELPHIA.  225 

stigmata  each  side,  one  each  side  between  the  stigmata  and  the  disk,  and  one 
upon  the  disk,  almost  impunctured  ;  legs  yellow,  finely  pubescent,  and  pointed 
with  black. 
Length  7  line3.     Humeral  breadth  3£  lines.     Simoda,  Japan. 

COREOIDEA. 
Discogaster,  Amyot  et  Serv. 

D.  fulig  in  o  sus  . — Dark  brown,  without  lustre;  head  square,  rugous, 
pubescent;  antenniferous  tubercles  robust,  blunt;  rostrum  thick,  reaching  be- 
tween the  anterior  coxaj,  tapering  towards  the  extremity;  antennae  densely 
pubescent,  basal  joint  thickest,  constricted  at  its  origin,  slightly  curved,  second 
a  little  longer  than  the  third,  fourth  almost  equal  to  the  first,  all  the  joints 
cylindrical,  with  the  tip  of  the  apical  one  acute;  eyes  globular,  salient,  stem- 
mata  about  as  far  from  each  other  as  from  the  eyes ;  thorax  subcrescentiform, 
triangular  in  front  to  the  base  of  the  head,  humeral  angles  produced  into  flat, 
plate-like  appendages,  angular  at  the  tips,  posterior  margin  obtusely  rounded, 
surface  densely  covered  with  short  pubescence,  coarsely  transversely  wrinkled, 
before  the  posterior  margin  a  transverse,  slightly  elevated  line,  which  does  not 
reach  either  margin,  edges  of  the  crescent  irregularly  serrate,  antero-lateral 
margins  denticulate ;  scutellum  smooth  at  base,  coarsely  wrinkled  behind  the 
base  to  the  tip  ;  hemelytra  a  little  paler  than  the  other  surface,  finely  clothed 
with  yellowish  pubescence,  nervures  well  defined,  membrane  subopake  ;  tergum 
smooth  in  the  middle,  pubescent  at  the  sides ;  beneath  sparsely  clothed  with 
golden  pubescence,  stigmata  of  the  postpectus,  bright  yellow;  legs  covered 
with  yellowish  pubescence,  tip  of  each  femur  beneath  armed  with  a  stout 
tooth,  between  which  and  the  tip  are  a  few  smaller  ones,  posterior  femora 
thickest,  slightly  curved,  all  the  femorae  subcylindrical. 

Length  23  millim.     Humeral  breadth  9  millim.      £ 

This  insect,  owing  to  the  length  of  the  last  joint  of  the  antennae  and  the 
absence  of  the  sternal  groove,  does  not  completely  agree  with  the  genus  as 
characterized  by  Amyot ;  but  its  general  affinities  seem  to  cause  it  to  recur  to 
this  genus,  where  we  have  accordingly  placed  it. 

Camptopus,  Amyot  et  Serv. 

C.  annulatus. — Fuscous,  minutely  pubescent;  head  finely  shagrined, 
blackish  against  the  eyes  and  behind  the  stemmata,  stemmata  and  eyes  red- 
dish-brown, antennae  yellowish,  apical  two-thirds  of  the  last  joint  and  tips  of 
the  others  blackish  ;  rostrum  with  the  sides  beyond  the  middle  to  the  tip  ful- 
vous; thorax  subcampanuliform,  posterior  angles  armed  with  an  acute  spine,  a 
minute  denticle  behind  the  spine,  posterior  margin  irregularly  crenated ;  sur- 
face pubescent,  sprinkled  with  small,  black,  elevated  points ;  tip  of  the  scutel- 
lum yellowish  ;  hemelytra  pubescent,  nervures  very  distinct,  surface  punctured, 
membrane  immaculate,  shining;  tergum  blackish,  with  a  large,  rounded,  white 
spot  behind  the  middle,  against  each  incisure  a  white  spot,  exteriorly ;  venter 
yellowish,  sprinkled  with  irregular  dusky  marks,  a  large  black  discal  spot  and 
an  interrupted  black  line  upon  the  middle  of  the  three  posterior  segments  ; 
legs  pubescent,  spotted  and  marbled  with  fuscous  and  yellow,  posterior  femorae 
particularly  dark,  armed  with  fi